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EBF 2054 Financial Management
Thinking of stocks
Security ValuationIn general, the intrinsic value of an asset = the present value of the stream of expected cash flows discounted at an appropriate required rate of return.
Preferred StockA hybrid security:Its like common stock - no fixed maturity.Technically, its part of equity capital.Its like debt - preferred dividends are fixed.Missing a preferred dividend does not constitute default, but preferred dividends are cumulative.
Usually sold for $25, $50, or $100 per share.Dividends are fixed either as a dollar amount or as a percentage of par value. Example: In 1988, Xerox issued $75 million of 8.25% preferred stock at $50 per share.$4.125 is the fixed, annual dividend per share.Preferred Stock
Firms may have multiple classes of preferreds, each with different features. Priority: lower than debt, higher than common stock.Cumulative feature: all past unpaid preferred stock dividends must be paid before any common stock dividends are declared.Preferred Stock Features
Protective provisions are common.Convertibility: many preferred are convertible into common shares.Adjustable rate preferred have dividends tied to interest rates.Participation: some (very few) preferred have dividends tied to the firms earnings.Preferred Stock Features
Preferred Stock ValuationA preferred stock can usually be valued like a perpetuity:D = DividendK= required rate of return
Example: Xerox preferred pays an 8.25% dividend on a $50 par value. Suppose our required rate of return on Xerox preferred is 9.5%.
Expected Rate of Return on PreferredJust adjust the valuation model:
ExampleIf we know the preferred stock price is $40, and the preferred dividend is $4.125, the expected return is:10.31%
The Financial Pages:Preferred Stocks52 weeks Yld VolHi Lo Sym Div % PE 100s Close2788 2506 GenMotor pfG 2.28 8.9 86 25 53
Dividend: $2.28 on $25 par value = 9.12% dividend rate.Expected return: 2.28 / 25.53 = 8.9%.
Common StockIs a variable-income security.Dividends may be increased or decreased, depending on earnings.Represents equity or ownership.Includes voting rights.Limited liability: liability is limited to amount of owners investment.Priority: lower than debt and preferred.
Common Stock CharacteristicsClaim on Income - a stockholder has a claim on the firms residual income.Claim on Assets - a stockholder has a residual claim on the firms assets in case of liquidation.Preemptive Rights - stockholders may share proportionally in any new stock issues. Voting Rights - right to vote for the firms board of directors.
Example of stock in Malaysia
You expect Maybank stock to pay a $5.50 dividend at the end of the year. The stock price is expected to be $120 at that time. If you require a 15% rate of return, what would you pay for the stock now?
Common Stock Valuation(Single Holding Period)
Common Stock Valuation(Single Holding Period)Solution:
Vcs = (5.50/1.15) + (120/1.15) = 4.783 + 104.348 = $109.13Or Vcs = (5.5+120)/1.15 =$ 109.13
The Financial Pages:Common Stocks52 weeks Yld Vol NetHi Lo Sym Div % PE 100s Hi Lo Close Chg135 80 IBM .52 .5 21 142349 99 93 9496 -343
82 18 CiscoSys 47 1189057 21 19 2025 -113
Common Stock Valuation(Multiple Holding Periods)Constant Growth ModelAssumes common stock dividends will grow at a constant rate into the future.
Constant Growth ModelAssumes common stock dividends will grow at a constant rate into the future.
D1 = the dividend at the end of period 1.kcs = the required return on the common stock.g = the constant, annual dividend growth rate.
ExampleMAS stock recently paid a $5.00 dividend. The dividend is expected to grow at 10% per year indefinitely. What would we be willing to pay if our required return on MAS stock is 15%?
MAS stock recently paid a $5.00 dividend. The dividend is expected to grow at 10% per year indefinitely. What would we be willing to pay if our required return on MAS stock is 15%?D0 = $5, so D1 = 5 (1.10) = $5.50
Expected Return on Common StockJust adjust the valuation model
Expected Return on Common StockJust adjust the valuation model
ExampleTM stock will pay a $3.00 dividend at time 1, has a price of $27 and an expected growth rate of 5%., what is your expected return for TM stock?
ExampleTM stock will pay a $3.00 dividend at time 1, has a price of $27 and an expected growth rate of 5%. what is your expected return for TM stock?
Discounted Dividend ModelValue of a stock is the present value of the future dividends expected to be generated by the stock.10-*
Constant Growth Stock10-*A stock whose dividends are expected to grow forever at a constant rate, g.D1 = D0(1 + g)1D2 = D0(1 + g)2Dt = D0(1 + g)t If g is constant, the discounted dividend formula converges to:
What happens if g > rs?If g > rs, the constant growth formula leads to a negative stock price, which does not make sense.The constant growth model can only be used if:rs > g.g is expected to be constant forever.10-*
Find the Expected Dividend Stream for the Next 3 Years and Their PVs10-*D0 = $2 and g is a constant 6%.
Using the constant growth model:What is the stocks intrinsic value?10-*
D1 will have been paid out already. So, P1 is the present value (as of Year 1) of D2, D3, D4, etc.
Could also find expected P1 as:What is the expected market price of the stock, one year from now?10-*
Find Expected Dividend Yield, Capital Gains Yield, and Total Return During First YearDividend yield= D1/P0 = $2.12/$30.29 = 7.0%Capital gains yield= (P1 P0)/P0 = ($32.10 $30.29)/$30.29 = 6.0%Total return (rs)= Dividend yield + Capital gains yield= 7.0% + 6.0% = 13.0%10-*
Supernormal Growth: What if g = 30% for 3 years before achieving long-run growth of 6%?Can no longer use just the constant growth model to find stock value.However, the growth does become constant after 3 years.10-*
Valuing Common Stock with Nonconstant Growthrs = 13%g = 30%g = 30%g = 30%g = 6%01234D0 = 2.00 2.600 3.380 4.3944.65810-*
Find Expected Dividend and Capital Gains Yields during the First and Fourth YearsDividend yield (first year)= $2.60/$54.11 = 4.81%Capital gains yield (first year)= 13.00% 4.81% = 8.19%During nonconstant growth, dividend yield and capital gains yield are not constant, and capital gains yield g.After t = 3, the stock has constant growth and dividend yield = 7%, while capital gains yield = 6%.10-*
Nonconstant Growth: What if g = 0% for 3 years before long-run growth of 6%?10-*
Find Expected Dividend and Capital Gains Yields During the First and Fourth YearsDividend yield (first year)= $2.00/$25.72 = 7.78%Capital gains yield (first year)= 13.00% 7.78% = 5.22%After t = 3, the stock has constant growth and dividend yield = 7%, while capital gains yield = 6%.10-*
Yes. Even though the dividends are declining, the stock is still producing cash flows and therefore has positive value.If the stock was expected to have negative growth (g = -6%), would anyone buy the stock, and what is its value?10-*
Find Expected Annual Dividend and Capital Gains YieldsCapital gains yield = g = 6.00%Dividend yield= 13.00% (6.00%) = 19.00%Since the stock is experiencing constant growth, dividend yield and capital gains yield are constant. Dividend yield is sufficiently large (19%) to offset a negative capital gains.10-*
Firms value is determined by its ability to generate cash flow, both now and in the future. Therefore, Market value of the firm can be expressed as follow:
FCF=free cash flowWACC= Weighted average cost of capitalCorporate Valuation Model
Corporate Valuation ModelAlso called the free cash flow method. Suggests the value of the entire firm equals the present value of the firms free cash flows.Remember, free cash flow is the firms after-tax operating income less the net capital investment.10-*FCF = EBIT(1 T) Net capital investment
Applying the Corporate Valuation ModelFind the market value (MV) of the firm, by finding the PV of the firms future FCFs.Subtract MV of firms debt and preferred stock to get MV of common stock.
Divide MV of common stock by the number of shares outstanding to get intrinsic stock price (value).
10-*Common Stock MV= Firms MV - debt MVpref. stock MVVs= Common Stock MV/no. of share outstanding
Issues Regarding the Corporate Valuation ModelOften preferred to the discounted dividend model, especially when considering number of firms that dont pay dividends or when dividends are hard to forecast.Similar to discounted dividend model, assumes at some point free cash flow will grow at a constant rate.Terminal value (TVN) represents value of firm at the point that growth becomes constant.10-*
Example 1:ABCBerhad embarked on an aggressive expansion that requires additional capital. Management decided to finance the expansion by borrowing $40 million and by halting dividend payments to increase retained earnings. Its WACC is now 10%, and the projected free cash flows for the next 3 years are -$5 million, $10 million, and $20 million. After Year 3, free cash flow is projected to grow at a constant 6%. What is ABC Berhad s total value? If it has 10 million shares of stock and $40 million of debt and preferred stock combined, what is the price per share?
Given: Long-Run gFCF = 6% and WACC = 10%01234-51020
Step 1: Get the Terminal value (TV)Given: Long-Run gFCF = 6% and WACC = 10%01234-51020TV3Common Stock Valuation (Multiple Holding Periods)Constant Growth Model
Use the Corporate Valuation Model to Find the Firms Intrinsic ValueGiven: Long-Run gFCF = 6% and WACC = 10%10-*01234-521.201020Firms MV
What is the firms intrinsic value per share?10-*The firm has $40 million total in debt and preferred stock and has 10 million shares of stock.& Pref. Stock
Example 2:Suppose Atiqah Corp. is expected to experience zero growth during the first 3 years and then resume its steady-state growth of 6% in the fourth year.What would be its expected dividend and capital gains yields in Year 1? Capital gains yields= WACC- Dividend yieldDividend Yield= D1/P0
END OF LECTURE