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  • Global and Local Feature-based Transformations for

    Fingerprint Data Protection

    A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    Tohari Ahmad

    B.Comp.Sc., MIT

    School of Computer Science and Information Technology

    College of Science, Engineering and Health

    RMIT University

    Melbourne, Australia

    January 2012

  • Declaration

    I certify that except where due acknowledgment has been made, the work is that of the author

    alone; the work has not been submitted previously, in whole or in part, to qualify for any

    other academic award; the content of the thesis is the result of work which has been carried

    out since the official commencement date of the approved research program; any editorial

    work, paid or unpaid, carried out by a third party is acknowledged; and, ethics procedures

    and guidelines have been followed.

    Tohari Ahmad

    School of Computer Science and Information Technology

    RMIT University

    January 2012

  • ii

    Acknowledgments

    First of all, my sincere gratitude must go to my supervisors: Dr. Fengling Han and Dr. Ron

    van Schyndel whom I had worked with him in a very short time, at the nearly end of my

    study. I am very grateful for their assistance and support for both academic and personal.

    Their guidance and motivation have given a direction to my research. I also would like to

    express my appreciation to Prof. Jiankun Hu and Mr. Kai Xi from UNSW@ADFA, and Dr.

    Song Wang from La Trobe University for their feedback to the research. All of these have

    been very substantial to successfully completing this thesis.

    I would like to thank Prof. Zahir Tari, head of Distributed Systems & Networking

    Discipline, for his advice in finishing the research; and my fellow graduate students, including

    those who shared the office space with me: Mardi, Naimah, Ayman, Jian, Shaahin, Palka,

    Peng and Sunidhi.

    Last, but not least, I am indebted to my parents, my wife and my sons: Rafif and Akmal

    for their support. It is really a difficult time being far away from them while completing the

    research and the thesis. This achievement is dedicated to them.

  • iii

    Credits

    Portions of the material in this thesis have previously appeared in the following publications.

    Journal:

    • Tohari Ahmad, Jiankun Hu and Song Wang. Pair-polar coordinate based cancelable

    fingerprint templates. Pattern Recognition, 44(10-11):2555-2564, 2011. (regular paper)

    ([4])

    • Kai Xi, Tohari Ahmad, Fengling Han and Jiankun Hu. A fingerprint based bio-

    cryptographic security protocol designed for client/server authentication in mobile

    computing environment. Security and Communication Networks, 4(5):487-499, 2011.

    ([109])

    Conference:

    • Tohari Ahmad and Fengling Han. Cartesian and polar transformation-based cancelable

    fingerprint template. In The 37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics

    Society (IECON 2011), pages 373-378, 2011. ([1])

    • Yong Feng, Juan Li, Fengling Han and Tohari Ahmad. A Novel Image Encryption

    Method based on Invertible 3D Maps and its Security Analysis. In The 37th Annual

    Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON 2011), pages 2186-2191,

    2011. ([38])

    • Tohari Ahmad, Jiankun Hu and Song Wang. String-based cancelable fingerprint tem-

    plates. In The 6th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA

    2011), pages 1028-1033, 2011. ([5])

    • Tohari Ahmad and Jiankun Hu. Generating cancelable biometric templates using a

    projection line. In The 11th IEEE International Conference on Control Automation

    Robotics & Vision (ICARCV 2010), pages 7-12, 2010. ([2])

  • iv

    • Tohari Ahmad, Jiankun Hu and Song Han. An efficient mobile voting system security

    scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography. In The 3rd IEEE International Conference

    on Network and System Security (NSS 2009), pages 474-479, 2009. ([3])

    The thesis was written in the TeXnicCenter editor on Windows XP, and typeset using the

    LATEX2ε document preparation system.

    All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

    Note

    Unless otherwise stated, all fractional results have been rounded to the displayed number of

    decimal figures.

  • Contents

    Abstract 1

    1 Introduction 4

    1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    1.2 Research Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    1.3 Limitations of Existing Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    1.4 Overview of Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    1.5 Thesis Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    2 Fingerprint Biometrics and its Vulnerabilities 14

    2.1 Fingerprint Biometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    2.2 Fingerprint Authentication System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    2.2.1 Fingerprint Capture and Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    2.2.2 Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    2.2.3 Feature Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    2.2.4 Feature Comparison (Matching) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    2.3 Template Vulnerabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    2.4 Protected Fingerprint Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    2.4.1 Fingerprint Cryptosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    v

  • CONTENTS vi

    Key Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    Key Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    2.4.2 Feature Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    2.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    3 Transformed Fingerprint Template Environment 44

    3.1 Research Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

    3.2 Design of the Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    3.2.1 Error Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    3.2.2 Experimental Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    3.3 Evaluation Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    3.3.1 Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

    3.3.2 Revocability and Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

    3.3.3 Changeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

    3.3.4 Non-Invertibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

    3.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

    4 Projection-based Transformation 59

    4.1 Global Feature-based Cancelable Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    4.2 Minutiae Point Projection Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

    4.2.1 Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

    4.2.2 Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    4.2.3 Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

    4.2.4 Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

    4.3 Experiments and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

    4.3.1 Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

    4.3.2 Revocability and Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

  • CONTENTS vii

    4.3.3 Non-invertibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

    4.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

    5 Pair-polar Coordinate-based Transformation 88

    5.1 Polar Coordinate System-based and Local Feature-based Transformations . . 89

    5.1.1 Polar Coordinate System-based Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

    5.1.2 Local Feature-based Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

    5.2 Pair-polar Transformation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

    5.2.1 Minutia Point Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

    5.2.2 Template Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

    Vector Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

    Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

    5.2.3 Minutia Point Comparison (Fingerprint Matching) . . . . . . . . . . . 102

    5.3 Experiments and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

    5.3.1 Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

    5.3.2 Revocability and Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

    5.3.3 Change