EAST ASIA (chapter 9). EAST ASIA MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF EAST ASIA WORLD’S MOST POPULOUS REALM ONE OF THE WORLD’S EARLIEST CULTURE HEARTHS INTENSIFYING.

  • Published on
    11-Jan-2016

  • View
    215

  • Download
    2

Transcript

  • EAST ASIA(chapter 9)

  • EAST ASIA

  • MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF EAST ASIAWORLDS MOST POPULOUS REALMONE OF THE WORLDS EARLIEST CULTURE HEARTHSINTENSIFYING REGIONAL DISPARITIESPOPULATION CONCENTRATIONS IN THE EAST, SITUATED IN RIVER BASINS

  • PHYSIOGRAPHY OF EAST ASIA

  • REGIONS OF THE REALMCHINA PROPERXIZANG (TIBET)XINJIANGMONGOLIAJAKOTA TRIANGLE

  • REGIONS OF THE REALMCHINA PROPER- EASTERN HALF; THE CORE XIZANG (TIBET)- TALL MOUNTAINS AND HIGH PLATEAUS; SPARSELY POPULATEDXINJIANG- VAST DESERT BASIN AND MOUNTAIN RIMS; A CULTURAL CONTACT ZONEMONGOLIA- A DESERT, BUFFER STATETHE JAKOTA TRIANGLEJAPAN, SOUTH KOREA, TAIWANRAPID ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

  • EAST

    ASIA

  • XIZANG (TIBET)A HARSH PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SPARSELY POPULATED

    CAME UNDER CHINESE CONTROL DURING THE MANCHU DYNASTY IN 1720

    BUDDHISM, THE DALAI LAMA, AND MONASTERIES

    FORMALLY ANNEXED IN 1965 AND ADMINISTERED AS AN AUTONOMOUS REGION

  • XINJIANGCOMPRISES ONE-SIXTH OF CHINAS TOTAL LAND AREAA REGION OF HIGH MOUNTAINS AND BASINSCHINESE ONLY ACCOUNT FOR 40% OF THE POPULATIONMUSLIM UYGHURS ACCOUNT FOR HALF OF THE POPULATIONBOASTS EXTENSIVE RESERVES OF OIL AND NATURAL GASUNRESOLVED BOUNDARY DISPUTES

  • HONG KONGMEANS FRAGRANT HARBOR- AN EXCELLENT DEEP WATER PORTBOOMED DURING THE KOREAN WAR7 MILLION PEOPLE WITHIN 400 SQ MILESECONOMY IS LARGER THAN HALF OF THE WORLDS COUNTRIES1 JULY 1997- BRITISH TRANSFERRED CONTROL TO CHINAHONG KONG RENAMED XIANGGANG

  • MONGOLIASTEPPE AND DESERT PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTSPARSELY POPULATED WITH AN ESTIMATED 2.6 MILLION INHABITANTSPART OF THE CHINESE EMPIRE FROM LATE 1600s UNTIL 1911BECAME A PEOPLES REPUBLIC IN THE 1920sFUNCTIONS AS A BUFFER STATE, wedged btw the former USSR (Russia) and China.ECONOMY IS FOCUSED ON HERDING AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

  • PHYSIOGRAPHY OF CHINATOTAL AREA OF CHINA IS ABOUT 3.6 MILLION SQ MILONGITUDINAL EXTENT IS COMPARABLE TO THE U.S.; LATITUDINAL RANGE FROM NORTHERN QUEBEC TO CENTRAL CARIBBEANBORDERED (SURROUNDED) BY OCEAN, HIGH MOUNTAINS, STEPPE COUNTRY, AND DESERTVAST AND VARIED TOPOGRAPHY

  • CLIMATE COMPARISONINCLUDES THE LARGEST AREA OF HIGHLAND CLIMATE IN THE WORLD

  • WarmCold

  • DryWet

  • COLONIALSPHERES

  • ETHNOLINGUISTIC AREAS

  • CHINESE PERSPECTIVESONE OF THE WORLDS GREAT CULTURE HEARTHSCONTINUOUS CIVILIZATION FOR OVER 4,000 YEARSVIEW OF CHINA AS THE CENTER OF THE CIVILIZED WORLDEASTERN VS WESTERN BIAS Romans, Greeks vs. ChineseUSED TO BE INWARD LOOKING/CLOSED SOCIETY

  • KONGFUZI (CONFUCIUS)CHINAS MOST INFLUENTIAL PHILOSOPHER AND TEACHER, 551- 479 BCCONFUCIANISM TOOK ON SPIRITUAL PROPORTIONS AFTER HIS DEATH FOCUSED ON THE SUFFERING OF ORDINARY PEOPLE DURING THE ZHOU DYNASTYTEACHINGS HAVE DOMINATED CHINESE LIFE AND THOUGHT FOR MORE THAN 20 CENTURIES

  • EXTRATERRITORIALITYPage 469 A DOCTRINE OF EUROPEAN INTERNATIONAL LAW (the basis of Diplomatic Immunity).EMPLOYED IN CHINA DURING THE LATE 1800sAFFORDED IMMUNITY FROM LOCAL JURISDICTIONCONSTITUTED AN EROSION OF CHINESE SOVEREIGNTYDISTINCT ENCLAVES EVOLVED

  • CHINAS POPULATION1.323 BILLION; 118 MALES /100 FEMALES

    ANNUAL NATURAL INCREASE 0.6% (1970s - 3%)

    DOUBLING TIME: 100 YEARS

    LIFE EXPECTANCY: 70 Years (males), 73 Years (females)

    ARITHMETIC DENSITY: 358 PEOPLE/SQ MI

    PHYSIOLOGICAL DENSITY: 3,612 PEOPLE/SQ MIONLY 10% OF THE LAND IS ARABLE AND 69% OF THE POPULATION LIVES ON THIS LAND

    DISTRIBUTION: WESTERN 2/3s IS SPARSELY POPULATED (see next slide)

  • POPULATION DENSITY

  • CHINAS LARGE CITIESBEIJING (CAPITAL)SHANGHI (LARGEST CITY)TIANJIN (PORT CITY)CHONGQUING (INTERIOR RIVER PORT)

    ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN CHINA:SERIOUS ENERGY SHORTAGE

    TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE POORLY DEVELOPED

    ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION

  • URBAN CHINA41% URBANIZEDLARGEST CITIES ARE INSIGNIFICANT ON A GLOBAL SCALE (see Page 459)URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSAIR POLLUTIONCONGESTIONWATER POLLUTION

  • REORGANIZATION UNDER COMMUNISM1950s-1976 COMMUNIST REGIME LAUNCHED MASSIVE PROGRAMS OF RECONSTRUCTION AND REFORM

    BASED ON THE SOVIET MODEL

    LAND WAS EXPROPRIATED, AND FARMING WAS COLLECTIVIZED

    INDUSTRIES WERE REORGANIZED AS STATE-OWNED COMMUNAL ENTERPRISES

    EMPHASIS ON HEAVY INDUSTRY

    DRAMATIC SOCIAL CHANGES EDUCATION, RELIGION, POPULATION GROWTH

  • AGRICULTURAL REGIONS

  • ENERGY RESOURCES

  • SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONESLOCATION WAS PRIME CONSIDERATION along the coast (pg 492)

    INVESTOR INCENTIVES LIKE:LOW TAXES

    EASING OF IMPORT AND EXPORT REGULATIONS

    SIMPLIFIED LAND LEASES

    HIRING OF CONTRACT LABOR PERMITTED

    PRODUCTS MAY BE SOLD IN FOREIGN MARKETS AND IN CHINA (UNDER CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS)

  • CHINASECONOMICZONES

  • THE JAKOTA TRIANGLECHARACTERISTICSGreat citiesEnormous consumption of raw materialsState-of-the-art industriesVoluminous exportsGlobal linksTrade surplusesRapid development

  • Transportation CitiesJAPAN

  • JAPANSCORE AREA

  • MEIJI RESTORATION1868 Rebellion brought in reformersReinstated the emperor and began to transform Japan from a Feudal society with pre-machine age technology to an industrial powerAdopted aspects of the British model. See movie The Last Samurai.Launched a systematic study of the industrialized worldFocus was on industrialization and education system

  • EXPANSIONIST JAPANTaiwan1895Korea1910Pacific IslandsPost WW IManchuria1931China1937Hong Kong1939Southeast Asia1941

    1945 1952: Allied Occupation

  • POPULATION COMPARISONSMILLIONS

  • INDIAJAPANPOPULATION PROFILES

  • DECLINING JAPANESE POPULATIONPopulation:127.9 millionBirth rate: 9 births/1,000Death rate:8 deaths/1,000Growth rate:0.1%Life expectancy:78 yrs (M), 85 yrs (F)Urbanization:78%

  • KOREA

  • KOREAThe size of Idaho but with a population of 73 million (both Koreas)Turbulent political historyWas a dependency of ChinaWas a colony of JapanDivided into 2 Koreas along the 38th parallel by Allied Powers > WW II (1945)Cease-fire line established in1953

  • NORTH-SOUTH CONTRASTSNORTH KOREA55% of the land, 1/3 of the population, extremely ruralAntiquated state enterprisesInefficient, non-productive agricultureLimited trade mainly with former Soviet Union and China

    SOUTH KOREA45% of the land, 2/3s of the population, highly urbanizedModern factoriesIntensive, increasingly mechanized agricultureExtensive trade US, Japan, and Western Europe

  • THE KOREASPOPULATION 23,100,00048,700,000GNP (BILLIONS)$ 21.3$ 508.3GNP/CAPITA $ 920$ 17,930

    AGRICULTURERESTRICTIVEGOOD (as % of GNP) 25 % 8 %(% work force) 36 % 21 %

  • LAND USE PATTERNSRugged MountainsIndustrial AreaMain Rice ProducingSecondary Rice ProducingFree Trade Zone

  • SEOULCapital of Korea (late 1300s - early 1900s)9.6 million peopleLocated in the northwest corner of South KoreaThe urban-industrial centerTextiles, clothing, footwear, electronic goods

  • TAIWAN

  • TAIWAN, ROCHistorical background:A Chinese province for centuriesColonized by Japan in 1895Returned to China > WWII1949 Chinese Nationalists (supported by the US) fled from the mainland and established the Republic of China (ROC), NOT the same as the Peoples Rep. of China.Territory - approximately 14,000 Square milesPopulation 22.8 million78% urbanized

  • FOUR ECONOMIC TIGERSTIGERFormerStateDate of Split

    **** *

    **

    ** * *

Recommended

View more >