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  • 4/10/15, 9:02 PMDzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Page 1 of 36http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dzhokhar_and_Tamerlan_Tsarnaev

    Dzhokhar and Tamerlan TsarnaevFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Dzhokhar Anzorovich "Jahar" Tsarnaev ( /doxr tsrna.f/; born July22, 1993) and Tamerlan Anzorovich Tsarnaev ( /tmrln/; October 21,1986 April 19, 2013)[note 1] are two Chechen brothers who planted bombs at the Boston Marathon on April15, 2013.[1][2][3][4] The bombings killed three people and reportedly injured as many as 264 others.[5]

    Shortly after the Federal Bureau of Investigation declared them suspects in the bombings and releasedimages of them, the Tsarnaev brothers killed an MIT police officer, carjacked an SUV, and engaged in ashootout with the police in the Boston suburb of Watertown. According to the federal indictment, during theshootout Tamerlan was captured, but died partly as a result of his brother driving over him, and an MBTApolice officer was critically injured in the course of Dzhokhar's escape in the SUV[6] (the latter by what mayhave been friendly fire).[7] Dzhokhar was injured but escaped, and an unprecedented manhunt ensued, withthousands of police searching a 20-block area of Watertown. On the evening of April 19, the heavilywounded Dzhokhar was found unarmed hiding in a boat on a trailer in Watertown just outside the policeperimeter, arrested, and taken to a hospital. It was later reported that he was persuaded to surrender when theFBI negotiators mentioned a public plea from his former wrestling coach.[8]

    While still confined to a hospital bed, Dzhokhar was charged on April 22 with using and conspiring to use aweapon of mass destruction resulting in death and with malicious destruction of property resulting indeath.[9][10][11] He was convicted on April 8, 2015, and faces the possibility of the death penalty in thesentencing phase.[12][13][14] Dzhokhar allegedly later said during questioning that they next intended todetonate explosives in Times Square in New York City.[15] Dzhokhar reportedly also said to authorities thathe and his brother were radicalized, at least in part, by watching Anwar al-Awlaki lectures.[16] ABC reportedon April 23, 2013, that authorities linked Tamerlan to an unsolved triple homicide in nearby Waltham thattook place around the 10th anniversary of the September 11 attacks.[17]

    Born seven years apart in different republics of the former Soviet Union, the brothers are half Chechen andhalf Avar.[18] They immigrated to the United States as refugees in 2002. Tamerlan was an aspiring boxerwho authorities believe had recently become a follower of radical Islam. Dzhokhar was a student atUniversity of Massachusetts Dartmouth who became a naturalized U.S. citizen on September 11, 2012,seven months before the bombings.[19]

    Contents1 Shared background2 Dzhokhar Tsarnaev

    2.1 Early life2.2 Education

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    2.3 2013 Boston Marathon bombings2.4 After the bombings2.5 MIT killing, carjacking, firefight, and manhunt2.6 Arrest and detention2.7 Questioning, charges, and confessions2.8 Rolling Stone magazine2.9 Trial

    3 Tamerlan Tsarnaev3.1 Early life and education3.2 20083.3 20093.4 20103.5 20113.6 Allegations of involvement in 2011 Waltham triple homicide3.7 2012 visit to Russia3.8 July 2012 return to U.S., through April 20133.9 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, MIT killing, and carjacking3.10 Death

    4 Related individuals4.1 Zubeidat Tsarnaeva4.2 Katherine Russell

    5 See also6 References

    6.1 Footnotes6.2 Notes

    7 Further reading8 External links

    Shared backgroundTamerlan was born in the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic[20] in 1986, and Dzhokhar wasborn in Kyrgyzstan in 1993.[21] Their father, Anzor Tsarnaev, is a Chechen, and their mother, ZubeidatTsarnaeva, is an Avar.[22][23][24] The parents also have two daughters.[25][26][27] The brothers were born intoa Muslim family.[28][29][30] Their father was a traditional Muslim who reportedly shunned religiousextremism.[31]

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    Dzhokhar Tsarnaev

    Born Dzhokhar AnzorovichTsarnaev[note 1]July 22, 1993 Tokmok, Kyrgyzstan[44]

    Residence Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.Other names Jahar Tsarnaev[11]

    Ethnicity Chechen-Avar[23]

    Citizenship American and Kyrgyzstani[45]

    Alma mater University of MassachusettsDartmouth (did not graduate)

    Occupation College student

    As children, Tamerlan and Dzhokhar lived in Tokmok, Kyrgyzstan. In 2001, the family moved toMakhachkala, Dagestan, in the Russian Federation.[32][33][34]

    In April 2002, the Tsarnaev parents and Dzhokhar went to the United States on a 90-day touristvisa.[35][36][37] Anzor Tsarnaev applied for asylum, citing fears of deadly persecution due to his ties toChechnya.[38] Tamerlan arrived in the U.S. around two years later.[39] In the U.S. the parents receivedasylum and then filed for their four children, who received "derivative asylum status".[40] They settled onNorfolk Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Tamerlan lived in Cambridge on Norfolk Street until hisdeath.[41] Anzor and Zubeidat Tsarnaev both received welfare benefits.[42] The father worked as a backyardmechanic and the mother worked as a cosmetologist[43] until she lost her job for refusing to work in abusiness that served men. In March 2007, the family was granted legal permanent residence.[39] Accordingto some, other Chechen Americans in the area apparently did not consider them to be fully Chechen becausethey had not ever lived in Chechnya.[21]

    Dzhokhar TsarnaevEarly lifeDzhokhar Tsarnaev (born July 22, 1993) was born inKyrgyzstan. As a child, he emigrated with his family toRussia and then, when he was eight years old, to theUnited States under political asylum. The family settled inCambridge and became U.S. permanent residents inMarch 2007. He became a naturalized U.S. citizen onSeptember 11, 2012, while in college.[33][37][44] Hismother, Zubeidat, also became a naturalized U.S. citizen,but it is not clear if his father, Anzor, ever did. Tamerlan,his brother, was unable to naturalize expeditiously due toan investigation against him, which held up thecitizenship process.[47] At Cambridge Rindge and LatinSchool, a public high school, he was an avid wrestler,captain of his high-school wrestling team, and a GreaterBoston League winter all-star.[33][41] He sometimesworked as a lifeguard at Harvard University.[48]

    In 2011, he contacted a professor at UMass Dartmouthwho taught a class about Chechen history, expressing hisinterest in the topic.[49] He graduated from high school in2011[33] and the City of Cambridge awarded him a $2,500scholarship that year.[41] His brother's boxing coach, who

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    Known for Boston Marathon bombings, killingan MIT officer, and other relatedcrimes

    Criminalcharge

    Using and conspiring to use aweapon of mass destructionresulting in death; maliciousdestruction of property resulting indeath[11][46]

    Criminalstatus

    Guilty

    Parent(s) Anzor and Zubeidat TsarnaevRelatives 1 brother (Tamerlan, deceased)

    2 sisters (Ailina and Bella)

    had not seen them in a few years at the time of thebombings, said that "the young brother was like a puppydog, following his older brother".[50][51]

    EducationDzhokhar enrolled in the University of MassachusettsDartmouth, with a major in marine biology, in September2011. He said that he hoped to become a dentist.[33][52]

    Dzhokhar was described as "normal" and popular amongfellow students. His friends said he sometimes usedmarijuana,[53] liked hip hop, and did not talk to themabout politics.[54] He volunteered in the Best Buddiesprogram.[49] Many friends and other acquaintances foundit inconceivable that he could be one of the two bombers at first,[49] calling it "completely out of hischaracter".[55] He was not perceived as foreign, spoke English well,[54] easily fit in socially, and wasdescribed by peers as "[not] 'them'. He was 'us.' He was Cambridge".[56]

    On the Russian-language social-networking site VK, Dzhokhar described his "world view" as "Islam" andhis personal priorities as "career and money". He posted links to Islamic websites, links to videos of fightersin the Syrian civil war, and links to pages advocating independence for Chechnya.[57] Dzhokhar was alsoactive on Twitter. According to The Economist, he seemed "to have been much more concerned with sportand cheeseburgers than with religion, at least judging by his Twitter feed";[58] however, according to TheBoston Globe, on the day of the 2012 Boston Marathon, a year before the bombings, a post on Dzhokhar'sTwitter feed mentioned a Quran verse often used by radical Muslim clerics and propagandists.[59]

    In 2012, Arlington Police ran a warrant check on Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and checked his green Honda whenthey were investigating a report of underage drinking at a party in Arlington Heights.[60]

    At the time of the bombing, Dzhokhar was a sophomore living in the UMass Dartmouth's Pine Dale Halldorm.[59][61] He was struggling academically, having received seven failing grades over three semesters,including Fs in Principles of Modern Chemistry, Introduction to American Politics, and Chemistry and theEnvironment[41] and had an unpaid bill of $20,000 to the University.[62] He was known to be sellingmarijuana to make money.[21]

    2013 Boston Marathon bombingsAlong with his brother Tamerlan, Dzhokhar was convicted of the Boston Marathon bombings of April 15,2013. The motivation for the bombings was apparently political in nature. He reportedly told the FBI that[he and his brother] were angry about the U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and the killing of Muslimsthere.[63] CBS senior correspondent John Miller, who before joining CBS served in the Office of theDirector of National Intelligence, later reported Dzhokhar's handwritten note inside the boat where he lay

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    bleeding stated, The [Boston] bombings were in retribution for the U.S. crimes in places like Iraq andAfghanistan [and] that the victims of the Boston bombing were collateral damage, in the same way innocentvictims have been collateral damage in U.S. wars around the world."[64]

    After the bombingsTsarnaev continued to tweet after the bombings, and sent a tweet telling the people of Boston to "staysafe".[54][65] He returned to his university after the April 15 bombing and remained there until April 18,when the FBI released his pictures. During that time, he used the college gym and slept in his dorm; hisfriends said that he partied with them after the attacks and looked "relaxed".[66][67]

    MIT killing, carjacking, firefight, and manhuntDzhokhar and his brother are accused of murdering MIT Police Officer Sean Collier April 18 on the MITcampus, before traveling to the Boston neighborhood of Allston and carjacking an SUV and robbing theowner.[68] However, the owner of the leased Mercedes SUV, a 26-year old Chinese immigrant/entrepreneurand former graduate student at Northeastern University, said he managed to escape when the Tsarnaevsbecame momentarily distracted in the process of refueling the car at a gas station that only took cash. Theman, who would not give his name to the media but said he goes by the name "Danny", said he fled toanother nearby gas station and contacted the police. Police were then able to track the location of the carthrough the man's cellphone and the SUV's antitheft tracking device.[69]

    When police found the stolen SUV and a Honda being driven by the brothers in the early hours of April 19,the suspects engaged in a shootout with police in Watertown. Dzhokhar was wounded. Police say he escapedby driving the stolen SUV toward the officers who were arresting his brother, driving over his brother anddragging him under the SUV about 30 feet (9 m) in the process. He reportedly sped off, but abandoned thecar about 12 mile (800 m) away and then fled on foot.[70] An unprecedented manhunt ensued involvingthousands of police officers from several nearby towns as well as state police and FBI, and SWAT teams,who searched numerous homes and property inside a 10-block perimeter. Warrants were not issued, butresidents reported they were told they must allow the searches to go forward. Many reported beinginstructed to leave their homes as well. Images of squad cars and large black armored vehicles crowding thesidestreets, and videos of residents being led out of their homes at gunpoint soon flooded social media. TheBoston metro area was effectively shut down all day on April 19.[71]

    After Dzhokhar's name was published in connection with the bombings, his uncle Ruslan Tsarni, who livesin Montgomery Village, Maryland, pleaded with Dzhokhar through television to turn himself in "and ask forforgiveness", and said that he had shamed the family and the Chechen ethnicity.[72]

    Arrest and detentionDuring the manhunt for him on the evening of April 19, Dzhokhar was discovered wounded in a boat in aWatertown backyard, less than 14 mile (400 m) from where he abandoned the SUV.[70] David Henneberry,the owner of the boat, had noticed that the cover on the boat was loose and when the "shelter in place" orderwas lifted, went outside to investigate.[73] He lifted the tarpaulin, saw a bloodied man, retreated into his

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    house, and called 9-1-1.[74] Three Boston police officers responded and were soon joined by other police.Tsarnaev's presence and movement was later verified through a forward looking infrared thermal imagingdevice in a State Police helicopter.[75] The suspect was observed pushing up at the tarp on the boat andBoston police began a large volume of gunfire at the suspect, stopping only after calls from theSuperintendent on the scene.[76][77] After initial reports of a shootout between police and Tsarnaev, two U.S.officials said on April 24 that Dzhokhar was unarmed when captured.[78]

    Dzhokhar, who had been shot and was bleeding badly from wounds to his left ear, neck and thigh,[79] wastaken into federal custody after the standoff. Initial reports that the neck wound was from a self-inflictedgunshot from a possible suicide attempt were later contradicted by the revelation that he was unarmed at thetime of capture and a description of the neck wound by SWAT team members that it was a slicing injury,possibly caused by shrapnel from an explosion.[80]

    In an image broadcast on the night of his arrest, he was shown stepping out of the boat in which he had beenhiding.[81] Other sources described him "lying on his stomach, straddling the side of the boat () His leftarm and left leg hung over the boats side. He appeared to struggle for consciousness". Then he was "hauleddown to the grassy ground" by a SWAT officer.[70] In a photograph he can be seen lying on the ground onhis back with his hands allegedly cuffed behind him, being helped by medical staff.[82]

    He was taken to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, where he was treated for severe injuries inthe intensive-care unit. He was in serious but stable condition (updated to "fair" on April 23), and unable tospeak because of the wound to his throat.[9][83] According to one of the nurses, he had cried for two daysstraight after waking up.[21] He responded to authorities in writing and by nodding his head,[13][84][85][86][87]although he did manage to say the word "no" when asked if he could afford a lawyer. Court documentsreleased in August 2013, show that Tsarnaev had a skull fracture and gunshot wounds prior to being takeninto custody.[88] According to a doctor that treated him, Tsarnaev had a skull-base fracture, with injuries tothe middle ear, the skull base, the lateral portion of his C1 vertebrae, with a significant soft tissue injury, aswell as injury to the pharynx, the mouth, and a small vascular injury.[89]

    On April 26, Dzhokhar Anzorovich Tsarnaev was transported by U.S. Marshals to the Federal MedicalCenter, Devens,[90][91] a United States federal prison near Boston for male inmates requiring specialized orlong-term medical or mental health care. He is being held in solitary confinement at a segregated housingunit[92] with 23-hour-per-day lockdown.[93][94]

    Questioning, charges, and confessionsInitially, Dzhokhar was questioned without being read his Miranda rights, because the Justice Departmentinvoked Miranda's public-safety exception.[95] He was to be questioned by a federal High-ValueInterrogation Group, a special counterterrorism group created to question high-value detainees, whichincluded members of the FBI, CIA, and Department of Defense.[96][97][98] Later, after being read hisMiranda rights, Tsarnaev "immediately stopped talking" and declined to continue to cooperate with theinvestigation.[78]

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    On April 22, he was charged with "using and conspiring to use a weapon of mass destruction resulting indeath" and with "malicious destruction of property resulting in death", both in connection with the BostonMarathon attacks.[11][46] He was read his Miranda rights at his bedside by a federal magistrate of the UnitedStates District Court for the District of Massachusetts, nodded his head to answer the judge's questions, andanswered "no" when asked whether he could afford a lawyer.[95]

    He could face the death penalty if he is convicted.[99] He is being prosecuted by assistant U.S. attorneysWilliam Weinreb and Aloke Chakravarty, of the Anti-Terrorism and National Security Unit of the U.S.Attorney's Office in Boston.[100] His defense team includes federal public defender Miriam Conrad,[101]William Fick[102] and anti-death penalty lawyer Judy Clarke.[103]

    Middlesex County prosecutors also brought criminal charges against Dzhokhar Tsarnaev for the murder ofMIT Police Officer Collier. A surveillance camera at MIT captured the brothers approaching Collier's carfrom behind.[104]

    Officials said, after initial interrogations, that it was clear the attack was religiously motivated, but that so farthere was no evidence that the brothers had any ties to Islamic terror organizations.[105][106] Officials alsosaid that Dzhokhar acknowledged his role in the bombings and told interrogators that he and Tamerlan weremotivated by extremist Islamic beliefs[107] and the U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq to carry out thebombing.[108][109] Dzhokhar admitted during questioning that he and his brother were planning to detonateexplosives in Times Square of New York City next. The brothers formed the plan spontaneously during theApril 18 carjacking, but things went awry after the vehicle ran low on gas and they forced the driver to stopat a gas station, where he escaped.[110] Dzhokhar says he was inspired by online videos from Anwar al-Awlaki,[111] who also inspired the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt.[112]

    Investigators have so far found no evidence that Dzhokhar was involved in any jihadist activities, and,according to the Wall Street Journal, now believe that unlike his brother Tamerlan, Dzhokhar "was nevertruly radicalized."[113] Examinations of his computers did not reveal frequent visits to jihad websites,expressions of violent Islamist rhetoric or other suspicious activities. Some law enforcement officials toldthe WSJ that Dzhokhar "better fit[s] the psychological profile of an ordinary criminal than a committedterrorist."

    On May 16, 2013, during CBS This Morning, CBS News senior correspondent John Miller said he had beentold that Dzhokhar wrote a note in the boat in which he was hiding and claimed responsibility for the April15 attack during the marathon. The note was scribbled with a pen on one of the inside walls of the cabin andsaid the bombings were payback for the U.S. military actions in Afghanistan and Iraq, and referred to theBoston victims as collateral damage, the same way Muslims have been in the American-led wars. Hecontinued, "When you attack one Muslim, you attack all Muslims." He also said he did not mourn hisbrother's death because now Tamerlan was a martyr in paradise and that he (Dzhokhar) expected to join himin paradise. Miller's sources said the wall the note was written on had multiple bullet holes in it from theshots that were fired into the boat by police. According to Miller during the interview he gave on themorning show, he said that the note will be a significant piece of evidence in any Dzhokar trial and that it is"certainly admissible," and paints a clear picture of the brothers' motive, "consistent with what he toldinvestigators while he was in custody."[114][115][116]

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    Image of Dzhokhar on thecover of Rolling Stone

    Rolling Stone magazineTsarnaev was the subject of a cover story for an August 2013 issue ofRolling Stone entitled "The Bomber: How a Popular, Promising Student WasFailed by His Family, Fell into Radical Islam and Became a Monster." Themagazine drew large amounts of criticism for this decision. Boston MayorTom Menino wrote that the cover "rewards a terrorist with celebritytreatment. It is ill-conceived, at best, and re-affirms a terrible message thatdestruction gains fame for killers and their 'causes'"[117] while MassachusettsState Police sergeant Sean Murphy stated that "glamorizing the face of terroris not just insulting to the family members of those killed in the line of duty,it also could be an incentive to those who may be unstable to do somethingto get their face on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine."[118] The New YorkTimes used the same photo on their front page in May 2013,[119] but did notdraw criticism. Rolling Stone columnist Matt Taibbi criticized those whotook offense at the cover, arguing that their offense-taking was the result oftheir associating Rolling Stone with glamor instead of news,[120] stating thatThe New York Times did not draw the criticism that Rolling Stone did, "because everyone knows the Times isa news organization. Not everyone knows that about Rolling Stone... because many people out thereunderstandably do not know that Rolling Stone is also a hard-news publication."[120]

    The editors of Rolling Stone posted the following response:

    Our hearts go out to the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing, and our thoughts are always withthem and their families. The cover story we are publishing this week falls within the traditions ofjournalism and Rolling Stones long-standing commitment to serious and thoughtful coverage of themost important political and cultural issues of our day. The fact that Dzhokhar Tsarnaev is young, andin the same age group as many of our readers, makes it all the more important for us to examine thecomplexities of this issue and gain a more complete understanding of how a tragedy like this happens.THE EDITORS[121]

    Hours after this happened, many retailers that sold the magazine, such as CVS Pharmacy,[122] BJ'sWholesale Club (which also no longer sells any future Rolling Stone issues),[123] and others, announced thatthey would no longer sell the issue.[124]

    In December 2013, the Rolling Stone Tsarnaev cover was named the "Hottest Cover Of The Year" byAdweek magazine, with newsstand sales doubling from 60,000 to 120,000.[125][126]

    TrialTsarnaev's arraignment for 30 charges, including four for murder, occurred on July 10, 2013 in federal courtin Boston before U.S. Magistrate Judge Marianne Bowler. It was his first public court appearance.[127] Hepled not guilty to all 30 counts against him, which included using and conspiring to use a weapon of mass

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    Wikinews has relatednews: Dzhokhar Tsarnaevfound guilty in BostonMarathon bombing trial

    Tamerlan Tsarnaev

    Tamerlan Tsarnaev at the site of the bombingsBorn Tamerlan Anzorovich Tsarnaev[note 1]

    October 21, 1986[4]Elista, Kalmyk ASSR, RussianSFSR, Soviet Union[133][20][133]

    Died April 19, 2013 (aged 26)Watertown, Massachusetts, U.S.

    Restingplace Doswell

    , Virginia, U.S.[134]

    Residence Los Angeles, California, U.S

    destruction resulting in death.[128] Counter terrorism expert Matthew Levitt has given testimony. Tsarnaev isrepresented by Miriam Conrad, David Bruck, William Fick, and Judy Clarke.

    On January 30, 2014, United States Attorney General Eric Holder announced that the federal governmentwould seek the death penalty against Dzhokhar Tsarnaev.[129] A plea deal failed when the governmentrefused to rule out the possibility of the death penalty.

    The trial began on January 5, 2015; Tsarnaev pleaded not guilty to all thirty charges laid against him. Theproceedings are led by Judge George O'Toole.[130][131] Tsarnaev's attorney Clarke said in her openingstatement "it was him... There's little that occurred the week of April the 15th... that we dispute."[1]

    On April 8, 2015, Tsarnaev was found guilty on all thirty counts ofthe indictment. The charges of usage of a weapon of mass destructionresulting in death, in addition to aiding and abetting make Tsarnaeveligible for the death penalty.[132]

    Tamerlan TsarnaevEarly life and educationTamerlan Anzorovich Tsarnaev (October 21, 1986 April 19, 2013) was born in the Kalmyk AutonomousSoviet Socialist Republic (now Kalmykia), a NorthCaucasus[20] unit of Russia then in the Soviet Union.[44]He was a permanent resident of the U.S.,[37] a Russiancitizen and a Kyrgyz citizen.[136]

    After arriving in the U.S. in 2002, he attended CambridgeRindge and Latin School, a public high school.[137] Heapplied for admission at the University of MassachusettsBoston for the fall of 2006, but was rejected.[138] Heattended Bunker Hill Community College part-time forthree terms between 2006 and 2008, studying accountingwith hopes of becoming an engineer.[33][139] He droppedout of school to concentrate on boxing.[33][140]

    In 2007, Tamerlan confronted a Brazilian youth who haddated his younger sister, Bella, for about two years, andpunched him in the face. A high school friend of Bellasaid Tamerlan did not approve because the boy was not aMuslim.[141]

    2008

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    Ethnicity Chechen-Avar[23]

    Citizenship Russian and Kyrgyz with U.S.Permanent Residence Status(Application for US citizenship wasin progress)[135]

    Occupation UnemployedReligion IslamSpouse(s) Karima Tsarnaev, born Katherine

    Russell (m. June 2010 April 2013;his death)

    Children 1 daughterParent(s) Anzor and Zubeidat TsarnaevRelatives 1 brother (Dzhokhar)

    2 sisters (Ailina and Bella)

    During 2008, Tamerlan became a devout Muslim andstopped drinking and smoking. He began to regularlyattend the Islamic Society of Boston mosque near hishome in Cambridge, a mosque which Americans forPeace and Tolerance, a longtime critic of the mosque,alleges to support "a brand of Islamic thought thatencourages grievances against the West, distrust of lawenforcement and opposition to Western forms ofgovernment, dress and social values".[142]

    In May 2008, his sister said her husband was cheating onher and beating her up. Tamerlan flew across the countryto Bellingham, Washington, to "straighten up the brains"of his brother-in-law, Khozhugov.[141]

    Tamerlan dated an American, Katherine Russell, fromNorth Kingstown, Rhode Island, on and off while sheattended Suffolk University from 2007 to 2010.[143] Sheconverted to Islam and started wearing a hijab in 2008.[144] Friends said he would shout at her that she was a"slut".[145] They described fights in which he would "fly into rages and sometimes throw furniture or throwthings".[146]

    2009An aspiring heavyweight boxer, Tamerlan trained at the Wai Kru Mixed Martial Arts Center, a Bostonclub.[140] In 200910, he was the New England Golden Gloves heavyweight champion, winning the RockyMarciano Trophy.[147][148] In May 2009, he fought in the nationals in the 201-pound weight class, but lost afirst-round decision.[147][149]

    He was arrested at his home at 410 Norfolk Street in Cambridge, on July 28, 2009, for aggravated domesticassault and battery after allegedly assaulting a different girlfriend.[150] The woman called 911 "cryinghysterically" to report she had been "beat up by her boyfriend", according to the arrest report.[151] His fatherremarked: "Because of his girlfriend, he hit her lightly, he was locked up for half an hour." The case wasdismissed for lack of prosecution, but his father attributed to it the delay in Tamerlan's gaining U.S.citizenship.[41][152] This girlfriend said that during a three-year relationship Tamerlan became a radical, triedto force her to convert to Islam and tried to control what she wore and with whom she associated. She alsosays he cheated on her with the Boston student whom he later married.[153]

    The Tsarnaev brothers' uncle, Ruslan Tsarni, said he "had been concerned about his nephew being anextremist since 2009". Tsarni said that Tamerlan's radicalization started not during his visit to Russia inJanuary 2012, but much earlier in Boston after he was influenced by a Muslim convert known as"Misha".[154] "Misha" was later identified as Mikhail Allakhverdov, a 39-year-old from Rhode Island(originally from Azerbaijan).[155] Allakhverdov told the The New York Review of Books that he rejected

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    violence, was not Tamerlan's teacher, had not spoken to Tamerlan in three years and had never met hisfamily members. Furthermore, he said that he had cooperated with a brief FBI investigation that the NYRBreported had found no ties between Allakhverdov and the attacks.[156]

    2010According to a 2010 photo essay about him in The Comment, the graduate student magazine of BostonUniversity's College of Communications, Tamerlan said that he was working to become a naturalized citizenin time to be selected for the U.S. Olympic boxing team. He added that he would "rather compete for theUnited States than for Russia",[140][148] while remarking that he "didn't understand" Americans and did nothave any American friends.[140] He added that he abstained from drinking and smoking, because "God saysno to alcohol"[157] and that "there are no values anymore. People can't control themselves".[158]

    Pro super middleweight Edwin Rodriguez sparred with Tsarnaev in 2010, and later said that, althoughTsarnaev hit hard, he lacked competitiveness and immediately complained of stomach pain and rib pain. Hedescribed Tsarnaev as arrogant but "a coward".[147] Tamerlan Tsarnaev's landlord said the boxer's aspirationswere never met because "his back was in really bad shape and he couldn't get into the Olympics".[159] Hiscoach and another boxer described him as talented but cool and arrogant.[160][161] Rule changes disqualifiedall non-US citizens from Golden Gloves boxing, ending Tamerlan's boxing career and Olympic hopes.[141]

    According to an aunt in Dagestan, "He started to be really interested in Islam about three years ago [April2010], but he was never a radical."[162]

    In the spring of 2010, his girlfriend Katherine Russell became pregnant with Tsarnaev's child and droppedout of college in her senior year to marry[163] Tsarnaev on June 21, 2010, in a 15-minute ceremony in anoffice at the Masjid Al Quran in the Dorchester area of Greater Boston.[151][164][165][166][167] Imam TaalibMahdee said that he had not met the couple before the ceremony, and Katherine was the one who had calledand asked to be married there.[164]

    Tamerlan first came to the attention of Russian security forces in December 2010 when William Plotnikovwas briefly detained in Dagestan and forced to disclose his social networking contacts in North Americawith ties to Russia.[168]

    2011In early 2011, Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) told the Federal Bureau of Investigation thatTamerlan was a follower of radical Islam and a strong believer. The FSB said that he was preparing to leavethe United States to travel to the Russian region to join unspecified underground groups.[169][170] The FBIinitially denied that it had contacted Tsarnaev, but then said that it actually had after Tsarnaev's mothertalked about the FBI's contacts with her son on RT.[171] The FBI said that it interviewed him and relatives ofhis, but did not find any terrorist activity, and that it provided the results in the summer of 2011.[170] At thatpoint, the FBI asked the FSB for more information, but the Russians did not respond to the Americanrequest, and the FBI officially closed the case.[172]

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    Tsarnaev's mother said that FBI agents had told her they feared Tamerlan was an "extremist leader", and thathe was getting information from "extremist sites".[11][173] She said Tamerlan had been under FBIsurveillance for at least three years and that "they were controlling every step of him". The FBI flatly deniedthis accusation.[174][175] Tamerlan "vaguely discussed" jihad during a 2011 phone call with his mother thatwas taped by the FSB, and intelligence officials also discovered text messages in which his mother discussedhow Tamerlan was ready to die for Islam.[176] In late 2011, the Central Intelligence Agency put bothTamerlan and his mother on its Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment database.[176][177]

    Allegations of involvement in 2011 Waltham triple homicideTwo Jewish men, Erik Weissman, and Raphael Teken, as well as their roommate Brendan Mess, were killedin a triple homicide in Waltham, Massachusetts, on September 11, 2011, the 10-year anniversary of the 9/11attacks.[17][178][179] Each victim's throat had been slit with such great force as to be nearly decapitated.Thousands of dollars worth of marijuana and cash were left covering the victims' bodies, and $5,000 was leftat the scene.[180] The local district attorney said that it appeared that the killer and the victims knew eachother. It was reported on April 23, 2013, that local authorities believed Tamerlan may have been responsiblefor the triple homicide, and they and the FBI were actively investigating thepossibility.[181][182][183][184][185] In May, forensic evidence connected the two brothers to the scene of thekillings, and their cell phone records appeared to place them in the area. The officials cautioned that untilmore definitive DNA testing is complete, it is still too early to consider bringing an indictment against theyounger of the two brothers.[186]

    2012 visit to RussiaTamerlan traveled to Russia through Moscow's Domodedovo International Airport in January 2012, andreturned to the U.S. in July 2012.[65] Tamerlan and his wife received public assistance and food stamps fromSeptember 2011 to November 2012, which included all the time Tamerlan was in Russia. ZubeidatTsarnaeva said her son had wanted his wife and their child to move to Dagestan with him, and that: "Sheherself agreed; she said she wanted to study a different culture, language."[164]

    During the six months he was overseas, he visited his family in the North Caucasus.

    His father said that Tamerlan was with him in Makhachkala, the capital of Dagestan, for six months and thatthey had done ordinary things, such as visiting relatives. His father also said that he and Tamerlan visitedChechnya twice, to see relatives there and to receive Tamerlan's new Russian passport.[24][187] WhileTsarnaev arrived in Russia in January 2012, however, he only arrived in Dagestan around March, and hisfather arrived there in May.[188] U.S. House Homeland Security Chairman Michael McCaul said he believedthat Tamerlan received training during his trip, and became radicalized.[189] In an early report, Dagestan'sinterior minister Abdurashid Magomedov said through a spokesman that Tamerlan "did not have contactwith the [Islamist] underground during his visit".[190]

    A distant cousin of the Tsarnaev brothers, Magomed Kartashov, is a leading intellectual figure in Dagestan'sIslamist community. Zubeidat confirmed that they "became very close." Kartashov's Islamist organization,"The Union of the Just," advocates Islam as a political system under sharia law. He and Tamerlan discussed

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    fighting the global fight. Kartashov said the Boston bombing is "good" in that it will increase converts toIslam similar to the attacks of September 11.[191]

    According to media reports, Tamerlan was seen by Dagestan police, who were conducting surveillance,making six visits to a known Islamic militant in a Salafi mosque in Makhachkala founded by an associate ofAyman Zawahiri.[192][193][194][195] According to Russian investigative newspaper Novaya Gazeta, quotingunnamed Russian security sources, Tamerlan was linked to 23-year-old William Plotnikov, an ethnicRussian-Tatar Islamic militant and Canadian citizen, with whom he communicated via online socialnetworking sites.[196][197][198] Tamerlan had also visited Toronto, where Plotnikov lived with hisparents.[199] Once in Dagestan, Tamerlan is said to have met on several occasions with Makhmud MansurNidal, a 19-year-old Dagestani-Palestinian man. Nidal was under close surveillance by Dagestan's anti-extremism unit for six months as a suspected recruiter for Islamist insurgents, before the police killed him inMay.[195] According to Novaya Gazeta, Tamerlan had sought to join the local insurgency, and was put on aperiod of 'quarantine' a clearance check by insurgents looking for infiltrating double agents, taking severalmonths for a recruit to be verified. After Tamerlan's alleged contacts were both killed, he "got frightened andfled". He left Russia in July two days after Plotnikov was killed, in an apparent hurry that Russian authoritiesconsidered suspicious, not waiting to pick up his new Russian passport ostensibly one of his main reasonsfor coming to Russia.[198][200][201][202]

    In an interview, Tsarnaev's father later said he had to force his son to return to the United States to completehis U.S. citizenship application, after Tamerlan tried to convince his family to allow him to stay in Dagestanfor good.[203]

    July 2012 return to U.S., through April 2013

    Tamerlan returned to the U.S. on July 17, 2012, having grown a long, thick beard.[59][65][204][205] His lifetook on an "increasingly puritanical religious tone" with "Islamist certainty".[206] He appeared, to somefamily members, to have become an "extremist".[31]

    After his return to the U.S., Tamerlan created a YouTube channel with playlist links to two videos whichwere tagged under a category labeled "Terrorists", including one to Dagestani Islamic militant Amir AbuDujana (Gadzhimurad Dolgatov, also known as 'Robin Hood', a commander of a small group in the Kizilyurtdistrict, who was killed in battle in late December 2012); the videos were later deleted.[32][207][208][209]CNN and the SITE Institute found a screen grab of one of the videos, which featured members of themilitant Islamist group Caucasus Emirate from the North Caucasus.[32] He also linked to jihadi videos onYouTube, including ones by radical cleric Feiz Mohammad; in one video, voices can be heard singing inArabic as bombs explode.[33][210][211][212] He frequently read extremist sites, including Al-Qaeda in theArabian Peninsula's Inspire online magazine.[165]

    Tamerlan applied for U.S. citizenship on September 5, 2012, but Homeland Security held up the applicationfor "additional review" because they found a record of the 2011 FBI interview of him.[47]

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    Boston Marathon bombings

    Tamerlan and his wife were receiving state welfare benefits as late as November 2012, but not at the time ofthe Marathon Bombings in April 2013.[42] His wife's lawyer said that Tamerlan was unemployed prior to thebombing[59] and had been helping take care of their daughter, while his wife worked over 70 hours a weekas a home health care aide, to support her family.[143]

    Tamerlan was pulled over by police in Boston, Brookline, and Cambridge at least nine times in four years.The source does not state which years these were exactly.[213]

    In November 2012, Tamerlan reportedly confronted a shopkeeper at a Middle Eastern grocery store inCambridge, near a mosque where he sometimes prayed, after seeing a sign there advertising Thanksgivingturkeys. He said "This is kuffar"an Arabic reference to non-Muslims"that's not right!". Also inNovember 2012, Tamerlan stood up and challenged a sermon in which the speaker said that, just like "we allcelebrate the birthday of the Prophet, we can also celebrate July 4 and Thanksgiving," according to YusufiVali, a mosque spokesman. Vali said Tamerlan stated that he "took offense to celebrating anything," be it theProphet's birthday (which not all Muslims celebrate) or American holidays.[20] In January 2013, Tamerlanagain disrupted a Martin Luther King, Jr. Day sermon at a mosque in Cambridge. He objected to thespeaker's comparison of Muhammad to Martin Luther King, Jr. Tamerlan was shouted down by members ofthe congregation and was later asked not to return to the mosque unless he was willing to refrain fromshouting during sermons. The mosque said Tamerlan had also disrupted a sermon before.[214]

    2013 Boston Marathon bombings, MIT killing, and carjackingTamerlan is believed to have committed the Boston Marathonbombings on April 15, 2013, and to have killed MIT policeofficer Sean Collier,[215][216] though initial reports haddescribed the suspect as a black male wearing black clothingand weighing approximately 120 pounds.[217] He is alsobelieved to have committed a carjacking on April 18. Hisbrother Dzhokhar is believed to have been a partner in thecrimes.[218]

    DeathIn the early hours of April 19, 2013, in Watertown, a suburb of Boston, Tamerlan was apprehended by policeafter being shot multiple times. The exact sequence of events remains clouded in confusion, as do keydetails. According to police, Tamerlan's younger brother Dzhokhar ran him over with an SUV and draggedhim with the vehicle for 20 feet (6 m),[219] which is substantiated by the federal indictment.[6] He was takento Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, where, despite efforts to revive him by emergency medicalpersonnel, he was pronounced dead from several critical injuries, massive blood loss, and cardiac andrespiratory arrest.[220][221] Emergency physicians said that he did not appear to have been run over.[222] Aneyewitness says that he was struck by a police SUV before he was shot multiple times.[223]

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    Tamerlan's parents continue to proclaim his innocence. His mother is quoted as saying, "America took mykids away from me. I'm sure my kids were not involved in anything."[224] The imam of a prominent Bostonmosque has condemned the violence and distanced itself from the suspects, refusing to give Tamerlan aMuslim burial.[225] His body was released to the funeral service hired by the family at 5:30 p.m. EDT May2, 2013, by the Massachusetts Office of the Chief Medical Examiner.[226] His death certificate gives cause ofdeath as gunshot wounds to the torso and extremities, as well as blunt trauma to the head and torso. Itconfirmed that he was struck and dragged by a vehicle, in addition to being shot.[227]

    Tamerlan's body was moved to a funeral home in North Attleborough; after protesters picketed the building,it was handed over to Graham, Putnam, and Mahoney Funeral Parlor in Worcester.[228] Officials in Boston,Cambridge, at a state prison, and in over 120 other U.S. and Canadian locations refused to allow Tamerlan'sbody to be buried in their jurisdictions.[229] On May 9, Worcester police announced that Tamerlan's bodyhad been buried in an undisclosed location.[230] It was later reported that Tsarnaev was buried in a smallMuslim cemetery, Al-Barzakh Cemetery, in Doswell, Virginia.[231] The burial was set in motion by MarthaMullen of Richmond, Virginia, who said she was appalled by the protests at the funeral home, which shesaid "portrayed America at its worst" and wanted to find a way to end the impasse. She contacted IslamicFuneral Services of Virginia, which agreed to provide an unmarked plot in their cemetery. The funeralagency released a statement saying "What Tsarnaev did is between him and God. We strongly disagree withhis violent actions, but that does not release us from our obligation to return his body to the earth."[232]Caroline County Sheriff Tony Lippa said the burial was legal.[233] Locals, as well as the imam of theVirginia Islamic Centre, condemned the secretive burial.[234]

    On June 19, 2013, Tamerlan's name was read aloud (in the context of a victim of gun violence) during a "NoMore Names" event held in Concord, New Hampshire. In response, Michael Bloomberg's Mayors AgainstIllegal Guns issued a statement explaining that they were using a list compiled by Slate, and apologizedsaying that his name was "a mistake" and should have been removed.[235]

    Related individualsAs a result of the intense law enforcement and media investigation into the lives of the accused brothers,several family members have received considerable worldwide media attention.

    Zubeidat TsarnaevaZubeidat Tsarnaeva is the mother of Tamerlan and Dzhokhar. In photos of her as a younger woman, shewore Western-style clothing, including a low-cut blouse. After she arrived in the U.S. from Russia in 2002,she took classes at the Catherine Hinds Institute of Esthetics before becoming a state-licensed aestheticianand getting a job at a suburban day spa.[236] After deciding she could no longer work in a business thatserved men,[20] she started working from home, where clients saw her become more radical and promote9/11 conspiracy theories.[237]

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    Zubeidat Tsarnaeva said she urged her son Tamerlan to embrace Islam in 2008 because she was concernedabout his drinking, smoking, and pursuit of women. She said he began to read more about it on the Internet.She also urged him to quit boxing because Islam prohibits hitting someone in the face.[238] She also praisedRussell, saying. "She is a serious, good, American girl who converted to Islam as if she had always been aMuslim. We all love her a lot."[238]

    Zubeidat discussed jihad during a 2011 phone call with Tamerlan that was taped by a Russian governmentagency, and intelligence officials also discovered text messages in which his mother discusses how Tamerlanis ready to die for Islam.[176] She was taped suggesting that Tamerlan go to Palestine.[239]

    Zubeidat and her son Tamerlan were the subject of a Russian Intelligence inquiry to the US government in2011 because of what the Russians perceived as extremist Islamic views. She was interviewed by the FBIwho found nothing to pursue at the time. In late 2011, the CIA put both Tamerlan and Zubeidat in itsTerrorist Identities Datamart Environment database.[176][177][240]

    Ruslan Tsarni told the AP from his home in Maryland that he believed his former sister-in-law had a "big-time influence" on her older son's (Tamerlan) growing embrace of his Muslim faith and decision to quitboxing and school.[236]

    In early 2012, Zubeidat Tsarnaeva was arrested for shoplifting $1,624 worth of women's clothing from Lordand Taylor in Natick, Massachusetts. She left the U.S. for Russia and did not appear in court.[236][240] Anzorand Zubeidat Tsarnaev divorced in 2011 after twenty-five years of marriage. The couple had no personalproperty or real estate to divide and listed no retirement or pension benefits. They gave the reason for theirsplit as "irretrievable breakdown of the marriage" with "no chance of reconciling our differences".[241] Themother's move toward more radical Islam was reportedly a factor in the breakdown of the marriage.[20] Theymay have reconciled in Dagestan.[242]

    She has strongly expressed in TV interviews that her sons are innocent and that they were framed by theFBI.[243]

    Katherine Russell

    Tamerlan's widow,[244] Katherine Russell (aka Karima Tsarnaeva or Katherine Tsarnaev[245]), was born onFebruary 6, 1989, in Texas.[246][247] She was raised in Rhode Island; her father is an emergency room doctorand her mother is a nurse.[248] Their home has been described as nominally Christian.[249]

    She attended North Kingstown High School, and graduated in 2007 at the top of her class. Her yearbookentry lists her plans as college and the Peace Corps. She was remembered for her talent in painting anddrawing.[244]

    Russell met Tamerlan Tsarnaev in 2007 in a nightclub, soon after she started as a communications major atSuffolk University.[248][249][244][250] They started dating on and off,[244] and at one point in 2009, Tsarnaevwas living with another woman.[251] At Tsarnaev's insistence, Russell converted to Islam in 2008, adopted

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    the hijab, and chose the name Karima after her conversion.[238]

    Russell dropped out of college in the Spring of 2010 after she became pregnant in her senior year, and thecouple married on June 21, 2010, in a 15-minute ceremony in a Dorchester mosque.[250][252][253] Accordingto the officiant, it was Russell who called and made the arrangements. Only two witnesses attended thewedding.[244] She moved into her husband's apartment in Cambridge[250] and gave birth to their daughterZahara in late 2010.[245] At times, she worked as a home health aide.[250]

    From September 2011 to November 2012 she and her husband had their income supplemented by publicassistance and food stamps.[250] When Tsarnaev was in Russia for six months, she and their daughter stayedin Cambridge.[250]

    At the time of the bombings on April 15, 2013, Russell was living with her husband and daughter in theNorfolk Street family home in Cambridge.[254] The younger brother also officially lived there, but inpractice stayed in a dorm at UMASS Dartmouth.[244] After the bombings, when the suspects' photos werereleased, Russell apparently contacted her husband by phone and by text message. She has refused todisclose what they talked about.[255]

    After her husband died, Russell retreated to her parents' home in Rhode Island.[245] Her parents released astatement saying "[o]ur daughter has lost her husband today, the father of her child. We cannot begin tocomprehend how this horrible tragedy occurred. In the aftermath of the Patriot's Day horror, we know thatwe never really knew Tamerlan Tsarnaev. Our hearts are sickened by the knowledge of the horror he hasinflicted."[256]

    The FBI has interviewed Russell on a number of occasions and collected DNA samples. She refused to takecustody of her husband's remains and has reverted to using her maiden name.[257]

    Investigators discovered magazine bomb-making instructions[258] on Russell's computer, though it is notclear who downloaded the files.[255][259] Through her attorney, Russell insists that she was not aware of herhusband's alleged criminal activity,[245] and to date no charges have been filed against her.

    See alsoLone wolf (terrorism)Mohamed Osman Mohamud, Somali-American arrested for the 2010 Portland car bomb plotTimothy McVeigh, American convicted of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing and executed on June11, 2001Terry Nichols, American convicted of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombingEric Rudolph, American convicted of the 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing, a deadly terroristattack on an urban sporting eventFaisal Shahzad, Pakistani-American who confessed to the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt,

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    which included a pressure cooker bombNajibullah Zazi, Afghan-American U.S. resident and al-Qaeda member, pleaded guilty in 2010 toplanning bombings of New York City subwayRoshonara Choudhry, a British student who became radicalized via watching jihadist videos in socialmediaAnders Behring Breivik, a Norwegian convicted of the 2011 Norway attacks, a combination ofbombing and gun attacks conducted in Oslo and on the island Utya

    ReferencesFootnotes

    1. Russian: / Dzhokhar Anzorovich Tsarnayev; /Tamerlan Anzorovich Tsarnayev. Chechen: -I or [1](http://www.radiomarsho.com/search/?k=I*) / Carnayev Anzor-khant Dovhar; -I / Carnayev Anzor-khant Tamerlan.

    Notes

    1. Valencia, Milton J.; Wen, Patricia; Cullen, Kevin; Ellement, John R.; Finucane, Martin (March 4, 2015). "Defenseadmits Tsarnaev took part in Marathon bombings" (http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2015/03/04/dzhokhar-tsarnaev-arrives-court-trial-about-begin/r1HKhliK4xRNORaIbPgttN/story.html). The Boston Globe. RetrievedMarch 4, 2015.

    2. Obscura, Atlas. "Pronounce Boston bomb names: Listen to recording of names of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, TamerlanTsarnaev"(http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2013/04/pronounce_boston_bomb_names_listen_to_recording_of_names_of_dzhokhar_tsarnaev.html). Slate. Retrieved April 28, 2013.

    3. Abad-Santos, Alexander (April 19, 2013). "Who Is Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, the Man at the Center of the BostonManhunt?" (http://www.theatlanticwire.com/national/2013/04/who-is-dzhokhar-tsarnaev-boston/64382/). AtlanticWire. Retrieved April 22, 2013.

    4. "Timeline: A look at Tamerlan Tsarnaev's past" (http://edition.cnn.com/2013/04/21/us/tamerlan-tsarnaev-timeline/index.html#em0). CNN. April 22, 2013. Retrieved May 21, 2013.

    5. Kotz, Deborah (April 24, 2013). "Injury toll from Marathon bombs reduced to 264"(http://www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/health-wellness/2013/04/23/number-injured-marathon-bombing-revised-downward/NRpaz5mmvGquP7KMA6XsIK/story.html). Boston Globe.

    6. "Indictment against Boston bombing suspect" (http://www.cnn.com/interactive/2013/06/us/tsarnaev-indictment/index.html). CNN. June 27, 2013.

    7. Murphy, Sean P. (May 6, 2013). "Bullet that nearly killed MBTA police officer in Watertown gunfight appears tohave been friendly fire" (http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/2013/05/06/bullet-that-nearly-killed-mbta-police-officer-watertown-gunfight-appears-have-been-friendly-fire/KH9zN91vCDy7gOynKPBymL/story.html). Boston.com.

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    fire/KH9zN91vCDy7gOynKPBymL/story.html). Boston.com.8. "Five Revelations From Rolling Stone's Boston Bomber Cover Story"

    (http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/news/five-revelations-from-rolling-stones-boston-bomber-cover-story-20130716). Rolling Stone. July 16, 2013. Retrieved August 14, 2013.

    9. "Boston bombing suspect charged"(http://www.aljazeera.com/news/americas/2013/04/2013422171313409856.html). Al Jazeera English. RetrievedApril 23, 2013.

    10. Markon, Jerry; Horwitz, Sari; Johnson, Jenna (April 22, 2013). "Dzhokhar Tsarnaev charged with using 'weapon ofmass destruction' " (http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/alleged-bombers-aunt-tamerlan-tsarnaev-was-religious-but-not-radical/2013/04/22/ca8f3214-ab5c-11e2-a198-99893f10d6dd_story.html). The Washington Post.Retrieved April 23, 2013.

    11. "United States vs. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, Case 1:13-mj-02106-MBB"(http://www.justice.gov/iso/opa/resources/363201342213441988148.pdf) (PDF). United States Department ofJustice. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.

    12. Seelye, Katharine Q. (April 8, 2015). "Dzhokhar Tsarnaev Is Guilty in Boston Marathon Bombing Trial"(http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/09/us/dzhokhar-tsarnaev-verdict-boston-marathan-bombing-trial.html). The NewYork Times. Retrieved April 8, 2015.

    13. "Boston bomb suspects 'planned more attacks' "(http://www.aljazeera.com/news/americas/2013/04/2013421184644601318.html). Al Jazeera. April 21, 2013.Retrieved April 21, 2013.

    14. Abad-Santos, Alexander (April 19, 2013). "Who Is Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, the Man at the Center of the BostonManhunt?" (http://www.theatlanticwire.com/national/2013/04/who-is-dzhokhar-tsarnaev-boston/64382/). TheAtlantic. Retrieved April 19, 2013.

    15. Botelho, Greg; Levs, Josh (April 25, 2013). "Boston bombing suspects planned Times Square attack, Bloombergsays" (http://www.cnn.com/2013/04/25/us/boston-attack/index.html). CNN.

    16. "Boston Marathon Bombers Inspired By Anwar al-Awlaki" (http://blog.adl.org/extremism/boston-marathon-bombers-anwar-al-awlaki). Anti-Defamation League.

    17. Mcphee, Michele (April 29, 2013). "Boston Bombing Brings Twist to Cold Murder Case"(http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/boston-bombing-brings-twist-cold-murder-case/story?id=19063282#.UX8hI1fhf5m).Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved May 6, 2013.

    18. "Boston Marathon bombings: Suspects' mother Zubeidat says she found faith, not terrorism"(http://www.thestar.com/news/world/2013/04/28/boston_marathon_bombings_suspects_mother_zubeidat_says_she_found_faith_not_terrorism.html). The Star (Toronto). April 28, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2013.

    19. "Dzhokhar and Tamerlan: A Profile of the Tsarnaev Brothers" (http://www.cbsnews.com/news/dzhokhar-and-tamerlan-a-profile-of-the-tsarnaev-brothers/). CBS News. April 23, 2013.

    20. Cullison, Alan; Sonne, Paul; Troianovski, Anton; George-Cosh, David; 14 contributors (April 22, 2013). "BostonMarathon Bombings: Turn to Religion Split Bomb Suspects Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's Home"(http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324235304578437131250259170.html). The Wall Street Journal.Retrieved April 22, 2013.

    21. Janet Reitman (July 17, 2013). "Jahar's World: He was a charming kid with a bright future. But no one saw the painhe was hiding or the monster he would become" (http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/news/jahars-world-20130717).Rolling Stone.

    22. Mong, Adrienne. "Boston bombing suspects' father 'a good man,' neighbors in Dagestan say"

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    22. Mong, Adrienne. "Boston bombing suspects' father 'a good man,' neighbors in Dagestan say"(http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/04/21/17847186-boston-bombing-suspects-father-a-good-man-neighbors-in-dagestan-say?lite). NBC News. Retrieved April 22, 2013.

    23. "Hunt for Boston Clues Reveals Tangled Caucasus Web" (http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/hunt-for-boston-clues-reveals-tangled-caucasus-web/478981.html). The Moscow Times. Retrieved April 22, 2013.

    24. Balmforth, Tom (April 22, 2013). " 'A Clear Setup': The Conspiracy Theory of the Boston Bombing Suspects'Father" (http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/04/father-of-boston-bombing-suspects-says-situation-is-clear-setup/275168). The Atlanticl (Makhachkala). Retrieved April 22, 2013.

    25. Keneally, Meghan; Farberov, Snejana (April 20, 2013). "Now, just tell them everything: Father of Boston bomberbrothers speaks of his relief that his younger son is captured alive" (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2312049/Anzor-Tsarnaev-Weeping-father-Boston-bombers-overwhelmed-relief-told-19-year-old-son-captured-alive.html). Daily Mail (London). Retrieved April 21, 2013.

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