Dyeing And Printing on Textile

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Dyeing And Printing on Textile

Text of Dyeing And Printing on Textile

  • 3/28/2010

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    Chapter11DyeingandPrinting

    Summary

    Howdodyingandprintingaffecttextiles? Howaretheydifferentfromoneanother? Whatprocessesandmaterialsareused? Howdotheseprocessesandmaterialsaffecttheenvironment?

    Color Goal: Produceappealing,level,fastcoloronproductatreasonablepricewithgoodperformanceandminimalenvironmentalimpact.

    Historyandbackground. Complexarea: Difficulttogetcoloronfabricinuniformappearance(level)thatwillnotfade,bleed,oralterappearance.

    Colorants

    Pigment Insolubleinorganiccompoundgluedorbondedontofibersurface;noaffinityforfiber

    Colorsmustbecured Whiteandcoloredpigments

    IngredientsinPigmentPaste Opacifiers: Producegoodcoveringpower;varietyoflusters.

    Thickeners: Preventsmigrationofpaste. Thinners: Keeps paste semifluidThinners: Keepspastesemi fluid. Antibleedingagents: Eliminateshaloeffect. Pigments: Coloredcompound. Softeners:Maintainsofthandoffabric. Easiertomatchcolorswithpigmentsthanwithdyes.

    Dye

    Organiccompoundthatiswaterorothercarriersoluble;h ffi it f fib (f ki d f b d ithhasaffinityforfiber(formssomekindofbondwithfiber).

    Fiberspecific: Fibersdifferinchemicalcompositionandrestrictdyesthatcanbeused.

    Highcolorstrength Fastnessvarieswithdyeanddyeclass. Components

    Chromophore: coloredpartofmolecule Auxochrome: alterscolorandprovidesbondingandsolubilitysites

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    DyeClassifications Acid(anionic):Wool,silk,nylon;somerayon,acrylic,andpolyester;brightcolors,poorwetfastnessandmayhavepoorlightfastness.

    Azoic: Cotton;somepolyester;brightshades,goodfastnesstolightandwater;poorcrocking;waterg ; p g;insoluble;solubilitycycledye.

    Cationic(basic): Acrylic,wool;somepolyesterandnylon;goodfastnessonsynthetics,butpooronnaturalfibers;brightcolors.

    DyeClassifications Developeddirect[directdye+metal(mordant)]:Cellulosicfibers;goodlightfastness,fairwashfastness;dullercolors.

    Direct: Cellulosicfibers;similartoabove,butbrighter; , gcolors;large,planarmolecules;moderatewetfastness;mostcommerciallyimportantclassatpresent.

    Disperse: Synthetics;goodfastness;mayfumefade;needsspecialequipment.

    DyeClassifications Fluorescent:Mostfibers;dyeabsorbs

    energyatonewavelengthandreemitsatanotherwavelength;whitensyellowedfabric;usedinfinishingandhomelaundry.

    M d d [ id d l Mordantdyes[aciddye+metal(mordant)]:Wool,silk,nylon;somerayon,acrylic,andpolyester;dullercolors;excellentfastness.

    Naturaldyes:Minordyeclass;renewableandsustainable;fromplant,animal,andmineralsources;appliedtosomeapparelandfurnishings;limitedcolorsandavailability.

    DyeClassifications Reactive: Naturalfibers;bright,purecolors;goodtoexcellentfastness.

    Sulfur: Cotton;insolubleinwater;solubilitycycledye;difficultprocess;dullcolors;goodfastness;maytender fabric; used for bottom weight goodstenderfabric;usedforbottomweightgoods.

    Vat: Cotton;insolubleinwater;solubilitycycledye;difficultprocess;dullcolors;goodfastness;incompletecolorrange;usedforbottomweightgoods.

    StagesofDyeing Fiberstage

    Masspigmentation(solutiondyeing,producercolored,spunor dopedyed): Addcoloredpigmentstospinningsolution;colorintegralpartoffiber.

    Geldyeing: Colorincorporatedbeforefibercoagulates.

    FiberStage Stockor fiberdyeing: dyedbeforeyarnprocessing;heathereffect

    Topdyeing: topisdyed;difficulttodistinguishbetweentopandstockdyeingp y g

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    StagesofDyeing Yarnstage

    Dyeinyarnstage Stripes,plaids,orstructuraldesignfabricsMore expensive than piece dyeing; solid colors Moreexpensivethanpiecedyeing;solidcolorsusuallypieceorproductdyed(notyarnorfiberdyed)

    YarnDyeing Morelikelytoseestripeparalleltowarpyarnsinwovenfabric(easiertodressloom)orparalleltocourseinknitfabric.Changecoloratyarnfeedforcircularorflatbedknits. Skeindyeing Packagedyeing Beamdyeing

    StagesofDyeing Pieceor fabricstage

    Dyedinfabricstage: generallyproducessolidcolor

    StagesofDyeing Crossdyeing: Fibersofdifferentdyereceptivity(modificationorgenericclass)fordifferentcolors(red:cotton;blue:wool).

    Uniondyeing: Fibersofdifferentdyereceptivity(modificationorgenericclass)foruniformcolor(cotton/polyesterblend).

    StagesofDyeing Productor garmentstage

    Coloradded;productcutandsewn Foundinsocks,hosiery,teeshirts,jackets,slacks,towels etctowels,etc.

    Problemswithleveling,differenceincomponents,poorpenetration,dimensionalchanges;requireswellpreparedgraygoods

    MethodsofDyeing Batch orexhaustdyeing: Textilecirculatedthroughdyebath. Beck,reel,orwinchdyeing: continuouslyimmerse fabric in dyebathimmersefabricindyebath

    Jigdyeing: largerunsoffabricpassedthroughdyebathseveraltimes

    Paddyeing: inbathinopenwidth;dyeforcedintofabric(30300yd/min)

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    BeckJig

    Pad

    MethodsofDyeing Packagedyeing: Dyebathforcedthroughtextile;usuallyyarns,butsomefiberandfabric.

    CombinationDyeing Textileanddyebatharecirculated.

    Jetdyeing: similartobeckdyeing;usedfordelicatefabrics;215870yd/min

    Paddle machine rotary drum or tumbler:Paddlemachine,rotarydrum,or tumbler:productdyeing;abrasive&chemicalwashes

    Continuousmachineor range: largelotsofgoods;oneortwobathprocessesforunionandcrossdyeing;Thermosolprocess Jet

    Rotary Drum

    Printing Localizedapplicationofcolortofabricssurface. Wetprint: Pastemadeofdyes,notpigments. Dryprint: Pastemadeofpigments,usesadhesive(change fabric hand).(changefabrichand).

    Foamprint: Useslesswaterandenergy.

    Printing Directprint: Colorapplieddirectlytodesiredlocation. Block: handprocess;carvedwoodblockpressedin dye paste stamped onto fabric; different blockindyepaste,stampedontofabric;differentblockforeachcolor

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    DirectRollerPrint Rolleretchedwithdesign;picksuppasteandpressesitontofabricasfabricpassesbetweenrollers;differentrollerforeachcolorupto16colors;duplexprint:printedonbothsidesoffabric.

    RollerPrinting TypesofPrinting Directprint: applyingdyeorpigmentdirectlyontowhiteorpreviouslydyedcloth Blotchprinting: boththebackgroundcolorandthe design are printed on the fabricthedesignareprintedonthefabric

    WarpPrint Warpyarnsprintedbeforeweaving;hazypattern.

    ResistPrint Screenprint: screensetchedwithdesign;controllocationofcolor;onescreen/color Handscreenprint Flatscreen: flat;slower;shorteryardages Rotary screen: cylinder screen; faster; most common Rotaryscreen: cylinderscreen;faster;mostcommonmethodtoprintyardage

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    TypesofPrinting Dischargeprint: Piecedyedfabricwithcolorremovedbyprintingwithbleachpaste. Requiresdarkground.q g Dischargedareasmaybetenderwithpooragingresistance.

    Traceofdarkgroundmaybevisibleontechnicalbackinprintedarea.

    Discharge PrintDischarge Print Direct PrintDirect Print

    Lower left corner: back of fabricLower left corner: back of fabric

    ResistPrint Colorpreventedfromenteringfabricinspecificareaswhenpiecedyedorpastemaybeblockedf i h hfrompassingthroughcertainareasduringprinting. Batik: hotwaxonfabric;piecedyed;waxremoved;pricerelatedtoquality&colorspresent

    ResistPrint Tiedyed: Yarnorfabricwrappedtopreventdyepenetrationduringpiece dyeing Threadpiecedyeing.Threadremovedafterdyeing.

    Ikat: Yarntiedtopreventdyepenetration;dyed,woven;singleordoubleikat.

    Resistprint Stencilprint: Precursorofscreenprint;paperormetalpattern;brushorspraycoloron

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    BurnoutPrinting Chemicalsdestroycertainfibersinamixedfiberfabrictocreateapattern

    OtherPrintingMethods Digital(inkjet)print: Colorappliedusinginkjetprinter;carpetsandtextilesamples.

    Heattransferprint: Designprintedonpaperwithdispersesublimabledyes(withheat,dye

    t ) f b i d d i l d ievaporates);fabricanddesignonpaperareplacedinclosecontact,heated,anddyetransfers.

    Electrostaticprint: Powdereddyeheatfixedtofabricsurface;dyelocationcontrolledbyscreens.

    Heat Transfer

    Digital Printing

    Flocked

    OtherPrintingMethods Differentialprint: Screenprintoncarpetwithfibersofdifferentdyeaffinity(crossdye).

    Foilprint: Specialadhesiveappliedtofabric;fabricdyed and partially cured; foil transferred by heatdyedandpartiallycured;foiltransferredbyheattransferpress;bondsonlywhereadhesivehasbeenapplied.

    Handpainting: silkpainting

    Foil

    Silk Painting

    Developments Metamorphiccolorsystemswithheat

    sensitivity

    Metalasdye Microliquidcrystalsinsurfacecoating;

    change color with temperaturechangecolorwithtemperature Dyeandprintcombinations Shifttoshorterruns Computerapplications: experimentwith

    design;minimizeseconds&environmentalimpact;strictercolorcontrol;decreasedeadtime;increasedefficiency

    Softerbindersforpigmentprints

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    ColorProblems Colorfastness: relatedtochemistryoffibers,dyes,andpigments;penetration,andfixation Bleeding: lossofcolorinwaterorothersolutions;maycolorotherfabricspresent

    Crocking: color transfer to another fabric from rubbing together Crocking: colortransfertoanotherfabricfromrubbingtogether Migration: colormovementtoadjacentareasorfabrics Fading: colorlossduetoperspiration,gasfumes,sunlight,etc.;dyesdegraded

    ColorProblems Tendering: Fabricstrengthlossduetoreactionofdyeandfiber;causedbyheat,light,atmosphericcontamination,etc.

    Frosting: Coloredportionoffabriclostbyabrasiong p yduetopoordyepenetration.

    Outofregister: Printcoloroverlapsormissesdesiredareas.

    ColorProblems Offgrain: Fabricprintedoffgrain;printdisappearsofffabricedgewhencutongrain.

    Productionmatchingproblems:assessedwithcolorimeterorhumaneye Sidetoside: Colordoesnotmatchfromselvagetoselvage.

    Sidetocenter: Colordoesnotmatchfromselvagetocenter.

    Endtoend,ending, or tailing:Colordoesnotmatchbetweenendsofroll/bolt.

    EnvironmentalImpact Wa