Early Specimens of the Eastern Wolf, Canis lupus lycaon

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    TABLE 1. Organ weights (in grams)of19 white-tailed deerfrom Aberdeen, Maryland.

    Total weight Testes* or in kg Heart Liver Kidneys* Adrenals* Thyroid Spleen ovary

    Males 80 588 1658 240 7.50 - - 381 97 78 632 1371 151 4.35 3.51 164 34 70 480 1162 162 6.00 - - 173 - - 59 395 1047 144 5.51 2.64 153 - - 48 346 297 97 3.16 3.93 174 - - 45 239 637 96 2.3 1.77 103 --- 45 270 831 136 3.93 2.15 97 60 45 230 570 74 3.21 1.35 108 - - 35 220 500 88 2.32 2.40 71 - - 34 200 ,560 79 2.38 1.68 92 8.65 25 152 438 60 2.16 1.28 - - 7.85

    Females 66 527 1096 114 4.00 3.17 141 1.41 50 378 423 120 4.63 3.04 117 1.23 48 32(3 375 114 - - 2.40 116 2.0 39 312 710 100 5.05 2.61 102 0.87 36 254 662 104 2.82 2.48 100 - - 35 219 210 118 2.34 1.3 129 0.68 35 216 570 86 2.46 2.04 114 - - 34 211 747 91 4.1 2.08 112 0.58

    *Both organs.

    TABLE 2. Values for prediction equations for the weight of certain organs versus body weight in kg .Y = A + BX.

    Coeff, of Organ A B correlation

    Iteart 81.27 8.54 .966 Liver 217.85 19.85 .826 Kiduey 13.38 2.12 .828


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    Experimental Zoology Branch Medical Research Laboratory

    U. S. Army Edgewood Arsenal Edgewood, Maryland 21010

    Early Specimens of the Eastern Wolf, Canis lupus lycaon

    ABSTRACT: Celebration of tile bicentennial of the birth of James Smithson, in 1965, disclosed the existence of two partial wolf skulls among Indian artifacts in a Swedish musemn. These fragmentary skulls, here described, are thought to represent the earliest known pre~rved specimens of American wolves, except for archeological material.

    The name of the European wolf, Canis lupus, dates from Linnaeus (1758), with Sweden given as the type locality. Among the earliest, references to the species in America are Edward Hayes' list of mammals seen in Newfoundland by members of Sir Hnmphrey Gilbert's party in 1583; Martin Pring's enumeration of the animals he encoun- tered on the coasts of Maine and Massac.husetts


    in 1603; James Rosier's lists of the "beasts" seen in Maine during Capt. George Waymouth's voyage in 1605 (all recorded by Burrage, ed., 1906); and Capt. John Smith's description of the Virginia fauna in 1607-1609 (Smith, 1884). In 1630 the Massachusetts colonists directed the first bounty law in North America against the wolf, setting a price of one penny on its head. It has been persecuted ever since and specimens, par- ticularly from the Colonial period, are rare in collections.

    In 1761, Buffon described (p. 362-370) the "loup noir" and depicted (P1. 41) a young melanistic female captured in Canada, kept chained, and later taken alive to Paris by a French naval officer. Schreber (1775) copied the Buffon figure as his Plate 89, with the name Cani* lycaon; this name later appeared in the index (p. 585) of a section published in 1778. Blainville (1843) de- scribed and figured a skull from "Canada," naming it canadensis. This specimen was probably in the Paris Museum; Allen and Barbour (1937) con- sidered it the same as Schreber's lycaon. Troues- sart (1910) applied the name lycaon to the wolf of the Pyrenees. Attempting to resolve these con- flicts, Miller (1912) showed that the wolf of eastern Canada was properly designated as Cauls lycaon Schreber. Goldman (1937) finally fixed its type locality to the "vicinity of Quebec, Quebec," in view of the facts that wolves formerly oc- curred near this port city and that it would have been readily accessible to a French naval vessel.

    Today 24 subspecies of wolf are recognized in North America (Miller and Kellogg, 1955; Hall and Kelson, 1959). Of these, the eastern wolf, C. lupus lycaon Schreber, once ranged widely from Hudson Bay southward through Ontario and east- ern Minnesota probably to Florida, and eastward to the Atlantic coasL. In his Classificalion o] Wolves, Major Goldman (in Young and Goldman, 194,i: 387-507) examined 77 specimens of the eastern timber wolf and gave cranial measure- meats of 19 males (p. 492) and 15 females (p. .501).

    Archcological materials contain some specimens of American wolves. For example, Ritchie (1954, 1965) reports on modified wolf teeth and mandibles used as ornaments by eastern Indians. Few wolf specimens, however, are definitely dated prior to the ]8th Century. Thus, special interest attaches to the portions of two skulls of the eastern wolf (Fig. 1) in the (ollections of Skoklostcr Castle in Sweden. These were studied at Skokloster in 1960 by the junior author, and in 1965 by both of us in Washington, where the Indian items from the castle were deposited by Baron Rutger F. yon Essen (the present owner of the entailed estate) on loan to the Smithsonian Institution during its celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of James Smithson.

    The small collection of North American Indian artifacts at Skokloster consists of eight pieces: two fine ball-headed wooden clubs, two twined fiber burden straps (tump lines), and four objects which are completely without known ethnolo~cal,

    archcological, or historical parallels. These last (illustrated in Rydbn, 1964), all heavily covered with red-dyed deer hair on twined bast cords, are: a leather cord with nine pendants (Rydbn's No. 4); a buckskin skull cap with a long triangular flap at the back (No. 2); an artificial wolf's head consisting of a pair of jaws, deer hair stuffing, a tightly-attached buckskin cover, and two red- dyed deer hair pendants at the rear (No. 3); and a more realistic wolf's head constructed from a pair of jaws, deer hair stuffing, tight buckskin cover, leather simulated tongue and ears, and eyes of shell, with a long undecorated buckskin sleeve attached (No. 1). Items four and three contain a small amount of indigo-dyed European woolen ch)th and the two clubs have bits of copper driven in for decoration; otherwise, the materials are en- tirely aboriginal. Rydbn (1964) has suggested that specimens 1-4 formed a headdress. However, no close parallels to the object hc reconstructs ~re known from northeastern North America, and his results seem quite far-fetched. A more likely interpretation has been suggested by John Witt- hoft (in lit., 1966) : "The personal property of two men, each with a wolf bundle [for ritual or magical purposes], headdress, tump line, and club, and it must be loot, not the sort of thing that would normally change hands." Parallels must now be searched for in documentary and archeological materiaLs--and x-rays have been taken of the jaws for possible comparison with archeological speci- mens.

    These objects were among the arms, furniture, and objets d'art acquired by the builder of Skok- loster, Count Karl Gustaf Wrangel (1613-1676), and they are mentioned in an inventory of the castle drawn up in 1676 (Linnb, 1955, 1958; Rydbn,

    Fig. 1. Portions of two wolf skulls in Indian ar- tifacts from the Skokloster collections. Above: the larger specimen, Rydbn's No. 1, with shell eyes and leather tongue. Below: the smaller, le~ realis- tic specimen, Rydbn's No. 3. (Smithsonian Insti- tution photos.)


    1964). This firm date places them among the very earliest surviving dated artifacts collected by Europeans in North America. Archival research may eventually provide an earlier date and a pre- cise attribution. At present, all that can be said is that the clubs and rump lines, and the red-dyed deer hair, are typical of early specimens from the Iroquois and the Delaware, and this being the case, all the objects almost certainly derive either from the Swedish colony of 1638-1655 in what is now New Castle County on the Dclaware River, or from New Netherlands on the Hudson River-- since Wrangel is known to have received some of his furnishings from Dutch agents (Linn6, 1958). In either case, the Delaware Indians of the Delaware-New Jersey area or their close relatives aL the mouth of the IIudson are the most likely sources, and the next most probable attribution is their Iroquois neighbors to the north in present- day central New York state9 All are well within the former range of the eastern timber wolf.

    Since the jaws are so firmly embedded in the artifacts, only limited measurements of the denti- tion are possible. X-rays indicate that the teeth are in their normal position, but that only the immediate tooth-bearing bony parts persist, i.e., portions of the maxillary, premaxillary, and den- tary bones. Both skulls are of adult specimens, 'T ' slightly larger than


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