of 160/160
Trans Borneo Power Grid: Sarawak to West Kalimantan Transmission Link (RRP INO 44921) Initial Environmental Examination July 2011 REG: Trans Borneo Power Grid: Sarawak to West Kalimantan Transmission Link (Malaysia Section) This initial environmental examination is a document of the borrower. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent those of ADB's Board of Directors, Management, or staff, and may be preliminary in nature. In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.

Download 20.81 MB

  • View
    217

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Download 20.81 MB

  • Trans Borneo Power Grid: Sarawak to West Kalimantan Transmission Link (RRP INO 44921)

    Initial Environmental Examination

    July 2011

    REG: Trans Borneo Power Grid: Sarawak to West Kalimantan Transmission Link (Malaysia Section)

    This initial environmental examination is a document of the borrower. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent those of ADB's Board of Directors, Management, or staff, and may be preliminary in nature.

    In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.

  • Asian Development Bank

    TA 6441-REG

    Efficiency Improvement and Connectivity Strengthening in Archipelagic Southeast Asia Project (Energy

    Component)

    Final Report, Part G

    Initial Environment Examination:

    275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL Mambong (Sarawak) to Bengkayang (West Kalimantan)

    and

    150 kV HVTLs Bengkayang to Tayan (West Kalimantan)

    Prepared by SOFRECO

    Financed by the Asian Development Bank

    Revised July 2011

  • ! " # "$ !

    %&'%"()* # "$+"

    , # -"

    , #

    !"!" #$%#&' ("""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

    !"!"! ()(*' ( """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

    ! $. / ! .0) / ! . / !! '. 1 !# .& 2

    +"" !,-.&/ %#()#0&12%##&20 %#(1(3(.(#$4&'05() 6(#0(#"""""""""""""""""

    +""! -7.'4&'05() 6(#0(# """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !3 )'4 5

    +"-" 1(#'6 '' %#%3&1'!,-.(#$-7.'"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

    +"-"! /80%94(* """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" :

    +"-"+ ;

  • "" >&1> &3""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !:

    ""! 4&'05() 6(#0(#"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !:

    ""+ (1(3(. """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !? # '!

    "!" >&1> &3""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" +

    "!"! )%1( """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" +

    "!"+ (;#( """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" + #! $ !3

    "+" (#$'& """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" +-

    "+"! #$;'01*""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" +?

    "+"+ 1(#'=%10(0 %##91('01;20;1& """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7

    "+" 22&''0%%3&1 """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ## #

    "" %=;)(0 %#(#$;)0;1()1%;='""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

    ""! 6=)%*6 """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -

    ""+ @; )$ #/' #08& 2 # 0*%908&%;0&"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

    "" &()089(2 ) 0 &'""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ,

    ""- $;2(0 %#(2 ) 0 &' """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" :

    "" &) / %;'(2 ) 0 &' """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ?

    "", &1 0(/&"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ?

    3 "7'7 3 3 7'73

    -"" 4&'05() 6(#0(#"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -!

    -""! (1(3(. """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -+ 3 7'73!

    -"!" &/&0(0 %#)&(1 #/"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -+

    -"!"! % )1%' %# """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -

    -"!"+ 1( #(/&"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -

    -"!" 2 $;)=8(0&% )' """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" --

    -"!"- 4(0&1A;() 0*6=(20'""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" --

    -"!" 1A;() 0*6=(20'""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" --

    -"!", %#'01;20 %#4('0&(#(/&6"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -

    -"!": %6&'0 24('0&(#(/&6 """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -

    -"!"? %($'(#$#91('01;20;1&6=(20' """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -

    -"!"7 #21%(286 #0%1%0&20&$%1&'0'B;#0 #/B4%%$%))&20 %#""""""""""""""""""""""""" -

    -"!" 22;=(0 %#()&()08(#$(9&0* """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -

    -"!"! %66;# 0*&()08(#$(9&0* """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -,

    -"!"+ 6=)%*6==%10;# 0 &' """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -,

    -"!" 8*' 2();)0;1()&'%;12&'""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -: 3! 07'7 31

    -"+" )&201 2()(#$(/#&0 2 &)$' """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -:

    -"+"! % '&"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -?

  • -"+"+ %#0(6 #(0 %#%9% )(#$4(0&1 """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -?

    -"+" &/&0(0 %#(#(/&6 """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" -?

    -"+"- &'01 20 %#%#&>&)%=6 #%4""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7

    -"+" 1(/6(0 %#%9(#$'&""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7

    -"+", #21&('&$22&''"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7

    -"+": &()08(#$(9&0* """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7

    -"+"? > (#%)) ' %#' """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7

    5 "" 5 5 -." 5 5 "0)849 5 5! "0) 5 5# "' /3*:;:& 5 53 "'36*:;:& 5! 55 ")$'0 5!

    / $ 5# / $ /3

    *:;:&5# ,"" 4&'05() 6(#0(#""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

    ,""! (1(3(. """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - / $36

    *:;:&53 /! "$"55

    1 8

    7 5/ 1 '8 5/ 1 '5/

    :"!" '';&' """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ,

    :"!"! 1 &>(#2&=1%2&$;1&4&'05() 6(#0(#""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ,

    :"!"+ 1 &>(#2&=1%2&$;1&(1(3(."""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" : 1! 0'51

    2 7' /! 2 7'7 /! 2 7' /! 2! '"/! 2# 7+' /# 23 +' 2 25 "' 2

    ?"" 4&'05() 6(#0(#"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ?!

    ?""! (1(3(. """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ?

    6 23

    "-$

  • >

    "-$

  • >

    &0("+&

    Table 3.1 Route length and number of transmission towers, 275 and 150 HVTLs

    Table 3.2 Location of alignment and transmission towers by District, Subdistrict and Village, 150 HVTLs (West Kalimantan)

    Table 3.3 Transmission tower types, 275 and 150 kV HVTLs (West Kalimantan)

    Table 3.4 Minimum HVTL conductor clearance

    Table 3.5 Land acquisition impacts, Bengkayang Substation

    Table 3.6 Land Required for tower construction and RoW, 275 kV HVTL

    Table 3.7 Existing use of the land to be affected by towers

    Table 3.8 Summary of HVTL impacts

    Table 3.9 Tentative Implementation Schedule (275 kV and 150 kV HVTLs, West Kalimantan)

    Table 3.10 Indicative Project budget

    Table 4.1 Land use in Project area Subdistricts in West Kalimantan (275 kV HVTL)

    Table 4.2 Land use and vegetation cover along 275 kV HVTLs

    Table 4.3 Land use along 150 HVTL alignment, Ngabang-Tayan

    Table 4.4. Agricultural production and area for major crops, Bengkayang District

    Table 4.5. Production of fruit, Bengkayang District

    Table 4.6 Classification and area of forest Land in Sarawak

    Table 4.7 Area of major forest types in Sarawak

    Table 4.8 Area of major crops in Sarawak

    Table 4.9 Number of enterprises in Bengkayang

    Table 4.10 Household connected to the electricity grid in Project Subdistricts in West Kalimantan

    Table 4.11 Electricity supply in Kuching and Bau

    Table 4.12 Populations of districts and villages crossed by 275 kV HVTL, West Kalimantan

    Table 4.13 Populations of districts and villages crossed by the 150 kV HVTLs, West Kalimantan.

    Table 4.14 The distribution of subclans in each subdistrict in the Project area, Bengkayang District

    Table 4.15 The distribution of subclans in the Project area in Sarawak

    Table 4.16 Labor force involved in Bengkayang District

    Table 4.17 Employment status in Bengkayang District

    Table 4.18 Percentage employment by industry, Sarawak

    Table 4.19 Health facilities in Bengkayang District

    Table 4.20 Health facilities in Kuching and Bau Districts

    Table 4.21 Education facilities in Bengkayang District

    Table 4.22 Education facilities in Bau and Sarawak

  • >

    Table 4.23 Religion facilities in Bengkayang District

    Table 6.1 Assessment of top ranked alignment options, 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL

    Table 9.1 Environmental Management Plan (EMP)

    Table 9.2 Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMoP)

    Table 9.3 Estimated Environmental Budget West Kalimantan

    Table 9.4 Estimated Environmental Budget Sarawak

  • >

    &"

    ADB Asian Development Bank

    AFD Agence Franaise de Dveloppement (French Development Agency)

    AH Affected Household

    AMDAL Environmental assessment under Indonesian Government requirements

    AP Affected Person

    Angle Point (Transmission Line)

    APG ASEAN Power Grid

    ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations

    Bapedalda Provincial Environmental Impact Management Agency (Indonesia)

    CAP Corrective Action Plan

    CEMP Construction Environmental Management Plan

    CHSP Community Health and Safety Plan

    CSO Civil Society Organization

    DBNA Dayak Bidayau National Association (Sarawak)

    DOE Department of Environment (Malaysia)

    EIA Environmental Impact Assessment

    EMF Electric and Magnetic Fields

    EMoP Environmental Monitoring Plan

    EMP Environmental Management Plan

    EPC Engineering, Procurement and Construction

    GRDP Gross Regional Domestic Product

    ha Hectare

    HPP Hydropower Plant

    HVTL High Voltage Transmission Line

    IA Implementing Agency

    IEE Initial Environmental Examination

    IOL Inventory of Losses

    IPP Independent Power Producer

    ISO International Standards Organization

    IUCN International Union of Conservation of Nature

    KLH Ministry of Environment (Indonesia

    km Kilometer

    kV Kilovolt

    kW Kilowatt

    kWH Kilowatt Hour

    LARAP Land Acquisition and Resettlement Action Plan

    LVTL Low Voltage Transmission Line

    m Meter

    masl Meters Above Sea Level

    MVTL Medium Voltage Transmission Line

  • >

    MW Megawatt

    NGO Non Governmental Organization

    NREB Natural Resources and Environment Board (Sarawak)

    O&M Operation and Maintenance

    OHSP Occupational Health and Safety Plan

    PIC Project Implementation Consultant

    PLN PT PLN Persero (Indonesia)

    PPS Personal Protective Equipment

    PPSA Power Purchasing and Selling Agreement

    REA Rapid Environmental Assessment

    RoW Right of Way

    RTRW Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (Spatial Plan)

    RUPTL Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik, (Electricity Supply Planning Effort), PLN

    SEB Sarawak Energy Berhad

    SES Sarawak Engineering Services (subsidiary of SEB)

    SESCO Sarawak Electricity Supply Corporation (subsidiary of SEB)

    SIA Social Impact Assessment

    SNI Indonesian National Standard

    SPS Safeguard Policy Statement

    T Tonne

    TA Technical Assistance

    UKL/UPL Environmental Management Effort or Upaya Pengelolaan Lingkungan and Environmental Monitoring Effort or Upaya Pemantauan Lingkungan

  • C

    :>77"?

    (i) This Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) has been prepared under the Asian Development Bank (ADB) financed technical assistance (TA) project TA 6441-REG: Efficiency Improvement and Connectivity Strengthening in Archipelagic South-east Asia Project (Energy Component). The TA is preparing a feasibility study for the cross-border interconnection of the existing power supply systems of West Kalimantan (Indonesia) and Sarawak (Malaysia) on the island of Borneo. The proposed Project will include a 275 kV Regional Interconnection High Voltage Transmission Line (HVTL) running from Mambong in Sarawak to Bengkayang in West Kalimantan; and two 150 kV HVTLs running from Bengkayang to Ngabang and Ngabang to Tayan in West Kalimantan. The Project includes transmission towers and lines; additions to an existing substation at Mambong in Sarawak, and in West Kalimantan a new 275/150 kV substation and associated facilities in Bengkayang and new 150/20 kV substations in Ngabang and Tayan; a limited number of access substation roads; equipment and materials storage and assembly areas; and, facilities for workers.

    (ii) The interconnection of the power supply systems of Sarawak and West Kalimantan will improve the reliability of the electrical supply in West Kalimantan and reduce the reliance on existing and proposed power generation based on fossil fuel sources. Electricity imported from Sarawak will be substantially from hydropower and will have lower carbon emissions than the alternative of developing fossil fuel based electricity generation, which is the main alternative in West Kalimantan. The 150kV HVTLs to Ngabang and Tayan will also bring access to electricity for hundreds of thousands of households across West Kalimantan.

    (iii) The Project proponent in Indonesia (West Kalimantan) is P.T. Perusahaan Listrik Negara Persero (PT PLN (Persero)), a state owned utility company responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in Indonesia. The Project proponent in Malaysia (Sarawak) is Syarikat SESCo Berhad (SESCO), responsible for operation of the electric power system of Sarawak.

    (iv) The proposed Project has been classified as environment Category B by the ADB, requiring the preparation of an initial environmental examination (IEE) in accordance with the ADB Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS); this document forms the Project IEE report. This report has been prepared based on field work; agency consultations; alignment, geotechnical and other surveys; data collected from a variety of government and academic sources; public and stakeholder consultations; a Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) checklist used for environmental categorization; a draft AMDAL report for the 275 kV HVTL in West Kalimantan; and approved UKL/UPL reports for the 150 kV HVTLs. As a result of this process a thorough assessment has been undertaken of the key potential impacts attributable to the construction and operation of the proposed Project. Alternatives to the Project and to key design aspects were also examined.

    (v) The overall HVTL corridor (275 and 150 HVTLs) is characterized by flat to moderately hilly topography; scattered villages and associated small farms; a heavily modified rural landscape dominated by gardens, plantations, and shifting cultivation; a limited number of secondary urban centers; and patchy secondary scrub and forest growth and a near total absence of primary forest. Impacts will be limited to areas of cultivation and secondary growth already affected by human presence. The HVTL alignment has been planned adjacent to existing roads as much as possible so as to further limit potential effects on the limited remaining natural primary environments in the broader Project area.

    (vi) Preconstruction phase impacts are primarily related to the Project siting, including alignment of the HVTLs and siting of the substations. Careful routing of the HVTL will ensure that the final alignment avoids to the maximum extent possible sensitive ecosystems such as parks and protected forests; other sensitive locations such as houses and schools; and areas with high concentrations of high values economic trees, such as palm oil plantations. There will be no requirement to relocate houses or other significant structures. Separate processes are underway to assess the impacts of land acquisition and

  • C

    provide appropriate compensation, including preparation of Social Impact Assessments (SIAs) and Land Acquisition and Resettlement Action Plans (LARAPs) for each of the Projects major components in West Kalimantan and Sarawak.

    (vii) Construction phase impact are associated with vegetation clearing, soil erosion, drainage, impacts on water and air quality, management of wastes, impacts on infrastructure, hunting and fuel wood collection by workers, and occupational and community health and safety. Most impacts can be mitigated through the use of good international construction practices such as limiting vegetation removal, erosion control, provision of site drainage, appropriate management of fuels, oils and hazardous materials, dust control, waste management, and the development and implementation of occupational and community health and safety plans.

    (viii) In West Kalimantan the main issue will be associated with procurement of land for the Bengkayang, Ngabang and Tayan substations and for tower sites. Agriculture is the principal occupation of the regions inhabitants; however, there will be no requirement to relocate houses or other significant structures, and impacts from the HVTLs and substations should be minimal and will be compensated through the above noted SIA and LARAP processes. There are no protected areas, primary forest, wetlands, peatlands, swamp forest, mangroves, estuarine areas, areas identified as having special ecological significance, or identified cultural heritage sites affected by the HVTL alignment. The route passes at closet approximately 500 m from the Gunung Condong Protection Forests; however it will be designated a no go areas, and will be strictly off limit for all workers.

    (ix) In Sarawak land will also be acquired for tower sites, but not for the substation as the existing Mambong station has area available for expansion. There will be no requirement to relocate houses or other significant structures, and there are no protected areas, primary forest, wetlands, peatlands, swamp forest, mangroves, estuarine areas, areas identified as having special ecological significance, or identified cultural heritage sites affected by the HVTL alignment. The 275 kV HVTL will pass within 0.5 to 2 km of some relatively intact forests area in the Bau area. However, the location of the HVTL in this area is in an area of farming, shifting cultivation and secondary vegetation and not through the intact forest where the park might be established, and the Project is not expected to have a significant negative impact on these intact forests or the proposed park. Nonetheless, SESCO will develop good communication with the Natural Resources Department during the detailed design of the HVTL route to ensure there is no potential for impact upon the proposed Park. In addition, these forest areas will be identified as no go areas.

    (x) Issues related to Project operation include EMFs and management of hazardous wastes at substations. Again, with the implementation of good international practices impacts can be effectively mitigated.

    (xi) A comprehensive EMP has been developed which includes construction and operation phase mitigation measures; a rigorous environmental monitoring and reporting plan with corrective actions if required; development and implementation of occupational and community health and safety plans; and training and capacity building. With a 15% contingency the total EMP budget is $156,630 in Sarawak and $216,315 in West Kalimantan. It should be noted that costs for many of the EMP mitigation measures are included in the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) cost estimates, and are thus not included in the EMP budget. A Project Grievance Redress Mechanism has also been developed.

    (xii) The Project was initially classified by ADB as Category B, requiring the preparation of an IEE, the subject of this report. This IEE confirms the environmental categorization, and is considered adequate to meet ADB environmental assessment requirements; no further environmental assessment is required.

    (xiii) Based on the analysis conducted in this assessment it is concluded that overall the Project will result in significant positive socioeconomic benefits, and those potential negative environmental impacts that have been identified are small-scale and localized, and can be minimized adequately through good design and the appropriate application of mitigation measures. It is therefore recommended that the Project be supported by ADB, subject to the implementation of the commitments contained in the EMP and allocation of appropriate technical, financial and human resources by implementing agencies to ensure these commitments are effectively and expediently implemented.

  • -0$>0-

    1. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) financed technical assistance (TA) project TA 6441-REG: Efficiency Improvement and Connectivity Strengthening in Archipelagic South-east Asia Project (Energy Component), is preparing a feasibility study for the cross-border interconnection of the two existing power supply systems of West Kalimantan (Indonesia) and Sarawak (Malaysia) on the island of Borneo. The proposed Project, referred to in Indonesia as Strengthening West Kalimantan Power Grid, and in Malaysia as the Trans Borneo Power Grid Sarawak to West Kalimantan Line, will include a 275 kV Regional Interconnection High Voltage Transmission Line (HVTL) running from Mambong in Sarawak to Bengkayang in West Kalimantan; and two 150 kV HVTLs running from Bengkayang to Ngabang and Ngabang to Tayan in West Kalimantan. The Project includes transmission towers and lines; additions to an existing substation at Mambong in Sarawak, and in West Kalimantan a new 275/150 kV substation and associated facilities in Bengkayang and new 150/20 kV substations in Ngabang and Tayan; a limited number of access substation roads; equipment and materials storage and assembly areas; and, facilities for workers.

    2. The Project proponent in Indonesia (West Kalimantan) is P.T. Perusahaan Listrik Negara (Persero) (PT PLN (Persero)), Indonesias state owned electric utility company responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in Indonesia.1 The Project proponent in Malaysia (Sarawak) is Syarikat SESCo Berhad (SESCO), responsible for operation of the electric power system of Sarawak.

    3. The proposed Project is part of the ASEAN Power Grid (APG) Interconnection Development Project, the objective of which is to encourage an economic use of energy resources for mutual benefit, while also enhancing power system security and opening up opportunities for energy trading in an ASEAN electricity market. The Project is also a key element of the West Kalimantan Power Grid Strengthening Strategy and of long term power development plans in Sarawak, which includes exporting power to Sabah, Brunei and West Kalimantan.

    4. The proposed Project has been classified as environment Category B by the ADB, requiring the preparation of an initial environmental examination (IEE) in accordance with the ADB Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS); this document forms the Project IEE report.

    5. This report is structured as follows:

    Executive Summary Summarizes critical facts, significant findings, and recommended actions. I Introduction Introduces the Project, IEE report purpose, and approach to IEE preparation.

    1 The term Persero designates a wholly or majority state owned company.

  • !

    II Policy, Legal, and Administrative Framework Discusses the environmental assessment legal and institutional frameworks and requirements of the ADB, Malaysia and Indonesia. III Description of the Project Describes the Project type, location and route, key components, implementation phases and budget. IV Description of the Environment Describes relevant physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions within the Project area of influence. V Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures Describes environmental impacts predicted to occur as a result of the Project, and identifies suitable mitigation measures. VI Analysis of Alternatives Presents an analysis of alternatives to the Project. VII Information Disclosure, Consultation, and Participation Describes the process undertaken during Project design and preparation for engaging stakeholders; summarizes concerns raised and actions taken to address concerns; and describes planned information measures for carrying out consultation with affected people during Project implementation. VIII Grievance Redress Mechanism Describes the Project grievance redress framework for resolving complaints. IX Environmental Management Plan Presents the Environmental Management Plan (EMP), including required construction and operation phase environmental mitigation measures, an environmental monitoring plan (EMoP), and occupational and community health and safety requirements. X Conclusion and Recommendation Presents conclusions drawn from the assessment and recommendations. Appendices Provides references and supporting documentation and information.

    ! "

    6. This report has been prepared based on: - field work, agency consultations undertaken by the TA-6441 team in 2009 (focusing on the 275

    kV HVTL) and 2011 (focusing on the 150 kV HVTLs);2 - HVTL alignment, geotechnical and other surveys conducted by PT PLN (Persero) in West

    Kalimantan and SESCO in Sarawak; - data collected from a variety of government and academic sources (topography and geology

    maps, biodiversity distribution, forest and land cover, socioeconomic status), see Appendix A; - public and stakeholder consultations conducted in 2009 and 2011; - a Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) checklist, used for environmental categorization

    purposes;

    2 An initial draft of this report was prepared in 2009 by the TA-6441 team covering the 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL running from Mambong in Sarawak to Bengkayang in West Kalimantan, as well as additions to an existing substation at Mambong in Sarawak and a new 275/150 kV substation and associated facilities in Bengkayang, West Kalimantan. The report was subsequently revised by the TA Team in 2011 to include the two 150 kV HVTLs running from Bengkayang to Ngabang and Ngabang to Tayan in West Kalimantan, and associated substations.

  • +

    - draft AMDAL report for 275 kV HVTL in West Kalimantan;3 and, - approved UKL/UPL reports for the 150 kV HVTLs.

    # "$

    7. Project impacts have been analyzed the context of the proposed Projects area of influence (study area). The study area is defined loosely as a zone 1000 meters wide perpendicular to the average trend of the 275 and 150 kV HVTL alignments, and the areas encompassed by, and adjacent to, substations, substation access roads, and temporary storage areas. This has not precluded, however, the assessment of any impacts which have been identified to occur outside of this zone.

    3 An AMDAL report covering the 275 kV HVTL was prepared by PLNs consultants and approved in May 2010 by the Governor of West Kalimantan Province. However, given the transboundary nature of the Project activities, the Ministry of Environment overturned the approval and is requiring that a new EIA be prepared that better addresses any potential transboundary issues. See Chapter 2 for additional information.

  • 0&?%&8"&%"-$"$7-":("7409

    "$+"

    ,

    8. The ADBs environmental safeguard requirements are presented in Appendix I (Safeguard Requirements 1: Environment) of the Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS), available at: www.adb.org/Documents/Policies/Safeguards/default.asp. The SPS became effective on 20 January 2010.

    9. A Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) checklist was prepared for the Project (Appendix B), and on the basis of the Checklist findings the Project was classified as Environment Category B by the ADB, meaning that the project is expected to have some adverse environmental impacts, but to a lesser degree than would be the case for a category A project. These impacts are expected to be site-specific, few if any are irreversible, and in most cases mitigation measures can be designed more readily than for category A projects. An initial environmental examination (IEE) is required; this document forms the Project IEE report.

    -"

    ,

    10. The Project will have a separate implementing agency (IA) in each country: PT PLN Persero in Indonesia, and Sarawak Electricity Supply Corporation (SESCO) in Malaysia. Each IA has or is preparing an environmental assessment on the portions of the Project within their country as per their national requirements.

    7'

    11. Indonesia has enacted a number of laws regarding environmental protection and management, including:

    - Law Number 5, Year 1990, on Conservation of Living Natural Resources and their Ecosystems; - Law Number 41, Year 1999, on Forestry; - Law Number 26, Year 2007, on Spatial Planning. - Law Number 19, Year 2009, on Ratification of Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic

    Pollutants; and - Law Number 32, Year 2009, on Protection and Management of the Environment.

    12. These laws are accompanied by various ministerial and provincial decrees and regulations. Environmental protection and management ministerial decrees include:

    - State Minister for the Environment Decree Number 13, Year 1995, on Standard Quality of

    Emission of Stationary Source - State Minister for the Environment Decree Number 48, Year 1996, on Noise Level Standard;

  • -

    - State Minister for the Environment Decree Number 49, Year 1996, on Standard Quality of Vibration Level; and,

    - State Minister for the Environment Decree Number 45, Year 1997, on Standard Index of Air Pollutant.

    13. Environmental protection and management government regulations include: - Government Regulation Number 82, Year 2001, on Management of Water Quality and Water

    Pollution Control. - Government Regulation Number 18, Year 1999, in conjunction to Government Regulation

    Number 85 Year 1995, on Management of Dangerous and Poisonous Materials. - Government Regulation Number 41, Year 1999, on Air Pollution Control. - Government of Indonesia Regulation Number 7 Year 1999 on Preservation of Plant and Animal

    Species.

    "

    14. The EIA process in Indonesia dates back more than 20 years, and Law Number 32, Year 2009, on Protection and Management of the Environment emphasizes the obligation to protect the environment. This is the most current environmental protection and management law, and was derived from the amendment of two previous laws, Law Number 23, Year 1997, on Environmental Management, and Law Number 4, Year 1982, on Principles of Environmental Management. In addition, the Ministry of Environment Regulations No 08 and No 11, Year 2006, provide the latest guidance on the EIA process.

    15. The Indonesian government imposes a positive list for a project and/or activity that requires a full environmental assessment (AMDAL) according to the type, scale and location of the activity through Minister of Environment Regulation No. 11, Year 2006. Projects not listed only require environmental management and monitoring and are obliged to prepare Environmental Management Effort or Upaya Pengelolaan Lingkungan (UKL) and Environmental Monitoring Effort or Upaya Pemantauan Lingkungan (UPL) documents in accordance with Article 34 of the Environmental Protection and Management Law 2009. Any project located at the border or inside a protected area, no matter of type or scale, also requires an AMDAL.

    16. Prior to commencing AMDAL work the project proponent is required to notify the environmental impact management agency. Based on the type, scale and location of the project, AMDAL approval may be granted at the central level by the Ministry of Environment (KLH), at the provincial level by the Provincial Environmental Impact Management Agency (Provincial Bapedalda), at the District level by the District Environmental Impact Management Agency (District Bapedalda).

    17. At the provincial level, the regulation that requires environmental management is West Kalimantan Province Regulation Number 7, Year 1988, on Management and Conservation of the Environment, and West Kalimantan Governor Decree Number 120, Year 1989, on Environmental Quality Standards for West Kalimantan Province.

    ! ."

    "

    18. According to Minister of Environment Regulation No. 11, Year 2006, a 275 kV HVTL requires a full AMDAL. PLN initially understood that that the 275 kV HVTL AMDAL would be reviewed at the Provincial level. An AMDAL report was prepared by a PLN consultant and submitted to the Bapedalda, and in May 2010 it was approved by the Governor of West Kalimantan Province. However, given the transboundary nature of the Project activities, the Ministry of Environment overturned the approval and is requiring that a new EIA be prepared that better addresses any potential transboundary issues. This report will be reviewed and approved at the national level. The terms of reference for the AMDAL is currently under development. It should be emphasized that the primary rational for this decision was with regards to potential international border issues and not environmental concerns, and the Ministry expects the new AMDAL to draw heavily from the previous report.

    19. The proposed of 145 km Bengkayang-Ngabang-Tayan 150 kV HVTLs are neither within or adjacent to protected areas. Based on Minister of Environment Decree No. 11, Year 2006, the Project only requires the preparation of a UKL/UPL. UKL/UPLs have been prepared for each 150 kV HVTL, with appropriate reference to State Minister for the Environment Decree Number 86, Year 2002, on Guidelines for Implementing Environmental Management and Monitoring Efforts, and the UKL/UPLs have received formal approval by the Bapedalda of West Kalimantan Province in Decision Number 660.1/209/BLHD-A (Bengkayang-Ngabang) and Decision Number 660.1/206/BLHD-A (Ngabang-Tayan)).

  • # 0,

    20. In designing the transmission lines and substations, including the selection of tower materials and components, PT PLN (Persero) will refer to the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resource Decree Number 1457 K/28/MEN/2000 on Technical Guidelines of Environmental Management in Mining and Power Sectors, and Decree Number 1899 K/09/MPE/1994 on Implementation of Environmental Monitoring of Electivity Power. Furthermore, standards related to HVTLs are presented in Indonesia National Standard (SNI) Number 04-6918-2002 on Free Space and Minimum Free Distance of High-voltage transmission lines and Extra High-voltage transmission lines; and SNI Number 04-6950-2003 on Air Spaces for High-voltage transmission lines and Extra High-voltage transmission lines - Threshold Values of Magnetic Field and Electricity Field.

    21. Land acquisition and compensation will be undertaken as per Head of National Land Authority Decree Number 3 Year 2007 on Methods for Making Available Land and Land Swap Compensation. Because some of the transmission lines will be inside production forest, PT PLN (Persero) will be required to obtain necessary permits as per Government Regulation No. 24 Year 2010 on Forest Area Use, and Ministry of Forestry Regulation No. 18/Menhut-II/2011 on Forest Area Land Use Guidelines.

    22. Relevant requirements with respect to worker health and safety include Law No.1 year 1970 on Worker Safety and Ministry of Workforce Decree No. Kep-51/MEN/1999 on Reference Standard on Activities in the Working Area.

    7

    &',"

    23. In Malaysia section 34A of the 1974 Environmental Quality Act specifies the legal requirements for environmental impact assessment (EIA). It empowers the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment, after due consultation, to prescribe any activity which may have significant environmental impact as a Prescribed Activity. The section further requires the project proponent of a Prescribed Activity to submit an EIA report to the Director General of Environmental Quality before approval for the proposed activity is granted by the relevant approving authority. The EIA report must be in accordance with the guidelines issued by the DOE, contain an assessment of the impact of the Prescribed Activity on the environment, and detail the proposed measures that shall be instituted to prevent, reduce or control adverse impacts on the environment.

    24. At the provincial level, in Sarawak Prescribed Activities subject to EIA are listed under the Natural Resources and Environment (Prescribed Activities) Order, 1994, as administered by the Natural Resources and Environment Board (NREB) of Sarawak.

    "

    .")*

    25. SESCO will prepare an EIA of the 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL running from Mambong to the Malaysian-Indonesian border so as to pursue government approval to comply with the Natural Resources and Environment (Prescribed Activities) Order, 1994. It is understood that this process is ongoing.

  • ,

    ! $0-0(;[email protected]

    ! .0)

    26. The proposed Project consists of a 275 kV Regional Interconnection High Voltage Transmission Line (HVTL) running from Mambong in Sarawak to Bengkayang in West Kalimantan; two 150 kV HVTLs running from Bengkayang to Ngabang and Ngabang to Tayan in West Kalimantan; additions to an existing substation at Mambong in Sarawak; and in West Kalimantan a new 275/150 kV substation and associated facilities in Bengkayang and new 150/20 kV substations in Ngabang and Tayan. The Project also includes a limited number of access roads, equipment and materials storage and assembly areas, and, facilities for workers. Figure 3.1 presents a schematic of the proposed HVTLs.

    27. The Project will connect the power supply systems of Sarawak and West Kalimantan. At present the transmission voltage levels of the two as yet unconnected systems are 132 kV and 275 kV in the Sarawak grid and 150 kV in PLNs West Kalimantan system. The 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL will allow for power trading between West Kalimantan and Sarawak. It is envisaged that the sale of power will be mainly from Sarawak to West Kalimantan, but is also expected to be in the other direction at times. The terms of this process will be laid out in a Power Purchasing and Selling Agreement (PPSA).

    28. The 150 kV HVTLs will improve the supply of electric power and reliability of the power service in West Kalimantan and adjacent provinces in Kalimantan. It is expected that these transmission lines will create economic development multiplier effects at various scales in West Kalimantan and surrounding regions.

    29. The proposed Project is part of the ASEAN Power Grid (APG) Interconnection Development Project, the objective of which is to encourage an economic use of energy resources for mutual benefit, while also enhancing power system security and opening up opportunities for energy trading in an ASEAN electricity market. The Project is a key element of the West Kalimantan Power Grid Strengthening Strategy, under the PLN Electricity Supply Planning Effort (Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik RUPTL 2010-2019), see Figure 3.2. Components of the Project (275 kV HVTL) have also been identified in the 2004 West Kalimantan Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (RTRW or Spatial Plan) and in the RTRW of Bengkayang District. The Project is also part of long term power development plans in Sarawak, which includes exporting power to Sabah, Brunei and West Kalimantan (Figure 3.3).

    ! .

    30. The Project proponent in Indonesia is P.T. Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PT PLN (Persero)), the state owned electric utility company responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in Indonesia. PT PLN (Persero) is an agency of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, and its head office is located in the Indonesian capital Jakarta. PT PLN (Persero) recently underwent an institutional and administrative reorganization. With respect to infrastructure development, the companys working area is now divided into a Jawa-Bali Region (Wilayah Kerja Jawa-Bali), a Western Indonesia Region (Wilayah Kerja Indonesia Barat) and an Eastern Indonesia Region (Wilayah Kerja Indonesia Timur). Each region is headed by a Director which includes a Power Generation Division, a Transmission Division, and a Distribution Division.

  • :

    Figure 3.1: Schematic diagram of proposed 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL, showing connections to proposed 150 kV HVTLs.

    31. The Western Indonesia Region covers Sumatera and West Kalimantan. The development of transmission networks in West Kalimantan is carried out by the Sumatera II Network Development Main Unit (UIP Ring Sumatera II), which covers works in provinces of Sumatera Barat, Jambi, Sumatera Selatan, Lampung, Bengkulu, Bangka-Belitung, and West Kalimantan. Each UIP Ring oversees several transmission network construction implementation units (Unit Pelaksana Konstruksi Jaringan or UPKJs) which are managed by a project manager. UPKJs are responsible for all aspects of the development of transmission networks. UIP Ring Sumatera II has 4 units; UPKJ Kalimantan IV is responsible for development of transmission networks in West Kalimantan. Once constructed, management of transmission networks is handed over to a Transmission Management Unit.

    32. The Project proponent in Malaysia (Sarawak) is Syarikat SESCo Berhad (SESCO), formerly known as the Sarawak Electricity Supply Corporation. SESCO operate the electric power system of Sarawak, and is a subsidiary of the Sarawak Energy Berhad who owns SESCO, two independent power producers (IPPs) as well as manufacturing and engineering companies.

    !! '.

    33. As noted in Chapter 2, the Project has been classified as Environment Category B by the ADB, requiring the preparation of an IEE, the subject of this report.

    34. In Indonesia an AMDAL for the 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL running from the border to Bengkayang has already been prepared and approved at the provincial level, but as per the requirements of the Ministry of Environment a new AMDAL that considers border security issues is under preparation for review and approval at the national level. In addition, UKL/UPLs have been prepared and approved at the provincial level for the 150 kV HVTLs running from Bengkayang to Ngabang and Ngabang to Tayan in West Kalimantan.

  • ?

    !

    "#$# "%"

    &'

    (

    )*

    + &',-./ &'

    &'0. &./1/!'

    (&',- &'&',- &'

    (&',0 &'

    &',0. &'

    &',0. &'

    &',0 &'

    &',02 &2'

    +

    %#3*434 )5)343647

    %#3*434 )589###%:" :") )5)343647

    #%:" :") )589##

    89###%:" :") .)589##

    %#3*434 .)589##

    ;

    436%4) 8%

  • 7

    Figure 3.3: Existing 275/132 kV system in Sarawak with future high demand supply locations, including export to West Kalimantan.

    Table 3.1: Route length and number of transmission towers, 275 and 150 HVTLs.

    HVTL Type West Kalimantan (PLN) Sarawak (SESCO) Subtotal

    275 kV HVTL Transmission length (km) 82.6 45.6 128.2 Number of Towers (#) 218 137 355

    150 kV HVTL Transmission length (km)

    Bengkayang-Ngabang 90 90 Ngabang-Tayan 55 55 subtotal 145 145

    Number of Towers (#) Bengkayang-Ngabang 260 260 Ngabang-Tayan 133 133 subtotal 393 393

    Total Towers (#) 611 137 748 Total Distance (km) 227.6 45.6 273.2

  • !# /3*:';:&A)*49B

    38. The total length of the Regional Interconnection HVTL will be 128.2 km. On the Malaysian side the 275 kV HVTL will run 45.6 km from the Mambong Substation to Serikin at the Malaysian/Indonesian border, passing through the Kuching and Bau districts. On the Indonesian side the 275 kV HVTL will run 82.6 km from the Malaysian/Indonesian border south to Bengkayang in the northern portion of West Kalimantan Province. The route passes through five subdistricts of Bengkayang District: Jagoi Babang, Seluas, Sanggau Ledo, Ledo, and Lumar. Elevations range from 40 to 70 masl.

    39. The proposed route is mostly in the vicinity of existing roads. It is envisaged that access to tower sites will be from existing roads and tracks and across land by foot and motor bike. No new access roads will be constructed , other than for some substations.

    40. The alignment, placement of towers and routing lengths are subject to change during final siting of the line.

    !# 36*:;:&A49B

    41. The 150 kV HVTL lines will run 90 km from Bengkayang to Ngabang and 55 km from Ngabang to Tayan, in West Kalimantan. The lines will pass through 3 districts (Bengkayang, Landak, and Sanggau) and 8 subdistricts (Bengkayang, Teriak, Banyukehulu, Menyuke, Ngabang, Tayan Hilir, Balai, and Jelimpo), see Table 3.2. Route elevations range from 40 to 70 masl. As with the 275 kV HVTL, the proposed route is mostly in the vicinity of existing roads, and it is envisaged that access to the line will be from existing roads and tracks and across land by foot and motor bike. The alignment, placement of towers and routing lengths are subject to change during final siting of the line.

  • !

    Table 3.2: Location of alignment and transmission towers by District, Subdistrict and Village, 150 HVTLs (West Kalimantan)

    District Subdistrict Village Tower Bengkayang-Ngabang 150 kV HVTL Bengkayang Lumar Magmagan T01-T05 Bengkayang Melosa T06-T12 Sebalo T13- T28 Teriak Sebetung Menyala T29-T33 Sayong T34 Dharma Bhakti T35-T39 Sebente T40-T47 Bangunsari T48-T52 Teriak T53-T55 Setia Jaya T56-T66 Landak Banyuke Hulu Untang T67-T78 Kampet T79-T85 Padang Pio T86-T96 Tembawang Bale T97-T106 Menyuke Berinang Lesung T107 Songga T108-T110 Angkaras T111-T116 Perabi T117- T118 Angsang T119- T123 Darit T124- T129 Mamek T130- T139 Jabeng T140- T141 Mamek T142- T147 Bagak T148- T155 Anik Dinggir T156- T173 Ngabang Antan Rayan T174- T192 Dangku T193- T208 Amboyo Utara T209- T230 Sungai Kelik T231- T237 Munggu T238- T253 Ambarang T254-T260 260 Towers Ngabang-Tayan 150 kV HVTL Sanggau Tayan Hilir Cempedak T01- T13 Tebang Benua T14- T25 Balai Makkawing T26- T35 Tamiang Mali T36- T38 Tae T39-T45 Padekaye T46-T60 Landak Jelimpo Angan Tembawang T61-T79 Kayuara T80-T87 Jelimpo T88-T99 Tumbangraeng T100-T107 Ngabang Tebedak T108-T133/GI Ngabang 133 Towers

    Source: - PT. PLN (Persero) 2010, Laporan Akhir Survey Jalur dan Penyelidikan Tanah SUTT 150 kV

    BengkayangNgabang. - PT. PLN (Persero) 2009, Deskripsi BM Rencana Tower, 2009

  • +

    Figure 3.4: Location map of the 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL from Mambong to the Malaysian-Indonesian border (Sarawak Malaysia)

  • Figure 3.5: Location map of the 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL from the Malaysian-Indonesian border to Bengkayang (West Kalimantan)

  • -

    Figure 3.6: Location map of 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL from the Malaysian-Indonesian border to Bengkayang, and the 150 kV HVTL from Bengkayang to Ngabang (West Kalimantan)

    End 150 kV HVTLs

    End 275 kV HVTL / Start 150 kV HVTLs

    Start 275 kV HVTL

  • !3 )'4

    !3

    )A /3*:36*:;:&B

    42. The 275 and 150 kV transmission towers will be self supporting steel lattice towers, ranging from 200 to 400 m apart depending on terrain and location. The indicative number of towers for the 275 and 150 kV HVTLs is shown in Table 3.1. The number of towers may be subject to change during detailed design.

    43. There will be three types of towers: where the transmission lines are straight or almost straight, tangent towers will be used; angle towers will be used where a line must change direction more than 50; and dead end towers will be used at the terminus of a line (Table 3.3). Figure 3.7 shows a side-profile of a typical transmission tower. The body length of the towers is adjustable, and towers will be designed to achieve legislated minimum conductor clearances from the ground, trees and structures, as summarized in Table 3.4. On average towers will be 50.4 m high on the West Kalimantan side, depending on terrain and location. In Sarawak the height will be somewhat less as they will be designed to maintain a clearance of 7m to the ground.

    Table 3.3: Transmission tower types, 275 and 150 kV HVTLs (West Kalimantan)

    No. Type of Tower Angle Height (m) Function 1 AA 00 - 50 50,7 Tangent Tower 2 BB 50 - 100 49,9 Angle Tower 3 CC 100 - 300 50,3 Angle Tower 4 DD 300 - 600 51,4 Angle Tower 5 EE 600 - 900 50,7 Angle Tower 6 FF Dead End 50,7 Dead End Tower

    44. Each tower base will be approximately 5 x 5 m in size, with each of the four tower legs supported by foundations designed for the soil conditions at the site. The height of each tower leg will also be adjustable. This will allow each leg to conform to the slope of the tower site, and helps prevent excessive land cutting and erosion and land collapse around foundations. Tower sites will be 20 x 20 m (400 m2) for tangent towers and 25 x 25 m (625 m2) for angle towers (Figure 3.8).

    45. Conditions at all tower sites have been surveyed to obtain general information on subsoil characteristics. The tests revealed that sub-soil at some sites will require special foundations such as pile or raft type. During construction of the line, subsoil conditions at each tower site will further be examined by the construction contractor to determine the final foundation type to be applied.

  • ,

    Figure 3.7: Side-view diagram of typical transmission tower, West Kalimantan.

    (Source: PLN, 2010). Note: the same design will be used for the 150 kV towers.

    Table 3.4: Minimum HVTL conductor clearance

    Minimum Clearance (m) No. Location Indonesia

    (275 and 150 kV) 1) Malaysia

    (275 kV) 2) 1. Open space 10.5 7 2. Other area with specific determination 2.1 Building, bridges 7 7 2.2 Plant / vegetation, forest, Plantation 7 4 2.3 Road, Highway 11 9 2.4 Public space 15

    2.5 Others: HVTL, LVTL, MVTL, communication line, antenna, sky lift

    5 4

    2.6 The highest point of ship mast at flood/ highest water level in water traffic

    6

    3.1 Other than over road 7 3.2 In positions inaccessible to vehicular traffic 6

    Source: 1) Indonesian National Standard (SNI) No. 04-6918-2002. 2) The Electricity Rules, Sarawak Ministry of Public Utilities, 1999.

  • :

    Figure 3.8: Top-down view diagram of typical HVTL tower site showing site dimensions for tangent towers (20 x 20 m) and angle towers (25 x 25 m), as well as site boundary stakes (patok batas tanah), tower center point stake (patok as menara) and transmission line survey stakes (patok as jalur)

    Source: PLN 2010.

    !3 'CC4

    46. A Right-of-Way (RoW) with a width of 40m in Sarawak (275 kV HVTL), and 30m and 20m in West Kalimantan for the 275 and 150 kV HVTLs respectively will be established. Tall trees within the RoW will be removed as necessary in order to maintain minimum transmission line conductor clearance (se Table 3.4). The transmission line will be sited during final design so as to avoid production forest land to the maximum extent possible.

    47. No houses have been identified as requiring removal in the RoW, and the transmission line will be sited during final design to avoid houses to the maximum extent possible. In Sarawak in practice houses are not allowed in the RoW, while in Indonesia the practice is to allow houses and other structures provided the minimum vertical clearance of 7m is maintained.

    !3!

    48. A total of four substations will either be established or expanded. In Sarawak the existing Mambong substation has adequate space to accommodate the additional equipment required for the Project. The expanded substation will consist of two 275 kV line bays, two 275 kV transformer bays, two 275/150 kV transformers with 250 MVA capacity each, one 150/20 kV transformer bay with a 25 MVA transformer, four 150 kV line bays, capacitor bank, control building with 20 kV indoor switchgear, computer-based substation control system, protection and metering equipment, telecommunication facilities, AC/DC supply and other access (Figure 3.9).

  • ?

    Figure 3.9: Layout of Bengkayang substation, showing land units to be acquired from Affected Persons (APs).

    Source: PLN 2010.

    49. In West Kalimantan three substations will be constructed. A 275/150/20 kV substation will be constructed at Bengkayang, which will be connected to both the 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL running from Mambong in Sarawak and the 150 kV HVTL running from Bengkayang to Ngabang. The Bengkayang substation will be constructed in Magmagan village, Lumar subdistrict. Its location is easily accessible as it is less than 500 meter from the main road and between 300 and 500 meter from the closest village settlement. The substation will require an area of approximately 4 ha. The proposed site consists of flat rice land and a sloping area with rubber trees, and some excavation and filling is anticipated. However, it is not expected that additional fill material will need to be brought from outside the site. An impermeable oil trap will be developed around the transformer area to contain any oil spills. The substation will include four 275 kV bays, five 150 kV bays, auto-transformer, control building with 20 kV indoor switchgear, substation roads and access road.

    50. In Ngabang and Tayan 150/120 kV substations will be developed. The Ngabang substation will be connected via the 150 kV HVTL with both the Bengkayang and Tayan substations, while the Tayan substation be connected with the Ngabang substation via the 150 kV HVTL and to substations in Sanggau and Siantan.

    51. The proposed locations of the 150/120 kV substations are easily accessible from the main road connecting Bengkayang and Landak. The area needed for each substation will be approximately 4 ha; in addition, 8 m wide access roads 500 to 800 meters long will be constructed. The Ngabang substation will be in Ambawang village, Ngabang district. The proposed site is situated about 500-800 meters from the headquarters of artillery unit of Tanjung Pura military command. A number of new buildings are found in the same location. The Tayan substation is located in Tebang Benua village, Tayan Hilir district. The village is easily accessible and is undergoing rapid development. Field investigations undertaken for the IEE indicated that there were too many activities already taken place in the area surrounding the proposed substation site,

  • !7

    suggesting that the potential site is no longer suitable for a substation. PT PLN (Persero) is in the process of proposing an alternative site within the same general area of Tebang Benua village.

    !5 .

    !5 C

    !3

    &$'

    52. Work to be conducted in transmission line and substation detailed design includes field work (e.g. longitudinal profile measurement activity line alignment, siting of towers, survey and site investigation, soil mechanics and office works), as well as activities of data processing, drawing and report preparation.

    53. The topographical survey is to determine the best route for the development of the 275 and 150 kV HVTLs technically, economically and environmentally. The soil mechanics survey must be conducted to identify soil conditions, either the surface soil condition or sub-soil condition at the tower site location. The survey includes field work and laboratory works. The result of the soil mechanics survey will be needed to plan the digging and piling, providing the construction design for the sub-structure and the upper structure.

    !3 ",&:'

    54. Construction of the Project will require the acquisition of land for substations, access roads and transmission tower sites. In addition, as noted above tall trees will be removed as necessary within the RoWs.

    55. A separate process is underway to assess the impacts of land acquisition, including preparation of Social Impact Assessments (SIA) and Land Acquisition and Resettlement Action Plans (LARAPs) for each of the Projects major components in Sarawak and West Kalimantan. Land acquisition will only be carried out after the preparation of inventories of land area, status, ownership and land class. Compensation will be implemented by negotiation, based on the standards of land price stipulated by the local government and market price, and in accordance with ADB, Indonesian and Malaysian requirements.

    !3 )*

    56. In Sarawak land acquisition for the 275 kV HVTL tower sites is estimated at 6.57 ha, with tall trees cleared along the 45.6 km long by 40 m wide RoW. There are no houses or buildings to be removed. An SIA and LARAP covering the Project activities in Sarawak are currently being prepared by SESCO.4

    !3 49

    57. In West Kalimantan an SIA and LARA have been prepared for the Projects 275 kV HVTL and Bengkayang substation in compliance with relevant national regulations activities, and these are currently under review by ADB.5,6 Data collection in the Project area was undertaken from December 2009 until April

    4 Social Impact Assessment, Proposed State Transmission Land Corridor Development for Proposed Sarawak-West Kalimantan 275 kV Tranmission Interconnection for Mambong-Benkayang, April 2011.

    5 See: i) Social Impact Assessment - Efficiency Improvement and Connectivity Strengthening in Archipelagic Southeast Asia Project (Energy Component), West Kalimantan, Indonesia, prepared by TA 6441-REG, February 2011; and ii) Draft Resettlement Plan West Kalimantan 275 KV Transmission Line Project, Strengthening West Kalimantan Power Grid, Prepared by PT PLN (PERSERO), December 2010. 6 In Indonesia Presidential Decrees No. 36 / 2005 and No. 65 / 2006 on Land Acquisition provide the basis permanent land acquisition for development in the publics interest (transmission line and substation development are categorized as a public interest types of development). The Decrees strengthen the state to manage the land use in order to avoid personal accumulation of land and to promote the use of land for public interest through fair and legal processes. In addition, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources Decree No.975 K/47/MPE/1999 provides procedures for land crops compensation affected by government implemented electricity project developments.

  • !

    2010 through a socioeconomic survey and inventory of losses (IOL). Land acquisition for the 275 kV HVTL tower sites is estimated at 22.1 ha, including 5.8 ha for the substation and 16.3 ha for transmission tower bases. The IOL calculated that a total of 589 affected households (AHs) will be impacted by the Project either permanently or temporarily. Of the 589 AHs, 196 AHs will permanently loose land for the construction of transmission towers and 10 AHs will loose land for the Bengkayang substation. The rest, a total of 393 AHs, will experience a restriction in the use of their land in the RoW; however, none of these AHs will lose a physical structure and/or need to be relocated. Of the 589 AHs, 20 are considered severely affected and vulnerable and will require special assistance from the Project.

    58. The Project will also impact indigenous groups. Of those affected, 52% are Dayaks, considered an indigenous group, followed by non-indigenous groups, namely Malayu (39%) and others.7 Tables 3.5 to 3.6 summarize the 275 kV HVTLs land acquisition impacts in West Kalimantan.

    Table 3.5: Land acquisition impacts, Bengkayang Substation

    Items Unit Quantity Land to be acquired for substation m2 58,122 Percentage of acquired land compared to total land owned by APs % 37.44 Number of AHs to be affected by substation AH 10 Number of AHs who have trees and crops affected by substation AH 10 Number of AHs headed by women AH 2 Number of AHs losing > 10% of total land ownership AH 6 Number of AHs to be relocated AH None Number of existing building/structures on the site unit None Other losses/effects No. To be determined

    Source: PT PLN (PERSERO) Draft Resettlement Plan West Kalimantan 275 KV Transmission Line Project Strengthening West Kalimantan Power Grid, December 2010..

    Table 3.6: Land required for tower construction and RoW, 275 kV HVTL

    Source: TA 6441-REG Efficiency Improvement and Connectivity Strengthening in Archipelagic Southeast Asia Project (Energy Component), SOFRECO. Social Impact Assessment, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. February 2011. Note: Number of towers is subject to change during detailed alignment finalization.

    7 Based on the population census by the West Kalimantan provincial statistics agency in 2003, the ethnic composition of the population in 2000 consisted of West Kalimantan Malays/Melayu (33.75%), Dayaks (33.75%), Chinese (10.01%), Javanese (9.41%), Madurese (5.51%), Bugisee (3.29%), Sundanese (1.21%), Malay Banjarese (0.66%), Batak (0.56%) and others (1.85%).

    No Type of Land Acquisition Number of Towers Land Affected

    (m2) 1 Permanent Land Acquisition

    a. Normal Tower Foundation 162 101,250 b. Angle Tower Foundation 39 62,400 c. Substation 201 58,122 221,772 2 Temporary Land Acquisition

    d. Track access for stringing angle tower 39 48,750 3 Land Use / Building Restrictions e. Area of TL / RoW 201 2,037,500

  • !!

    Table 3.7: Existing use of the land to be affected by towers

    Tower Bases No Category m2 % No. of Towers 1 Rubber plantation 50,725 31.00 64 2 Bamboo trees 6,950 4.25 8 3 Empty land 5,075 3.10 5 4 Paddy field 1,600 0.98 1 5 Swidden agriculture land 23,150 14.15 23 6 Bush land 42,525 25.99 54 7 Mix garden 22,300 13.63 31 8 Mix fruits trees 2,500 1.53 4 9 Palm oil trees 3,125 1.91 5 10 Mix food crops 5,075 3.10 5 11 Prison land 625 0.38 1

    Total 163,650 100.00 201

    Table 3.8: Summary of HVTL impacts

    Items Unit Quantity Total land area to be acquired for tower bases m2 163,650 Percentage of acquired land compared to total landowned by APs

    % 2

    Total Number of AH AH 589 Number of AH to be affected by Tower bases only AH 196 Number of AH to be affected both by Tower basesand RoW

    AH 589

    Number of AH to be affected by RoW only AH 393 Total Number of AH who will lose their trees andcrops in the RoW.

    AH 376

    Total Number of AHs headed by women AH 20 Number of AH losing > 10% of total landownership AH 14 Number of AH to be relocated AH none Total RoW area (crossed by the T/L) m2 2,037,500 Number of building/structure standing under the T/L unit none Other losses/effects on communally owned assets No. To be validated

    59. At the time of preparation of this report a SIA and LARAP are under preparation for the 150 kV HVTLs and associated works in West Kalimantan. It is expected that no houses or buildings will need to be removed, so no compensation for these will be required.

    !5

    60. It is expected that work will start on the 275 kV HVTL first, closely followed by the 150 kV HVTL.

    !3 7D&

    61. SESCO and PLN will appoint contractors to construct the Project in Sarawak and West Kalimantan, respectively. It is estimated that a workforce of 10-20 persons per tower will be required. Much of the labor required will be drawn from the local area, especially unskilled labor. Some specialized labor will need to be recruited from outside the area, including civil and electrical engineers. This will depend on arrangements with the appointed contractors.

  • !+

    62. It is expected that the contractors will form a series of worker groups which will work simultaneously on the construction of multiple towers and the substations. There will be separate teams for foundation construction, tower erection, and power line stringing. Temporary worker camps will be created at the construction sites and dismantled when no longer needed.

    !3 7D,7

    63. Most of the HVTLs will be constructed parallel to the existing road at a distance of about 200 to 600 m. The roads are mostly sealed pavement and in fair condition. In some location construction passage will use existing plantation and village roads. Construction material such as cement, sand, stone and equipment, parts of the tower lattices, insulators, and conductor will be transported using trucks and unloaded in suitable places near the construction activities. Those materials and equipment will then be transported using small vehicles or manually carried along paths. It is anticipated that no new access roads will be constructed, other than for some substations.

    !3 ! &$

    64. Land excavation and filling is anticipated for substations, which may include the use of bulldozers, graders, back hoes and trucks. Sand and gravel will only be sourced from licensed aggregate suppliers, who will deliver the product directly to the construction site.

    !3 # )(

    65. The foundations will be designed and constructed based on the detailed soil mechanics survey results. The tower structure materials will be obtained from outside the area, while foundation materials such as aggregates and sand will be obtained from local suppliers. A mobile concrete batching plant will be used to make concrete. The water required for making concrete will be obtained locally. Each suspension tower type needs an area of 20 m2 for foundation construction and each tension tower type needs 25 m2 or more.

    !3 3 )

    66. The transmission towers are made of steel lattice, designed to withstand wind, momentum and uplift force. The tower members will be assembled by hand on site and raised in sections.

    !3 5 '4'

    67. Tree clearing at tower sites and tall vegetation trimming in the RoW will be conducted using hand tools prior to the stringing works. There will be no heavy machinery or chemical herbicides used.

    !3 / '''

    68. Overhead earthwires and power conductors will be strung in a mechanical and tension stringing operation so as to prevent damages to the wires and conductors caused by scrubbing on ground or vegetation.

    69. Scaffolding will be provided at crossing points over roads, rivers, traffic/paths, power and telephone lines or dense populated areas for the purpose of public safety. All the stringing works will be operated in radio communications among working groups to ensure safety and smooth work operation. Arrangement of watchmen at the crossing points and other important places will be required. Installation of strong backstay facilities will be provided for strengthening the towers at temporary stringing section terminating points.

    70. Tensioning and sagging of wires and conductors will be carried out in accordance with instructions in the sag and tension chart given by the design engineer. A chart will be prepared for every two degrees temperature change, and the works will be carried out according to the temperature measured at the working site.

    71. Since the line route includes some hilly areas and provided with long spans, special attention will be paid to safe operation works in order to prevent injury of workers and damage to facilities.

  • !

    !3 1 ;

    72. The contractors in Sarawak and West Kalimantan will each be required to develop and Occupational Health and Safety Plan (OHSP) covering all aspects of worker safety, and a Community Health and Safety (CHSP) covering all aspects of protecting the health of AHs and local communities.

    !5! 0

    73. Prior to full operation, electrical testing will be conducted involving energizing the line. Then the operation and maintenance phase will start.

    !3! 7'

    74. Monitoring will be conducted to ensure the required clearances are maintained below the line above trees and buildings on a regular basis (see Table 3.4 for required clearances). In addition, monitoring will also be undertaken periodically to ensure compliance with relevant EMF standards.

    !3! 7

    75. Maintenance work will be conducted as required on towers, insulators, conductors, and accessories. Vegetation clearing during the ongoing operation will be conducted using hand tools, without the use of heavy equipment.

    !/

    76. Civil and engineering works in both countries to construct the Project will take approximately 2 years to be completed. Construction is expected to commence at the end of 2011. Table 3.9 presents a tentative implementation schedule for the works in West Kalimantan.

    !1 .+'

    77. The total cost of the Project is estimated to be 155.37 million USD (Table 3.10). Funding for the Project on the Indonesian side will include a loan from ADB and potentially a loan from AFD (Agence Franaise de Dveloppement French Development Agency), while PT PLN (Persero) will provide the remaining necessary funding. Funding for works on the Malaysian side will come from ADB and SESCO.

    !2 -.

    78. West Kalimantan lacks energy resources. Oil, gas and coal are imported and no significant hydro power resources have been identified. Electricity is generated by large, medium-speed diesel power plants for the main grid and for the isolated regions with small diesel power plants. PT PLN (Persero) cannot satisfy current demand, and about 55,000 potential clients are on a waiting list for a connection to the PT PLN (Persero) main grid. Some industries and commercial entities have installed their own power generation to avoid reliance on PLN. Revenues only cover a small fraction of the operating costs, and PT PLN (Persero) suffers huge operating losses (US$ 259 million in 2008). Within the framework of the Indonesian Governments fast track programme two coal fired power plants with a total capacity of 150 MW are planned to be constructed, however, as of November 2009 the commencement of the construction of the 50 MW plant was already delayed by 17 months, and for the 100 MW power plant the financing is not yet secured. The development of West Kalimantan is severely hampered and operation losses costs the Indonesian Government significantly. The present situation will not improve in the near to mid-term future.

  • !-

    Table 3.9: Tentative implementation schedule (275 kV and 150 kV HVTLs, West Kalimantan)

    TASKS 2011 2012 2013

    Remarks I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV

    Signing of PPSA PLN-ADB Loan Negotiations ADB Loan Approval Loan Signing Loan effectiveness Bidding, evaluation, award of contracts (Advance Procurement) Selection of Implementation Consultant Preparation of bidding documents by PLN Review of bidding documents Announcement for bidding Bidding Evaluation of bids Approval of evaluation result by ADB and PLN Contract negotiations Approval of draft contracts by ADB and PLN Preparation of Contract Documents Award of contracts Detailed survey by PLN Land acquisition for substations

    Construction of substations and transmission line

    Handing over of sites to contractor Detailed engineering by contractor/manufacturers

    Manufacturing of equipment Shop inspections, testing of key equipment Civil works construction/construction of tower foundations

    Shipment of equipment Construction of substation, installation of switchgear

    Erection of towers

    Stringing of conductors, earthwire and OPGW

    Testing, commissioning

  • !

    Table 3.10: Indicative Project budget

    Source Based on: - Regional Component Sarawak: TA 6441-REG Efficiency Improvement and Connectivity Strengthening in Archipelagic Southeast Asia Project (Energy

    Component) Final Report, Part A Summary Report, December 2009. This is an estimate only. - All other costs: Strengthening West Kalimantan Power Grid Project, Cost estimate February 11 2011, prepared under 6441-REG Efficiency

    Improvement and Connectivity Strengthening in Archipelagic Southeast Asia Project (Energy Component).

    Total Foreign Local

    23.35 17.048 6.36.38 5.091 1.284

    26.76 19.14 7.6322.40 15.99 6.40

    33.42 21.58 11.839.07 4.57 4.500.66 0.46 0.201.34 1.16 0.182.00 1.27 0.730.37 0.00 0.37

    5. Social Costs (not yet finalised)Subtotal (A) 125.73 86.31 39.43

    4.00 2.00 2.00Subtotal (B) 4.00 2.00 2.00

    6.79 3.14 3.652.83 0.22 2.61

    Subtotal (C) 9.62 3.37 6.25

    4.51 4.51 0.00Subtotal (D) 4.51 4.51 0.00

    143.87 96.19 47.68

    Tax 11.50 6.95 4.55

    155.37 103.14 52.23Grand Total

    D. Financial Charges During Implementation

    1. Regional Component - Sarawaka. 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL Mambong to the Malaysian-Indonesian border (45.6 km) b. Expanded Mambong 275/150/20 kV Substation

    C. Contingencies1. Physical (for 275 kV interconnector and Bengkayang substation)2. Price (for 275 interconnector and Bengkayang substation)

    Total (A+B+C+D)

    d. OPGW for 150kV lines (90+55km)

    b. New 275/150/20 kV substation at Bengkayang

    3. Implementation Consultants (not including environmental consultants) 4. Environmental Costs (consultants and permitting)

    B. Access to Power: Connecting affected people to grid and improve efficiency

    3. National Component - West Kalimantan a. 150 kV HVTL expansion (Bengkayang-Ngabang and Ngabang-Tayan, 145 km) b. New 150/20 kV substations at Ngabang and Tayan c. ADSS from Pontianak to Singkawang substation (160 km)

    USD million

    A. Base Cost

    2. Regional Component - West Kalimantana. 275 kV interconnector border to Bengkayang substation (82.6 km)

  • !,

    79. The situation in neighboring Sarawak is considerably better. An IPP with a 210 MW thermal power plant (coal fired) has obtained a 25 year take or pay contract to supply electricity to the SESCO grid. At the same time, the Malaysian government has financed the construction of two large hydro power plants (HPP), namely Bakun with an installed capacity of 2,400MW (in service by 2012) and Murum with an installed capacity of 900 MW (in service by 2013). The generation costs of these projects is expected to be significantly lower than those in West Kalimantan. Furthermore, the construction of further HPPs and coal fired power plants are planned in Sarawak making Sarawak the power house of Borneo. SESCO projects to export up to 3,600 MW to Peninsular Malaysia through an HVDC scheme beginning in 2015, to Brunei in 2012 (100 MW, and ultimately 400 MW), to Sabah (300 MW in 2018), and to West-Kalimantan (100 MW in 2012 and 200 MW in 2014).

    80. Several studies in the past have assessed the feasibility and benefit of connecting the power systems of Sarawak and West Kalimantan:

    - In 1994 the feasibility study of Sargent & Lundy Engineers concluded that initially a 150 kV

    transmission line should connect the Sarawak system with the Pontianak system, and at a later time a 275 kV transmission line should be run in parallel to the 150 kV line up to Parit Baru/Pontianak.

    - In 2000 PLN conducted a basic design study for a 275 kV transmission line connecting the Sarawak system from Matang substation to Singkawang.

    - In 2001 SESCO prepared a preliminary Basic Design Study for a 275 kV transmission line originating from Mambong substation and running to Singkawang.

    - In 2004 Fichtner prepared the Trans-Borneo Power Grid Development and Energy Trading Study concluding that the construction of a 275 kV double circuit transmission line from Mambong substation to Singkawang is technically and economically the best option for the interconnector.

    81. All studies had concluded that cross border trade of electric energy can be realized through the interconnection of the two systems by a transmission line. However, in the meantime the expansion and planning of the PT PLN (Persero) 150 kV system in West Kalimantan has progressed so that the optimum connection points have been identified as Mambong substation in Sarawak and Bengkayang substation in West Kalimantan.

    82. The proposed 275 kV Regional Interconnection HVTL will allow for power trading between West Kalimantan and Sarawak. It is envisaged that the sale of power will be mainly from Sarawak to West Kalimantan, but it is also expected to be in the other direction at times. The terms of this process will be laid out in a Power Purchasing and Selling Agreement (PPSA).

    83. The importance of the Project is in the improvement in the reliability of electrical supply in West Kalimantan, and reduction in the reliance on existing and proposed power generation based on fossil fuel sources. Electricity imported from Sarawak will be substantially from hydropower and will have lower carbon emissions than the alternative of developing fossil fuel based electricity generation, which is the main alternative in West Kalimantan. Furthermore, the 150 kV HVTLs to Ngabang and Tayan will bring access to electricity for hundreds of thousands of households across West Kalimantan.

  • !:

    # $0-0(;-:0-7-

    #

    # 0)

    84. The proposed Project is located in a wet humid tropical environment in the central-western portion of the island of Borneo, covering portions of Sarawak (Malaysia) and West Kalimantan (Indonesia) provinces. Borneo has an equatorial climate; temperatures range from approximately 35o C down to 21o C, and humidity from 60% to over 90%. Rainfall is often very intense with localized storms, and can occur throughout the year without a distinct dry season, although there are two wetter monsoon periods.

    85. The alignment of the 275 and 150 HVTLs passes through flat to hilly country mainly adjacent to existing roads, with elevations ranging from 25 to 250 meters above sea level (masl). The overall HVTL corridor is characterized by scattered villages and associated small farms; a heavily modified rural landscape dominated by gardens, plantations, and shifting cultivation; a limited number of secondary urban centers; and patchy secondary scrub and forest growth, and a near total absence of primary forest.

    86. Geology in the Project area is mainly sandstone and other sedimentary rocks, and volcanic rocks such as granite and basalt. Soils in the Project area are mostly identified as red-yellow podzolic, and some lateritic soil. Red-yellow podzolic soils are generally acidic and low in fertility due to leaching by high rainfall. Thin soils occur on steep slopes where soils are highly eroded, including limestone soils in the nearby limestone hills area south of Bau in Sarawak. Soils in the Project area are highly erodible when the vegetation cover is removed, which is exacerbated by the prevalent heavy rainfall. Soil erosion was observed in areas that have been cleared for other projects and for agriculture. High levels of river siltation were anecdotally reported or observed due to mining and construction activity upstream in local rivers.

    # 49

    87. Annual rainfall in the Project area in West Kalimantan ranges from 2,300 to 3,700 mm. The highest daily rainfalls in Bengkayang District are typically reported in November and December, and the lowest in March and August, though rainfall occurs throughout the year. The northern part of West Kalimantan has average daily temperatures between 26.6 and 27.1 centigrade and humiditys between 85 and 90%, with the highest humidity usually recorded in December and January. In the central and southern parts, average daily temperatures are between 23.7 and 31.9 C, with the highest measured in March and the lowest in August. In general however, there are no significant differences in climatic conditions among areas that will be traversed by the 275 or 150 kV HVTLs. Local variations are most probably associated with different topographic settings.

    88. The topography of West Kalimantan is generally flat, with some hilly areas especially in the northern and central parts, and swampy areas in some parts of western and southern areas. The route of the HVTLs generally follows modest topography (see Figure 4.1). The southern end of the 275 kV HVTL route near Mamagan Karya village in Lumar district lies at an elevation of 60 masl. From there going north the route passes through hilly areas of elevation 60 to 90 masl, becoming gently undulating as it approaches Ledo at an elevation of 25 to 30 masl. The area north of Ledo is mostly undulating at an elevation of 30 to 70 masl.

  • !?

    The line passes through to Sanggau Ledo subdistrict area with mostly gentle topography in the southern part at an elevation of 30 to 50 masl, rising to 60 to 100 masl in the northern part. At Seluas subdistrict the route passes through about 10 km of hilly area at an elevation of 100 to 150 masl and about 10 km of gentle sloping area at an elevation of 50 to 60 masl. In Jagoi Babang subdistrict, approaching the border with Sarawak, the route is in an undulating area with an elevation 50 to 70 masl. There are a number of rivers crossed by the HVTL but none of these constitutes a major crossing.

    89. The Bengkayang-Ngabang 150 kV HVTL will be constructed at elevation typically between 40-70 masl. Some parts of this line will be in Teriak District at the elevation 50-70 masl. The majority of the Ngabang-Tayan transmission lines will be in the area with gentle slopes of 0-5%, and the remaining in areas with slopes 5-20% and some with more than 20%.

    90. The main soil type in Bengkayang District is yellow-red podzolic soil. In flat areas the soil consists of podzol, organozol, yellow-red podzolic and alluvial soil; in hilly and mountainous areas the soil are latozol and yellow-red podzolic. In Landak and Sanggau regencies, the dominant soil with extensive area is acrizol mixed with ferrazol.

    #! )*

    91. On the Malaysian side annual rainfall can reach up to 4,000 mm, though in general climatological conditions are very similar to West Kalimantan.

    92. Elevations along the 275 kV HVTL route in Sarawak range from about 50 to 150 masl. Starting from the Mambong substation the route goes about 1.5 km in north-west direction to cross Puncak Borneo Road and then changes direction to the south-west for a distance of about 1.5 km through an area of gentle to undulating topography. The line then turns to the west before crossing the Borneo Heights Road, and traverses the slope of Bewang Mengura Hill at an elevation of 100 to 150 masl. It then passes near Kampung Ngiru in north-west direction and then crosses the Sarawak Kiri River. It will go through a hilly area for about 3.5 km and then turn to the south-west near Kampung Segobang. It will then go through an undulating area of elevation 50 to 100 masl for about 2.5 km, and after Kampung Silo the route is hilly with an elevation of 50 to 100 masl. After crossing Poak Road and Kampung Seromah it passes through an undulating area in a south-west direction at an elevation of 100 to 150 masl. Near the Bau limestone hills area it will pass through a wide flat area between hills at an elevation of 200 to 250 masl over a distance of about 2 km, and then through a hilly area at an elevation of 150 to 200 masl before crossing Krongkong Road. It will the pass through an undulating to hilly area at Panjiru and Pang Jagoi at an elevation of 100 to 150 masl. After Kampung Bogag, it will go through an area of gentle topography at an elevation of 100 masl along the main road to Serikin. It will go through undulating area at an elevation of 100 to 150 masl from Serikin to the border with West Kalimantan.

    93. The widest river crossing will be the Sarawak Kiri River in Sarawak which is about 30 to 50 m wide in the vicinity of the expected crossing point. Tower spacing is typically 340 m depending on terrain and location, so this will not pose a problem.

  • +7

    Figure 4.1: Topography along 275 kV and 150 kV HVTL routes, West Kalimantan.

    Source: West Kalimantan Forestry Department, 2011.

  • +

    # '

    # 0)

    Borneo is widely identified as having high biodiversity, including tropical rainforests and other ecosystems, and deforestation on the island is recognized as a globally significant issue. The original vegetation in most of the Project area would have been mainly dipterocarp rainforest, which is very rich in plant species diversity and grows on a wide variety of soil types including low fertility soils. However, vegetation cover in the Project area has been highly modified by human activity, and is characterized by extremely high rates of deforestation, shifting and permanent cultivation (including gardens, rice, and tree plantations), and secondary growth vegetation including colonizing grasses, shrubs and secondary forest in some areas. Secondary growth vegetation still has ecological value, but of much less significance than the preexisting primary forest.

    94. Consultation with local people indicates that there are relatively few wild animals in the Project area, presumably due to farming and hunting activity and loss of habitat.

    # (

    # 49

    95. The HVTL routes have been heavily affected by human activity. Primary forests have been cleared, and the alignment is characterized by wide spread agriculture, plantations, and a patchwork of colonizing bushes, grasses and limited secondary forest. Few old growth trees are found. Species of vegetation found includes: Dillenia suffruticosa, Ploiarium alternifolium, Elateriospermum tapos, Elaeocarpus sp, Buchanania sessilifolia, Macaranga tanarius, Omalantus populneus, Bridelia sp, Melastoma malabathricum, Scleria purpurascens, Mikania cordata and Chromolaena sp.

    96. Secondary forests in the HVTL are limited in distribution, and lack the presence of Dipterocarpaceae such as Dipterocarpus spp., Shorea sp., and