Dont Make Me THINK

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In this book you can to learn about Usability in the Web's context. These are the Krug's Law for do a excellent Web Site for any user on Internet.


Dont Make Me Think! a common sense approach to web usabilitySECOND EDITIONSteve KrugNew Riders Publishing Berkeley, California USADon't Make Me Think! A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability, Second Edition 2006 Steve KrugNew Riders1249 Eighth StreetBerkeley, CA 94710510/524-2178800/283-9444510/524-2221 (fax)Find us on the Web at www.peachpit.comTo report errors, please send a note to errata@peachpit.comNew Riders is an imprint of Peachpit, a division of Pearson Education.Editor: Karen WhitehouseProduction Editor: Lisa BraziealInterior Design and Composition: Allison D. CecilIllustrations by Mark Matcho Farnham fonts provided by The Font Bureau, Inc. ( of RightsAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the priorwritten permission of the publisher. For information on getting permission for reprints andexcerpts, contact of LiabilityThe information in this book is distributed on an As Is basis, without warranty. While everyprecaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor Peachpit shallhave any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged tobe caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the computersoftware and hardware products described in it.TrademarksThroughout this book, trademarks are used. Rather than put a trademark symbol in everyoccurrence of a trademarked name, we state that we are using the names in an editorial fashiononly and to the benefit of the trademark owner with no intention of infringement of thetrademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name is intended to convey endorsement orother affiliation with this book.ISBN 0-321-34475-89 Printed and bound in the United States of America[ ii ]First EditionTo my father, who always wanted me to write a book, My mother, who always made me feel like I could, Melanie, who married methe greatest stroke of good fortune of my life, and my son Harry, who will surely write books much better than this onewhenever he wants to.Second EditionTo my big brother, Phil, who was a mensch his whole life. [ iii ][ iv ]PR E FACE About the Second Edition viFO R EWO R D By Roger Black xiiI NTRO D U CT ION Read me first 2Throat clearing and disclaimersCHAPTE R 1 Dont make me think! 10Krugs First Law of UsabilityCHAPTE R 2 How we really use the Web 20Scanning, satisficing, and muddling throughCHAPTE R 3 Billboard Design 101 30Designing pages for scanning, not readingCHAPTE R 4 Animal, vegetable, or mineral? 40Why users like mindless choicesCHAPTE R 5 Omit needless words 44The art of not writing for the WebCHAPTE R 6 Street signs and Breadcrumbs 50Designing navigation contentsguiding principlesthings you need to get right[ v ]CHAPTE R 7 The first step in recovery is admitting that 94the Home page is beyond your control Designing the Home pageCHAPTE R 8 The Farmer and the Cowman 122Should Be FriendsWhy most Web design team arguments about usability are a waste oftime, and how to avoid themCHAPTE R 9 Usability testing on 10 cents a day 130Why user testingdone simply enoughis the cure for all your sites illsCHAPTE R 10 Usability as common courtesy 160Why your Web site should be a menschCHAPTE R 11 Accessibility, Cascading Style Sheets, and you 168Just when you think youre done, a cat floats by with buttered toast strapped to its backCHAPTE R 12 Help! My boss wants me to ________. 180When bad design decisions happen to good peopleRecommended reading 186Acknowledgments 192Index 198contentsmaking sure you got them rightlarger concerns and outside influencesAbout theSecond Editionprefaceince Dont Make Me Think was first published nearly five years ago, peoplehave been wonderful about the book. I get lots of lovely email. You cant imagine how nice it is to start your morningwith someone youve never met telling you that they enjoyed something that youdid. (I recommend it highly.)Even nicer is the fact that people seem to like the book for the same reasons I do.For instance:> Many people appreciate the fact that its short. (Some have told me that theyactually read it on a plane ride, which was one of my stated objectives for thefirst edition; the record for fastest read seems to be about two hours.)> A gratifying number of people have said that they liked the book because itpractices what it preaches, in the writing and the design.> Some people said it made them laugh out loud, which I really appreciated. (Onereader said that I made her laugh so hard that milk came out of her nose. Howcan something like that help but make you feel that your time has been wellspent?)But the most satisfying thing has been people saying that it helped them get theirjob done better. But what have you done for us lately?It only took about a year after the book appeared for people to start asking mewhen I was going to do a second edition.For a long time, I really resisted the idea. I liked the book the way it was andthought it worked well, and since it was about design principles and nottechnology, I didnt think it was likely to be out of date anytime soon.[ vii ]Just when I thought I was out, they pull me back in. michael corleone, in the godfather, part IIISUsually Id pull the consultant/therapist trick of asking them what they wouldchange, and the answer was almost always, Well, I guess you could update theexamples. Some people would point out that some of the sites in the examplesdidnt even exist anymore.But the fact is, many of the sites in the book were already gone by the time it hitthe bookstores. (Remember, it came out right before the Internet bubble burst.)The fact that the sites werent around didnt make the examples any less clear.Other people would say, Well, you could talk about the things about the Webthat have changed. Its true; some things about the Web have changed in the lastfew years. Some of the changes were good:> More good sites to copy from> Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) that actually work> Useful conventions like printer-friendly pages and Amazon.coms Whats this?> Google as the starting point for all actions> The swing in business models from banner ads (for things I dont want) toGoogle ads (for things I actually might want)> Hardly anyone uses frames anymore...and some not so good:> Pop-ups> Phishing But these changes didnt make me feel a need to update the book, which is aboutdesign principles, not specifics of technology or implementation.And there was one other problem: I was very proud of how short the book was.It took a lot of work, but it was an important part of the practices what itpreaches business. If I was going to add any new material, Id have to throwsome of the existing stuff overboard, and I thought it all worked pretty well.[ viii ]prefaceSo, what are we doing here?One of the nicest fringe benefits of the book for me is that Ive been able to spendtime teaching workshops.In the workshops, I try to do the same thing I did in the book: show people whatI think about when I do a usability review of a Web site.And since everyone who comes to the workshops has already read the book,naturally I had to come up with different examples to make the same points, anddifferent ways of explaining the same things. I also get to do a lot of reviews ofdifferent kinds of sites, because everyone who comes to the workshop can submita URL, and during the day I do 12-minute expert mini-reviews of some of them,and a live user test of one or two others.And as anyone whos ever taught anything knows, teaching something is the bestway to learn more about it.So when my publisher started asking about a second edition again last year, Iactually thought about what a second edition might be like. And while I still feltthere wasn't much Id change or delete from the first edition, I realized I did havesome other things I could write about that might be helpful.Like what?The new material mostly falls into three categories:> Oh, now I get it. Teaching the workshops has given me many chances to thinkthrough whats in the book. There are a few things that Ive rewritten slightlybecause I think I understand them a little better now, or I have a better way toexplain them.> Help! My boss wants me to ______. A lot of the questions people ask in myworkshops amount to I know the right thing to do in this case, but myboss/client/stakeholders insist that I do the wrong thing. How can I convincethem otherwise?[ ix ]about the second edit ionSince many people seem to spend a lot of time trying to fight the same designissues, I thought it might be good to give them some ammunition. So I addedChapter 12, which covers problems likeMy marketing manager insists that we make people provide a lot ofunnecessary personal information before they can subscribe to ournewsletter, and it doesnt seem to matter to him that 10% of oursubscribers now happen to be named Barney Rubble. > The lost chapters. There were two chapters I wanted to include in the firstbook, but didnt, mostly in the interest of keeping it short. One, Chapter 10, isabout the importance of treating users well, and the other, Chapter 11, is aboutWeb accessibility.I also wanted to update and expand my recommended reading list, since somegreat books have come out in the past five years.Five pounds of crackers in afour-pound boxEven though Id gone from thinking the book was fine just the way it was, thankyou, to feeling like I had a lot I wanted to add, I still had one major dilemma: Ifthere wasn't anything I wanted to throw overboard, how could I add newmaterial and still keep the book short enough for an airplane ride read?Fortunately, at this point, I took my own advice and did a form of user testing: Iset up a discussion board and asked readers of the first edition to tell me what Icould leave out. And fortunately, the testing did what user testing always does:> Confirmed some things I already knew> Taught me some things I didnt know about how people were using the book,and what they valued about it> Whacked me over the head with a big surprise that let me improve itsignificantlyThe big surprise was the large number of people who suggested moving thechapters on user testing to another book. (Some of them had heard that I was [ x ]prefaceplanning to do another book that would cover low-cost/no-cost do-it-yourselfuser testing in detail, and some said they wouldnt miss the chapters becausethey didnt plan on doing any testing themselves.)Id thought of doing this, but I didnt want to because (a) I thought peoplewould miss them, and (b) I thought it would feel like I was trying to forcepeople to buy the second book. But as soon as I started reading what the usershad to say, the solution became obvious: By compressing the three user testingchapters into one slightly shorter one that covers the important pointseveryone should know about, I could gain twenty more pages to use for newmaterial. And for anyone who wanted the older, longer version, I could makethe original chapters available for free on my Web site.1 Problem solved.Finally, a few housekeeping notes:> The links. If you want to visit any of the URLs mentioned in the book,youll find up-to-date links on my site, too. (Just in case any of the sites, well,you know...disappear.) > Still not present at time of photo. The one thing people have asked meabout that you still wont find in here is any discussion of Web applications.While a lot of the principles are the same as for Web sites, its really a topicfor a whole other book, and Im not the person to write it.2Anyway, thanks for all the fish. I hope you find the new bits useful. See you in five years.Steve KrugJuly 2005about the second edit ion[ xi ]1 If thats your area, you might want to take a look at Web Application Design Handbook:Best Practices for Web-Based Software by Susan Fowler and Victor Stanwick.[ xii ]dont make me think againConsidering how much has changed since 2000, when thefirst edition of this book was printed, its amazing that the basic designof the Web has stayed so much the same.In the early years the platform was volatile. It seemed like features changedevery week. We had the browser wars, with Netscape squaring off against allcomers and the WC3 bringing out new HTML standards every six months. Butthen, with the predictable victory of the Redmond wehrmacht, everythingsettled down.This was a relief for Web designers, who were nearly driven out of their mindsby the constant changes in codeand by the fact that we were making it up aswe went along.But relief slowly faded into frustration.The inflexibility of HTML, the lack of fonts, the adjustability of Web pages thatmakes design so imprecise, the confusing array of screen resolutions and targetbrowsers (even if theyre mostly Explorer)these factors are all annoying. Designers aggravation is compounded by the slow coagulation of a number ofrestrictive conventions, like the use of banner ads. Not all conventions are bad Foreword >of course. In fact, users like conventionseven if designers find themconstraining. For most people, its hard enough just to get the computer towork. And while these conventions may change, there is one constant that neverchanges: human nature. As radical and disruptive a social and commercialforce as the Internet has been, it has not yet caused a noticeable mutation in thespecies. And since we designers do not, as a rule, come into contact with actual humanbeings, it is very helpful to know Steve Krugor at least to have thisbookbecause Steve does know users. After more than a decade of this work hecontinues to look at each Web site like its the first one. Youll find no buzzwords here: just common sense and a friendly understanding of the way wesee, the way we think, and the way we read.The principles Steve shares here are going to stay the same, no matter whathappens with the Internetwith web conventions, or the operating system, orbandwidth, or computer power. So pull up a chair and relax. Roger BlackNew York, July 2005[ xiii ]Read me firstthroat clearing and disclaimersintroductionWhen i started telling people that i was writing abook about how to do what I do, they all asked the same thing: Arentyou afraid of putting yourself out of a job? Its true, I have a great job. > People (clients) send me proposed page designs for the new Web site theyrebuilding or the URL of the existing site that theyre redesigning.> I look at the designs or use the site and figure out whether theyre easy enough touse (an expert usability review). Sometimes I pay other people to try to use the sitewhile I watch (usability testing).1> I write a report describing theproblems that I found that arelikely to cause users grief(usability issues) and sug-gesting possible solutions.2Is this trip really necessary?slogan on world war ii posters encouraging gas rationing1 ...not to be confused with voyeurism.2 Actually, this is one thing that has changed since the first edition. See Chapter 9 for thereason why Ive pretty much stopped writing what I now refer to as the big honking report. [ 3 ]New Home page design A New Home page design B Existing siteA usability report> I work with the clients Web design team to help them figure out how to fix the problems.> They pay me.Being a consultant, I get to work on interesting projects with a lot of nice, smartpeople, and when were finished, the sites are better than when we started. I get to work at home most of the time and I dont have to sit in mind-numbingmeetings every day or deal with office politics. I get to say what I think, and people usually appreciate it. And I get paid well. Believe me, I would not lightly jeopardize this way of life.3But the reality is there are so many Web sites in need of helpand so few people who do what I dothat barring a total collapse of the Internet boom,4 theresvery little chance of my running out of work for years. Suddenly a lot of people with little or no previous experience have been maderesponsible for big-budget projects that may determine the future of theircompanies, and theyre looking for people to tell them that theyre doing it right.introduction[ 4 ]Hey, look!Somebodybrought donuts.maybe if we put thetop stories under thepersonalization promoWe could do itthat way, butI wonder ifthere are anydonuts leftSometimes we work by phone and sometimes in person3 I have an even cushier job now. Since the book came out, I spend a lot of my time teachingworkshops, where, unlike consulting, theres no opportuntiy to procrastinate and nohomework. At the end of the day, youre done.4 The boom obviously turned to bust not long after I wrote this (late in 2000). Even so, thereare probably more people working on usability now than there were then. Graphic designers and developers find themselves responsible for designinginterfacesthings like interaction design (what happens next when the userclicks) and information architecture (how everything is organized).And most people dont have the budget to hire a usability consultant to reviewtheir worklet alone have one around all the time.Im writing this book for people who cant afford to hire (or rent) someone likeme. I would hope that its also of value to people who work with a usabilityprofessional.At the very least, I hope it can help you avoid some of the endless, circularreligious Web design debates that seem to eat up so much time.Its not rocket surgeryThe good news is that much of what I do is just common sense, and anyone withsome interest can learn to do it.After all, usability really just means making sure that something works well: thata person of average (or even below average) ability and experience can use thethingwhether its a Web site, a fighter jet, or a revolving doorfor its intendedpurpose without getting hopelessly frustrated.Like a lot of common sense, though, its not necessarily obvious until aftersomeones pointed it out to you.5No question: if you can afford to, hire someone like me. But if you cant, I hope this book will enable you to do it yourself (in your copious spare time). 5 ...which is one reason why my consulting business (actually just me and a few well-placed mirrors) is called Advanced Common Sense. Its not rocket surgery is my corporate me f irst[ 5 ]Yes, its a thin bookIve worked hard to keep this book shorthopefully short enough you can read iton a long plane ride. I did this for two reasons:> If its short, its morelikely to actually beused.6 Im writing for thepeople who are in thetrenchesthe designers,the developers, the siteproducers, the projectmanagers, the marketingpeople, and the people whosign the checks, and for theone-man-band people whoare doing it all themselves.Usability isnt your lifeswork, and you dont havetime for a long book.> You dont need to knoweverything. As with anyfield, theres a lot you couldlearn about usability. But unless youre a usability professional, theres a limitto how much is useful to learn.76 Theres a good usability principle right there: if something requires a large investment oftimeor looks like it willits less likely to be used.7 Ive always liked the passage in A Study in Scarlet where Dr. Watson is shocked to learn that Sherlock Holmes doesnt know that the earth travels around the sun. Given the finitecapacity of the human brain, Holmes explains, he cant afford to have useless facts elbowingout the useful ones: What the deuce is it to me? You say that we go round the sun. If we went roundthe moon it would not make a pennyworth of difference to me or to my work.introduction[ 6 ]TaglineWelcome blurbI find that the most valuable contributions I make to each project always comefrom keeping just a few key usability principles in mind. I think theres a lotmore leverage for most people in understanding these principles than inanother laundry list of specific dos and donts. Ive tried to boil down the fewthings I think everybody involved in building Web sites should know.Not present at time of photoJust so you dont waste your time looking for them, here are a few things youwont find in this book:> The truth about the right way to design Web sites. Ive been at this for along time, long enough to know that there is no one right way to design Websites. Its a complicated process and the real answer to most of the questionsthat people ask me is It depends.8 But I do think that there are a few useful guiding principles it always helps to have in mind, and those are what Im trying to convey. > Discussion of business models. If history has taught us anything, its thatInternet business models are like buses: If you miss one, all you have to do is wait a little while and another one will come along. Im no expert when itcomes to making money on the Web, and even if I were, whatever I had to say would probably be pass by the time you read it.> Predictions for the future of the Web. Your guess is as good as mine. Theonly thing Im sure of is that (a) most of the predictions I hear are almostcertainly wrong, and (b) the things that will turn out to be important will come as a surprise, even though in hindsight theyll seem perfectly obvious.> Bad-mouthing of poorly designed sites. If you enjoy people poking fun atsites with obvious flaws, youre reading the wrong book. Designing, building,and maintaining a great Web site isnt easy. Its like golf: a handful of ways toget the ball in the hole, a million ways not to. Anyone who gets it even halfright has my admiration.8 Jared Spool and his usability consulting cohorts at User Interface Engineering( even have It depends me f irst[ 7 ]As a result, youll find that the sites I use as examples tend to be excellent siteswith minor flaws. I think you can learn more from looking at good sites than bad ones.> Examples from all kinds of sites. Most of the examples in the book are from e-commerce sites, but the principles Im describing apply just as well to my next-door neighbors vanity page, your daughters soccer teams site, or yourcompanys intranet. Including illustrations from all the different genres wouldhave resulted in a much largerand less useful book.Whos on first?Throughout the book, Ive tried to avoid constant references to the user andusers. This is partly because of the tedium factor, but also to try to get you tothink about your own experience as a Web user while youre readingsomethingmost of us tend to forget when weve got our Web design hats on. This has led tothe following use of pronouns in this book: > I is me, the author. Sometimes its me the usability professional (I tell myclients...) and sometimes its me speaking as a Web user (If I cant find a Search button...), but its always me.> You is you, the readersomeone who designs, builds, publishes, or paysthe bills for a Web site.> We (How we really use the Web) is all Web users, which includes youand I.I may sidestep these rules occasionally, but hopefully the context will alwaysmake it clear who Im talking about.introduction[ 8 ]Is this trip really necessary?I could recite some of the usual awe-inspiring statistics about how many umpteengazillion dollars will be left on the table this year by sites that dont mind theirusability Ps and Qs. But given that youre already holding a book about usability in your hands, youprobably dont need me to tell you that usability matters. You know from yourown experience as a Web user that paying attention to usability means lessfrustration and more satisfaction for your visitors, and a better chance that youllsee them again.I think my wife put her finger on the essence of it better than any statistic Ive seen:I hope this book will help you build a better site andif you can skip a fewdesign argumentsmaybe even get home in time for dinner once in a me f irst[ 9 ]If something is hard to use, I just dont use it as much.Dont makeme think!krugs first law of usabilitychapter1eople often ask me: Whats the most important thing I should do if Iwant to make sure my Web site is easy to use? The answer is simple. Its not Nothing important should ever be more than two clicks away, or Speak the users language, or even Be consistent.Its... Dont make me think!Ive been telling people for years that this is my first law of usability. And themore Web pages I look at, the more convinced I become.Its the overriding principlethe ultimate tie breaker when deciding whethersomething works or doesnt in a Web design. If you have room in your head for only one usability rule, make this the one.1It means that as far as is humanly possible, when I look at a Web page it should be self-evident. Obvious. Self-explanatory.I should be able to get itwhat it is and how to use itwithout expending anyeffort thinking about it.Just how self-evident are we talking about? Well, self-evident enough, for instance, that your next door neighbor, who has nointerest in the subject of your site and who barely knows how to use the Backbutton, could look at your sites Home page and say, Oh, its a _____. (With anyluck, shell say, Oh, its a _____. Neat. But thats another subject.)[ 11 ]1 Actually, there is a close contender: Get rid of half the words on each page, then get rid ofhalf of whats left. But that one gets its own chapter later.PMichael, why are the drapes open?kay corleone in the godfather, part iiThink of it this way:When Im looking at a page that doesnt make me think, all the thought balloonsover my head say things like OK, theres the _____. And thats a _____. And theresthe thing that I want.[ 12 ]chapter 1NOT THINKING...and theseare todaysspecial deals.Memory,Modems...There it is:Monitors.ClickOK. This lookslike the productcategories...But when Im looking at a page that makes me think, all the thought balloonsover my head have question marks in them.When youre creating a site, your job is to get rid of the question marks.[ 13 ]dont make me think!THINKINGHmm. Prettybusy. Whereshould I start?Hmm. Why didthey call itthat?Can I click onthat?Is that thenavigation? Oris that it overthere? Why did theyput that there?Those two linksseem like theyrethe same thing.Are they really? Things that make us thinkAll kinds of things on a Web page can make us stop and think unnecessarily. Takenames of things, for example. Typical culprits are cute or clever names, marketing-induced names, company-specific names, and unfamiliar technical names.For instance, suppose a friend tells me that XYZ Corp is looking to hire someonewith my exact qualifications, so I head off to their Web site. As I scan the page forsomething to click, the name theyve chosen for their job listings section makes a difference.Note that these things are always on a continuum somewhere between Obvious to everybody and Truly obscure, and there are always tradeoffs involved. For instance, Jobs may sound too undignified for XYZ Corp, or they may belocked into Job-o-Rama because of some complicated internal politics, orbecause thats what its always been called in their company newsletter. My mainpoint is that the tradeoffs should usually be skewed further in the direction ofObvious than we care to think.Another needless source of question marks over peoples heads is links andbuttons that arent obviously clickable. As a user, I should never have to devote amillisecond of thought to whether things are clickableor not.[ 14 ]chapter 1Hmm.[Milliseconds of thought]Jobs.ClickHmm. Could be Jobs.But it sounds like more than that.Should I click or keep looking? < OBVIOUS REQUIRES THOUGHT >Jobs!ClickYou may be thinking, Well, it doesnt take much effort tofigure out whether somethings clickable. If you point thecursor at it, itll change from an arrow to a pointing hand.Whats the big deal?The point is, when were using the Web every question mark adds to ourcognitive workload, distracting our attention from the task at hand. Thedistractions may be slight but they add up, and sometimes it doesnt take much to throw us. And as a rule, people dont like to puzzle over how to do things. The fact that the people who built the site didnt care enough to make things obviousandeasycan erode our confidence in the site and its publishers. dont make me think![ 15 ]Hmm.[Milliseconds of thought]I guess thats a button.ClickHmm.Is that a button? Results< OBVIOUSLY CLICKABLE REQUIRES THOUGHT >Click[ 16 ]chapter 1Another example: On most bookstore sites, before I search for a book I first haveto think about how I want to search.2Granted, most of this mental chatter takes place in a fraction of a second, butyou can see that its a pretty noisy process. Even something as apparentlyinnocent as jazzing up a well-known name (from Search to Quick Search) cangenerate another question mark.MOST BOOKSTORE SITESLets see. Quick Search.That must be the same as Search, right? Do I have to click on that drop-downmenu thing?All I know about the book is that itsby Tom Clancy. Is Clancy a keyword? (What is a keyword, anyway?)I guess I have to use the menu.Clicks on the arrowTitle. Author. Keyword.OK. I want Author.Clicks AuthorTypes Tom ClancyClicks Search2 This was still true when I checked about a year ago. Only now, in 2005, have most of themfinally improved., on the other hand, doesnt even mention the Author-Title-Keyworddistinction. They just look at what you type and do whatever makes the most sense.After all, why should I have to think about how I want to search? And evenworse, why should I have to think about how the sites search engine wants me tophrase the question, as though it were some ornery troll guarding a bridge? (Youforgot to say May I?)I could list dozens of other things that visitors to a site shouldnt spend their timethinking about, like:> Where am I?> Where should I begin?> Where did they put _____?> What are the most important things on this page? > Why did they call it that? But the last thing you need is another checklist to add to your stack of Webdesign checklists. The most important thing you can do is to just understand thebasic principle of eliminating question marks. If you do, youll begin to notice allthe things that make you think while youre using the Web, and eventually youlllearn to recognize and avoid them in the pages youre building. [ 17 ]dont make me think!OK. Search books for _____.Types Tom ClancyClicks GoAMAZON.COMYou cant make everything self-evidentYour goal should be for each page to be self-evident, so that just by looking at it the average user3 will know what it is and how to use it.Sometimes, though, particularly if youre doing something original or ground-breaking or something very complicated, you have to settle for self-explanatory. On a self-explanatory page, it takes a little thought to get itbut only a little. The appearance of things, their well-chosen names, the layout of the page, and the small amounts of carefully crafted text should all work together to create near-instantaneous recognition.If you cant make a page self-evident, you at least need to make it self-explanatory.Why is this so important?Oddly enough, not for the reason you usually hear cited: This is sometimes true, but youd be surprised at how long some people will toughit out at sites that frustrate them. Many people who encounter problems with asite tend to blame themselves and not the site.[ 18 ]chapter 13 The actual Average User is kept in a hermetically sealed vault at the International Bureau ofStandards in Geneva. Well get around to talking about the best way to think about theaverage user eventually. On the Internet, the competitionis always just one click away,so if you frustrate users theyll head somewhere else.The fact is, your site may not have been that easy to find in the first place andvisitors may not know of an alternative. The prospect of starting over isnt alwaysthat attractive. And theres also the Ive waited ten minutes for this bus already, so I may as wellhang in a little longer phenomenon. Besides, whos to say that the competition will be any less frustrating?So why, then?Making pages self-evident is like having good lighting in a store: it just makeseverything seem better. Using a site that doesnt make us think about unimportantthings feels effortless, whereas puzzling over things that dont matter to us tends to sap our energy and enthusiasmand time. But as youll see in the next chapter when we examine how we really use the Web,the main reason why its important not to make me think is that most people aregoing to spend far less time looking at the pages we design than wed like to think.As a result, if Web pages are going to be effective, they have to work most of their magic at a glance. And the best way to do this is to create pages that are self-evident, or at least self-explanatory.[ 19 ]dont make me think!How we reallyuse the Webscanning, satisficing, and muddling throughchapter2In the past ten years ive spent a lot of time watchingpeople use the Web, and the thing that has struck me most is the differencebetween how we think people use Web sites and how they actually use them.When were creating sites, we act as though people are going to pore over eachpage, reading our finely crafted text, figuring out how weve organized things,and weighing their options before deciding which link to click. What they actually do most of the time (if were lucky) is glance at each new page,scan some of the text, and click on the first link that catches their interest orvaguely resembles the thing theyre looking for. There are usually large parts ofthe page that they dont even look at.Were thinking great literature (or at least product brochure), while the usersreality is much closer to billboard going by at 60 miles an hour.Why are things always in the last place you look for them?Because you stop looking when you find them.childrens riddle[ 21 ]Look aroundfeverishly foranything that a) is interesting,or vaguelyresembles whatyoure looking for,and b) is clickable.As soon as you finda halfway-decentmatch, click.If it doesnt panout, click the Backbutton and tryagain.ReadReadReadRead[Pause forreflection]Finally, click on a carefullychosen linkWHAT WE DESIGN FOR THE REALITYAs you might imagine, its a little more complicated than this, and it depends onthe kind of page, what the user is trying to do, how much of a hurry shes in, andso on. But this simplistic view is much closer to reality than most of us imagine. It makes sense that we picture a more rational, attentive user when weredesigning pages. Its only natural to assume that everyone uses the Web the sameway we do, andlike everyone elsewe tend to think that our own behavior ismuch more orderly and sensible than it really is.If you want to design effective Web pages, though, you have to learn to live withthree facts about real-world Web use.FACT OF LIFE #1:We dont read pages. We scan them.One of the very few well-documented facts about Web use is that people tend tospend very little time reading most Web pages.1 Instead, we scan (or skim) them,looking for words or phrases that catch our eye.The exception, of course, is pages that contain documents like news stories,reports, or product descriptions. But even then, if the document is longer than afew paragraphs, were likely to print it out because its easier and faster to read onpaper than on a screen.Why do we scan?> Were usually in a hurry. Much of our Web use is motivated by the desire tosave time. As a result, Web users tend to act like sharks: They have to keepmoving, or theyll die. We just dont have the time to read any more thannecessary. > We know we dont need to read everything. On most pages, were reallyonly interested in a fraction of whats on the page. Were just looking for thebits that match our interests or the task at hand, and the rest of it is irrelevant.Scanning is how we find the relevant bits.[ 22 ]chapter 21 See Jakob Nielsens October 1997 Alertbox column, How Users Read on the Web availableat> Were good at it. Weve been scanning newspapers, magazines, and books all our lives to find the parts were interested in, and we know that it works.The net effect is a lot like Gary Larsons classic Far Side cartoon about thedifference between what we say to dogs and what they hear. In the cartoon, the dog (named Ginger) appears to be listening intently as her owner gives her a serious talking-to about staying out of the garbage. But from the dogs point of view, all hes saying is blah blah GINGER blah blah blah blah GINGER blah blah blah. What we see when we look at a Web page depends on what we have in mind, butits usually just a fraction of whats on the page. [ 23 ]how we really use the webWHAT DESIGNERS BUILD WHAT USERS SEEHow do Icheck myfrequent flyer miles?I want tobuy aticket.Like Ginger, we tend to focus on words and phrases that seem to match (a) thetask at hand or (b) our current or ongoing personal interests. And of course, (c) thetrigger words that are hardwired into our nervous systems, like Free, Sale, andSex, and our own name.FACT OF LIFE #2: We dont make optimal choices. We satisfice.When were designing pages, we tend to assume that users will scan the page,consider all of the available options, and choose the best one. In reality, though, most of the time we dont choose the best optionwe choosethe first reasonable option, a strategy known as satisficing.2 As soon as we find alink that seems like it might lead to what were looking for, theres a very goodchance that well click it.Id observed this behavior for years, but its significance wasnt really clear to me until I read Gary Kleins book Sources of Power: How People Make Decisions.3Klein has spent many years studying naturalistic decision making: how people like firefighters, pilots, chessmasters, and nuclear power plant operators makehigh-stakes decisions in real settings with time pressure, vague goals, limitedinformation, and changing conditions. Kleins team of observers went into their first study (of field commanders at firescenes) with the generally accepted model of rational decision making: Facedwith a problem, a person gathers information, identifies the possible solutions,and chooses the best one. They started with the hypothesis that because of thehigh stakes and extreme time pressure, fire captains would be able to compareonly two options, an assumption they thought was conservative. As it turned out, the fire commanders didnt compare any options. They took thefirst reasonable plan that came to mind and did a quick mental test for problems.If they didnt find any, they had their plan of action.[ 24 ]chapter 22 Economist Herbert Simon coined the term (a cross between satisfying and sufficing) inModels of Man: Social and Rational (Wiley, 1957).3 The MIT Press, 1998.So why dont Web users look for the best choice? > Were usually in a hurry. And as Klein points out, Optimizing is hard, andit takes a long time. Satisficing is more efficient.> Theres not much of a penalty for guessing wrong. Unlike firefighting, the penalty for guessing wrong on a Web site is usually only a click or two of theBack button, making satisficing an effective strategy. (The Back button is themost-used feature of Web browsers.)Of course, this assumes that pages load quickly; when they dont, we have tomake our choices more carefullyjust one of the many reasons why most Webusers dont like slow-loading pages.> Weighing options may not improve our chances. On poorly designed sites,putting effort into making the best choice doesnt really help. Youre usuallybetter off going with your first guess and using the Back button if it doesntwork out.> Guessing is more fun. Its less work than weighing options, and if you guess right, its faster. And it introduces an element of chancethe pleasantpossibility of running into something surprising and good.Of course, this is not to say that users never weigh options before they click. Itdepends on things like their frame of mind, how pressed they are for time, and how much confidence they have in the site. [ 25 ]how we really use the webFACT OF LIFE #3: We dont figure out how things work. We muddle through.One of the things that becomes obvious as soon as you do any usability testingwhether youre testing Web sites, software, or household appliancesis theextent to which people use things all the time without understanding how theywork, or with completely wrong-headed ideas about how they work. Faced with any sort of technology, very few people take the time to readinstructions. Instead, we forge ahead and muddle through, making up our ownvaguely plausible stories about what were doing and why it works. It often reminds me of the scene at the end ofThe Prince and the Pauper where the realprince discovers that the look-alike pauperhas been using the Great Seal of England as anutcracker in his absence. (It makes perfectsenseto him, the seal is just this great big,heavy chunk of metal.)And the fact is, we get things done that way.Ive seen lots of people use software and Websites effectively in ways that are nothing likewhat the designers intended.[ 26 ]chapter 2The Prince and the Pauper(Classics Illustrated)My favorite example is the people (and Ive seen at least a dozen of them myselfduring user tests) who will type a sites entire URL in the Yahoo search box everytime they want to go therenot just to find the site for the first time, but everytime they want to go there, sometimes several times a day. If you ask them aboutit, it becomes clear that some of them think that Yahoo is the Internet, and thatthis is the way you use it.4And muddling through is not limited to beginners. Even technically savvy users often have surprising gaps in their understanding of how things work. (I wouldnt be surprised if even Bill Gates has some bits of technology in his life that he uses by muddling through.)[ 27 ]how we really use the web4 In the same vein, Ive encountered many AOL users who clearly think that AOL is theInternetgood news for Yahoo and AOL.Most Web designers wouldbe shocked if they knew howmany people type URLs inYahoos search box.[ 28 ]chapter 2Why does this happen? > Its not important to us. For most of us, it doesnt matter to us whether weunderstand how things work, as long as we can use them. Its not for lack ofintelligence, but for lack of caring. In the great scheme of things, its just notimportant to us.5> If we find something that works, we stick to it. Once we find somethingthat worksno matter how badlywe tend not to look for a better way. Welluse a better way if we stumble across one, but we seldom look for one.Its always interesting to watch Web designers and developers observe their first usability test. The first time they see a user click on something completelyinappropriate, theyre surprised. (For instance, when the user ignores a nice big fat Software button in the navigation bar, saying something like, Well, Im looking for software, so I guess Id click here on Cheap Stuff because cheap isalways good.) The user may even find what hes looking for eventually, but by then the people watching dont know whether to be happy or not.The second time it happens, theyre yelling Just click on Software! The thirdtime, you can see them thinking: Why are we even bothering?And its a good question: If people manage to muddle through so much, does itreally matter whether they get it? The answer is that it matters a great dealbecause while muddling through may work sometimes, it tends to be inefficientand error-prone. 5 Web developers often have a particularly hard time understandingor even believingthatpeople might feel this way, since they themselves are usually keenly interested in how things work.[ 29 ]how we really use the webOn the other hand, if users get it: > Theres a much better chance that theyll find what theyre looking for, which is good for them and for you.> Theres a better chance that theyll understand the full range of what your sitehas to offernot just the parts that they stumble across.> You have a better chance of steering them to the parts of your site that youwant them to see.> Theyll feel smarter and more in control when theyre using your site, whichwill bring them back. You can get away with a site that people muddle throughonly until someone builds one down the street that makes them feel smart.If life gives you lemonsBy now you may be thinking (given this less than rosy picture of the Webaudience and how they use the Web), Why dont I just get a job at the local 7-11?At least there my efforts might be appreciated. So, whats a girl to do?I think the answer is simple: If your audience is going to act like youre designingbillboards, then design great billboards.BillboardDesign 101designing pages for scanning, not readingchapter3[ 31 ]Faced with the fact that your users are whizzing by,there are five important things you can do to make sure they seeandunderstandas much of your site as possible:> Create a clear visual hierarchy on each page> Take advantage of conventions> Break pages up into clearly defined areas > Make it obvious whats clickable> Minimize noise.Create a clear visual hierarchyOne of the best ways to make a page easy to grasp in a hurry is to make sure thatthe appearance of the things on the pageall of the visual cuesclearly andaccurately portray the relationships between the things on the page: which thingsare related, and which things are part of other things. In other words, each pageshould have a clear visual hierarchy. Pages with a clear visual hierarchy have three traits:> The more importantsomething is, the moreprominent it is. For instance,the most important headingsare either larger, bolder, in adistinctive color, set off by morewhite space, or nearer the top ofthe pageor some combinationof the above. If you / Dont know / Whose signs / These are You cant have / Driven very far / Burma-Shavesequence of billboards promoting shaving cream, circa 1935Very importantA little less importantNowhere near as importantThe headlinespanning thesethree columnsmakes it obviousthat theyre all partof the same story.The size of thisheadline makes itclear at a glancethat this is the mostimportant story.[ 32 ]chapter 3> Things that are relatedlogically are also relatedvisually. For instance, you canshow that things are similar bygrouping them together undera heading, displaying them in asimilar visual style, or puttingthem all in a clearly definedarea.> Things are nested visuallyto show whats part of what.For instance, a section heading(Computer Books) wouldappear above the title of aparticular book, visuallyencompassing the whole contentarea of the page, because the bookis part of the section. And the titlein turn would span the elementsthat describe the book.Theres nothing new about visual hierarchies. Every newspaper page, forinstance, uses prominence, grouping, and nesting to give us useful informationabout the contents of the page before we read a word. This picture goes with thisstory because theyre both spanned by this headline. This story is the mostimportant because it has the biggest headline, the widest column, and aprominent position on the page. Computer Books$24.95One Particular Computer BookBlab Blab BlabBlab Blab BlabBlab Blab BlabBlab Blab BlabBlab Blab BlabBlab Blab BlabBlab Blab BlabBlab Blab BlabBlab Blab BlabBlab Blab Blab [ 33 ]billboard design 101We all parse visual hierarchiesonline and on paperevery day, but it happensso quickly that the only time were even vaguely aware that were doing it is whenwe cant do itwhen the visual cues (or absence of them) force us to think.A good visual hierarchy saves us work by preprocessing the page for us, organ-izing and prioritizing its contents in a way that we can grasp almost instantly.But when a page doesnt have a clear visual hierarchyif everything looks equallyimportant, for instancewere reduced to the much slower process of scanningthe page for revealing words and phrases, and then trying to form our own senseof whats important and how things are organized. Its a lot more work.Besides, we want editorial guidance in Web sites, the same way we want it inother media. The publisher knows better than anyone which pieces of the sitescontent are most important, valuable, or popular, so why not identify them for meand save me the trouble?Parsing a page with a visualhierarchy thats even slightlyflawedwhere a heading spansthings that arent part of it, forinstanceis like reading a carelesslyconstructed sentence (Bill put thecat on the table for a minute becauseit was a little wobbly.).Even though we can usually figureout what the sentence is supposed tomean, it still throws us momentarilyand forces us to think when weshouldnt have to.This flawed visual hierarchy suggeststhat all of the sections of the site arepart of the Computer Books section.chapter 3Conventions are your friendsAt some point in our youth, without ever being taught, we all learned to read anewspaper. Not the words, but the conventions. We learned, for instance, that a phrase in very large type is usually a headlinethat summarizes the story underneath it, and that text underneath a picture iseither a caption that tells me what its a picture of, orif its in very small typeaphoto credit that tells me who took the picture.We learned that knowing the various conventions of page layout and formattingmade it easier and faster to scan a newspaper and find the stories we wereinterested in. And when we started traveling to other cities, we learned that allnewspapers used the same conventions (with slight variations), so knowing theconventions made it easy to read any newspaper.Every publishing medium develops conventions and continues to refine themand develop new ones over time.1 The Web already has a lot of them, mostlyderived from newspaper and magazine conventions, and new ones will continueto appear. All conventions start life as somebodys bright idea. If the idea works wellenough, other sites imitate it and eventually enough people have seen it inenough places that it needs no explanation. This adoption process takes time, butit happens pretty quickly on the Internet, like everything else. For instance,enough people are now familiar with the convention of using a metaphoricalshopping cart on e-commerce sites that its safe for designers to use a shoppingcart icon without labeling it Shopping cart.[ 34 ]1 Consider the small semitransparent logos that began appearing in the corner of your TVscreen a few years ago to tell you which network youre watching. Theyre everywhere now,but TV had been around for 50 years before they appeared at all.billboard design 101There are two important things to know about Web conventions:> Theyre very useful. As arule, conventions only becomeconventions if they work. Well-applied conventions make iteasier for users to go from siteto site without expending a lotof effort figuring out howthings work. Theres a reassuring sense offamiliarity, for instance, inseeing a list of links to thesections of a site on a coloredbackground down the left sideof the page, even if itssometimes accompanied by atedious sense of dj vu.> Designers are often reluctant to take advantage of them. Faced with theprospect of using a convention, theres a great temptation for designers toreinvent the wheel instead, largely because they feel (not incorrectly) thattheyve been hired to do something new and different, and not the same oldthing. (Not to mention the fact that praise from peers, awards, and high-profilejob offers are rarely based on criteria like best use of conventions.) [ 35 ]Conventionsenable users tofigure out a lotabout a Web page,even if they cantunderstand a word of it.[ 36 ]c h a p t e r 3Sometimes time spent reinvent-ing the wheel results in a revolu-tionary new rolling device. Butsometimes it just amounts to timespent reinventing the wheel.If youre not going to use anexisting Web convention, youneed to be sure that what yourereplacing it with either (a) is soclear and self-explanatory thattheres no learning curveso itsas good as a convention, or (b)adds so much value that itsworth a small learning curve. If youre going to innovate, you have tounderstand the value of what youre replacing, and many designers tend tounderestimate just how much value conventions provide.My recommendation: Innovate when you know you have a better idea (andeveryone you show it to says Wow!), but take advantage of conventions whenyou dont.Break up pages into clearly defined areasIdeally, users should be able to play a version of Dick Clarks old game show$25,000 Pyramid with any well-designed Web page.2 Glancing around, theyshould be able to point at the different areas of the page and say, Things I can doon this site! Links to todays top stories! Products this company sells!Things theyre eager to sell me! Navigation to get to the rest of the site!Dividing the page into clearly defined areas is important because it allows users to decide quickly which areas of the page to focus on and which areas they can2 Given a category like Things a plumber uses, contestants would have to get their partners toguess the category by giving examples (a wrench, a pipe cutter, pants that wont stay up).Patent Pending 48,022 B.C., 42,639 B.C., 36,210 B.C., 31,887B.C., 30,599 B.C., 28,714 B.C., 28,001, B.C., 19,711 B.C., 18,224B.C., B.C., BC, 15,690 B.C., 15,689 B.C., 15,675 B.C., 15,674 B.C.WHEEL[ 37 ]billboard design 101safely ignore. Several of the initial eye-tracking studies of Web page scanningsuggest that users decide very quickly which parts of the page are likely to haveuseful information and then almost never look at the other partsalmost asthough they werent there. Make it obvious whats clickableSince a large part of what people are doing on the Web is looking for the nextthing to click, its important to make it obvious whats clickable and whats not. For example, on Senator Orrin Hatchs Home page3 during his unsuccessful 2000presidential bid, it wasnt clear whethereverything was click-able, or nothing was.There were 18 links on the page, but only two of them invited you to click by theirappearance: a large button labeled Click here to contribute! and an underlinedtext link (full story). The rest of the links were colored text. But the problem was that all of the text on thepage was in color, so there was no way todistinguish the links at a glance.Its not a disastrous flaw. Im sure it didnt take most users long to just start clicking on things. But when you force users to thinkabout something that should be mindless like whats clickable, youre squandering thelimited reservoir of patience and goodwill that each user brings to a new site. 3 Orrin Hatch deserves at least a footnote in usability history, since he wasto the best of myknowledgethe first presidential candidate to make Web usability a campaign issue. In the firsttelevised Republican candidates debate of the 2000 campaign, he told George W. Bush, I haveto say, Governor, in contrast to [your Web site], its easy to find everything on mine. [Chuckles.]Its pretty tough to use yours! Yours is not user-friendly. (His site was easier to use.)[ 38 ]chapter 3One of my other favorite examples is the searchbox at (C. Everett Koops health site).Every time I use it, it makes me think, because the button that executes thesearch just doesnt look like a buttonin spite of the fact that it has two terrificvisual cues: It contains the word search, which is one of the two perfectlabels for a search box button,4 and its the only thing near the search box. It even has a little triangular arrow graphic, which is one of the Websconventional Click here indicators. But the arrow is pointing away from the text, as though its pointing at something else, while the convention calls for it to be pointing toward the clickable text. Moving the arrow to the left would be enough toget rid of the question mark over my head.Keep the noise down to a dull roarOne of the great enemies of easy-to-grasp pages is visual noise. There are reallytwo kinds of noise:> Busy-ness. Some Web pages give me the same feeling I get when Im wadingthrough my letter from Publishers Clearing House trying to figure out whichsticker I have to attach to the form to enter without accidentally subscribing to any magazines. When everything on the page is clamoring for my attention the effect can beoverwhelming: Lots of invitations to buy! Lots of exclamation points and brightcolors! A lot of shouting going on!> Background noise. Some pages are like being at a cocktail party; no onesource of noise is loud enough to be distracting by itself, but there are a lot oftiny bits of visual noise that wear us down.4 Go is the other one, but only if you also use the word Search as a label for the box.[ 39 ]billboard design 101For instance, MSNBCs menus are a powerful and slick navigation device that letusers get to any story in the site quickly. But the lines between items add a lot ofnoise. Graying the lines would make the menus much easier to scan. AfterBeforewww.msnbc.comUsers have varying tolerances for complexity and distractions; some people haveno problem with busy pages and background noise, but many do. When youredesigning Web pages, its probably a good idea to assume that everything is visualnoise until proven otherwise.Animal, vegetable,or mineral?why users like mindless choiceschapter4[ 41 ]Web designers and usability professionals havespent a lot of time over the years debating how many times you can expect users to click to get what they want without getting toofrustrated.1 Some sites even have design rules stating that it should never takemore than a specified number of clicks (usually three, four, or five) to get to anypage in the site.On the face of it, number of clicks to get anywhere seems like a useful criteria.But over time Ive come to think that what really counts is not the number ofclicks it takes me to get to what I want (although there are limits), but rather how hard each click isthe amount of thought required, and the amount ofuncertainty about whether Im making the right choice.In general, I think its safe to say that users dont mind a lot of clicks as long aseach click is painless and they have continued confidence that theyre on the right trackfollowing what Jared Spool calls the scent of information. I thinkthe rule of thumb might be something like three mindless, unambiguous clicksequal one click that requires thought.2The classic first question in the word game Twenty QuestionsAnimal,vegetable, or mineral?is a wonderful example of a mindless choice. As long as you accept the premise that anything thats not a plant or an animalincluding things as diverse as pianos, limericks, and encyclopedias, for It doesnt matter how many times I have to click, as long aseach click is a mindless, unambiguous choice.krugs second law of usability1 Its actually just one part of a much broader debate about the relative merits of wide versusdeep site hierarchies A wide site is broken into more categories at each level but has fewerlevels, so it takes fewer clicks to get to the bottom. A deep site has more levels and requiresmore clicks, but there are fewer options to consider at each level.2 Of course, there are exceptions. If Im going to have to drill down through the same parts ofa site repeatedly, for instance or repeat a sequence of clicks in a Web application, or if thepages are going to take a long time to load, then the value of fewer clicks increases.instancefalls under mineral, it requires no thought at all to answer thequestion correctly.3Unfortunately, many choices on the Web arent as clear. For instance, if I go to Symantecs VirusUpdates page because I want to update mycopy of Norton AntiVirus, Im faced withtwo choices I have to make before I cancontinue.One of the choices, Language, is relatively painless. It takes only a tiny bit ofthought for me to conclude that English, US means United States English, asopposed to English, UK.If I bothered to click on the pulldown menu, though, Idrealize that I was actually just muddling through, since there is no English, UK on the list. Id also probably be a little puzzled by Espaol (English, Intl)but I wouldnt lose any sleep over it.The other choice, Product, is a bit dicier, however. The problem is that it refers to NAV for Windows 95/98. Now, Im sure that itsperfectly clear to everyone who works at Symantec that NAV and NortonAntiVirus are the same, but it requires at least a small leap of faith on my part. And even though I know for certain that Im using Windows 98, theres at least thetiniest question in my mind whether thats exactly the same as Windows 95/98.Maybe there is something called Windows 95/98 that I just dont know about.3 In case youve forgotten the game, theres an excellent version that you can play against onthe Web at Created by Robin Burgener, it uses a neural net algorithmand plays a mean game. Theyve made it even more mindless, though, by adding Other andUnknown as acceptable answers to the first question.chapter 4[ 42 ]Another example: When Im trying to buy a product or service to use in my homeoffice, I often encounter sites that ask me to make a choice likeHomeOfficeWhich one is me? Its the same way I feel when Im standing in front of twomailboxes labeled Stamped Mail and Metered Mail with a business reply card inmy hand. What do they think it isstamped or metered? And what happens if Idrop it in the wrong box?The point is, we face choices all the time on the Web and making the choices mindless is one of the main things that make a site easy to use.[ 43 ]animal, vegetable, or mineral?Omit needlesswordsthe art of not writing for the webchapter5[ 45 ]Of t h e f i v e o r s i x t h i n g s t h at i l e a r n e d i n college, the one that has stuck with me the longestand benefited me themostis E. B. Whites seventeenth rule in The Elements of Style: 17. Omit needless words.Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain nounnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences,for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnec-essary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts.1When I look at most Web pages, Im struck by the fact that most of the words Isee are just taking up space, because no one is ever going to read them. And justby being there, all the extra words suggest that you may actually need to readthem to understand whats going on, which often makes pages seem moredaunting than they actually are.My Third Law probably sounds excessive, because its meant to. Removing half of the words is actually a realistic goal; I find I have no trouble getting rid of half the words on most Web pages without losing anything of value. But the idea ofremoving half of whats left is just my way of trying to encourage people to beruthless about it. Getting rid of all those words that no one is going to read has several beneficialeffects:> It reduces the noise level of the page.> It makes the useful content more prominent.> It makes the pages shorter, allowing users to see more of each pageat a glance without scrolling.Im not suggesting that the articles at should be shorter than they are.Im really talking about two specific kinds of writing: happy talk and instructions.Get rid of half the words on each page, then get rid of half of whats left.krugs third law of usability1 William Strunk, Jr., and E B. White, The Elements of Style (Allyn and Bacon, 1979).[ 46 ]chapter 5Happy talk must dieWe all know happy talk when we see it: Its the introductory text thats supposedto welcome us to the site and tell us how great it is, or to tell us what were aboutto see in the section weve just entered.If youre not sure whether something is happy talk, theres one sure-fire test: Ifyou listen very closely while youre reading it, you can actually hear a tiny voicein the back of your head saying, Blah blah blah blah blah. A lot of happy talk is the kind of self-congratulatory promotional writing thatyou find in badly written brochures. Unlike good promotional copy, it conveys no useful information, and it focuses on saying how great we are, as opposed todelineating what makes us great.Although happy talk is sometimes found on Home pagesusually in paragraphsthat start with the words Welcome toits favored habitat is the front pages ofthe sections of a site (section fronts). Since these pages are often just a table ofcontents with no real content of their own, theres a temptation to fill them withhappy talk. Unfortunately, the effect is as if a book publisher felt obligated to add a paragraph to the table of contents page saying, This book contains manyinteresting chapters about _____, _____, and _____. We hope you enjoy them.Happy talk is like small talkcontent free, basically just a way to be sociable. Butmost Web users dont have time for small talk; they want to get right to the beef.You canand shouldeliminate as much happy talk as possible.[ 47 ]omit needless wordsInstructions must dieThe other major source of needless words is instructions. The main thing you need to know about instructions is that no one is going to read themat least notuntil after repeated attempts at muddling through have failed. And even then, ifthe instructions are wordy, the odds of users finding the information they need ispretty low. Your objective should always be to eliminate instructions entirely by makingeverything self-explanatory, or as close to it as possible. When instructions areabsolutely necessary, cut them back to the bare minimum.For example, when I click on Site Survey at the Verizon site, I get an entire screenfull of instructions to read.I think some aggressive pruning makes them much more[ 48 ]chapter 5The following questionnaire isdesigned to provide us withinformation that will help usimprove the site and make itmore relevant to your needs. Please select your answersfrom the drop-down menusand radio buttons below. The questionnaire should onlytake you 2-3 minutes tocomplete. At the bottom of this form youcan choose to leave your name,address, and telephone number.If you leave your name andnumber, you may be contactedin the future to participate in asurvey to help us improve thissite.If you have comments or con-cerns that require a responseplease contact CustomerService. The first sentence is just introductory happy talk. I knowwhat a survey is for; all I need is the words help us to showme that they understand that Im doing them a favor byfilling it out.Most users dont need to be told how to fill in a Web form, andthe ones who do wont know what a drop-down menu and aradio button are anyway.At this point, Im still trying to decide whether to bother with this questionnaire, so knowing that its short is useful information.This instruction is of no use to me at this point. It belongs atthe end of the questionnaire where I can act on it. As it is, itsonly eect is to make the instructions look daunting.The fact that I shouldnt use this form if I want an answer isuseful and important information. Unfortunately, though,they dont bother telling me how I contact Customer Serviceor better still, giving me a link so I can do it fromright here.BEFORE: 103 WORDSPlease help us improve the site by answering these questions. It should only take you 2-3 minutes to complete this survey. NOTE: If you have comments or concerns that require a response dont use this form.Instead, please contact Customer Service. AFTER: 41 WORDS[ 49 ]omit needless wordsAnd now for something completely differentIn these first few chapters, Ive been trying to convey some guiding principlesthat I think are good to have in mind when youre building a Web site.Now were heading into two chapters that look at how these principles apply to the two biggest and most important challenges in Web design: navigation and theHome page.You might want to pack a lunch. Theyre very long chapters. Street signs and Breadcrumbsdesigning navigationchapter6And you may find yourself, in a beautiful house, with a beautiful wifeAnd you may ask yourself, Well...How did I get here?talking heads, once in a lifetimeIts a fact: People wont use your Web site if they cant find their way around it.You know this from your own experience as a Web user. If you go to a site andcant find what youre looking for or figure out how the site is organized, yourenot likely to stay longor come back. So how do you create the proverbial clear,simple, and consistent navigation?Scene from a mallPicture this: Its Saturday afternoon and youre headed for the mall to buy achainsaw.As you walk through the door at Sears, youre thinking, Hmmm. Where do theykeep chainsaws? As soon as youre inside, you start looking at the departmentnames, high up on the walls. (Theyre big enough that you can read them from allthe way across the store.)Hmmm, you think, Tools? Or Lawn and Garden? Given that Sears is soheavily tool-oriented, you head in the direction of Tools. When you reach the Tools department, you start looking at the signs at the end ofeach aisle. POWER TOOLSTOOLS HOUSEWARES LAWN AND GARDEN[ 51 ]SANDING ANDGRINDINGHAND TOOLSWhen you think youve got theright aisle, you start looking at theindividual products.If it turns out youve guessed wrong, you try another aisle, or you may back up andstart over again in the Lawn and Garden department. By the time youre done, theprocess looks something like this:Basically, you use the storesnavigation systems (the signs andthe organizing hierarchy that thesigns embody) and your ability toscan shelves full of products to findwhat youre looking for. Of course, the actual process is alittle more complex. For one thing,as you walk in the door you usuallydevote a few microseconds to acrucial decision: Are you going tostart by looking for chainsaws onyour own or are you going to asksomeone where they are? Its a decision based on a number ofvariableshow familiar you arewith the store, how much you trusttheir ability to organize thingssensibly, how much of a hurryyoure in, and even how sociableyou are.[ 52 ]chapter 6>>>>>>>>NO YESNONOT YETTHOROUGHLYFRUSTRATED?YESYES>>EnterstoreLook for the right aisleLook for theproductFind it?Still think yourein the rightdepartment?Look for the right department$ Look for the cash registersPay upLook for exit sign>>street s igns and breadcrumbsWhen we factor this decision in, the process looks something like this:[ 53 ]YESALMOSTNOYESNOT YETNOBROWSEASKCredible answer?>Ask>Find a clerk>>Look for the aisleLook for the product>Find it?>>Find a smarterlooking clerk>>>Notice that even if you start looking on your own, if things dont pan out theres agood chance that eventually youll end up asking someone for directions anyway.>>>>>>>>NO YESNONOT YETTHOROUGHLYFRUSTRATED?YESYES>>Ask someone first?>EnterstoreLook for the right aisleLook for theproductFind it?Still think yourein the rightdepartment?Look for the right department$ Look for the cash registersPay upLook for exit sign>HAD ENOUGH?YES>>>[ 54 ]chapter 6Web Navigation 101In many ways, you go through the same process when you enter a Web site. > Youre usually trying to find something. In the real world it might be theemergency room or a can of baked beans. On the Web, it might be the cheapest 4-head VCR with Commercial Advance or the name of the actor in Casablancawho played the headwaiter at Ricks.1> You decide whether to ask first or browse first. The difference is that on aWeb site theres no one standing around who can tell you where things are. TheWeb equivalent of asking directions is searchingtyping a description of whatyoure looking for in a search box and getting back a list of links to places where itmight be.Some people (Jakob Nielsen calls them search-dominant users)2 will almostalways look for a search box as soon as they enter a site. (These may be thesame people who look for the nearest clerk as soon as they enter a store.) 1 S. Z. Cuddles Sakall, born Eugene Sakall in Budapest in 1884. Ironically, most of thecharacter actors who played the Nazi-hating denizens of Ricks Caf were actually famousEuropean stage and screen actors who landed in Hollywood after fleeing the Nazis.2 See Search and You May Find in Nielsens archive of his Alertbox columns[ 55 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsOther people (Nielsens link-dominant users) will almost always browse first,searching only when theyve run out of likely links to click or when they havegotten sufficiently frustrated by the site.For everyone else, the decision whether to start by browsing or searchingdepends on their current frame of mind, how much of a hurry theyre in, andwhether the site appears to have decent browsable navigation.> If you choose to browse, you make your way through a hierarchy, usingsigns to guide you. Typically, youll look around on the Home page for a list of thesites main sections (like the stores department signs) and click on the one thatseems right.Then youll choose from the list of subsections.With any luck, after another click or two youll end up with a list of the kind ofthing youre looking for:Then you can click on the individual links to examine them in detail, the sameway youd take products off the shelf and read the labels.> Eventually, if you cant find what youre looking for, youll leave. This is astrue on a Web site as it is at Sears. Youll leave when youre convinced theyhavent got it, or when youre just too frustrated to keep looking.[ 56 ]chapter 6Heres what the process looks like:Scan results forlikely matchesEnter siteFeel likebrowsing?>>Click on asectionYES NONOYESNOYESALMOSTNOT YETTHOROUGHLYFRUSTRATED?YESLEAVE HAPPYYES NOYESNOT YETHAD ENOUGH?YESLEAVE UNHAPPYNO>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Click on asubsectionLook forwhatever it isFind it?>Find it?Find a search box>Type your queryCredible results?Check them outThink youre in the right section?>Devise a better query>[ 57 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsThe unbearable lightness of browsingLooking for things on a Web site and looking for them in the real world have a lot of similarities. When were exploring the Web, in some ways it even feels likewere moving around in a physical space. Think of the words we use to describethe experiencelike cruising, browsing, and surfing. And clicking a linkdoesnt load or display another pageit takes you to a page. But the Web experience is missing many of the cues weve relied on all our livesto negotiate spaces. Consider these oddities of Web space:> No sense of scale. Even after weve used a Web site extensively, unless its avery small site we tend to have very little sense of how big it is (50 pages?1,000? 17,000?).3 For all we know, there could be huge corners weve neverexplored. Compare this to a magazine, a museum, or a department store,where you always have at least a rough sense of the seen/unseen ratio. The practical result is that its very hard to know whether youve seen everythingof interest in a site, which means its hard to know when to stop looking.4> No sense of direction. In a Web site, theres no left and right, no up anddown. We may talk about moving up and down, but we mean up and down inthe hierarchyto a more general or more specific level.> No sense of location. In physical spaces, as we move around we accumulateknowledge about the space. We develop a sense of where things are and can take shortcuts to get to them. 3 Even the people who manage Web sites often have very little idea how big their sites really are.4 This is one reason why its useful for links that weve already clicked on to display in a different color. It gives us some small sense of how much ground weve covered.[ 58 ]chapter 6We may get to the chainsaws the first time by following the signs, but the nexttime were just as likely to think, Chainsaws? Oh, yeah, I remember where they were:right rear corner, near the refrigerators. And then head straight to them.But on the Web, your feet never touch the ground; instead, you make your wayaround by clicking on links. Click on Power Tools and youre suddenlyteleported to the Power Tools aisle with no traversal of space, no glancing atthings along the way.When we want to return to something on a Web site, instead of relying on aphysical sense of where it is we have to remember where it is in the conceptualhierarchy and retrace our steps. This is one reason why bookmarksstored personal shortcutsare soimportant, and why the Back button accounts for somewhere between 30 and40 percent of all Web clicks.5It also explains why the concept of Home pages is so important. Home pagesarecomparativelyfixed places. When youre in a site, the Home page is likethe North Star. Being able to click Home gives you a fresh start.This lack of physicality is both good and bad. On the plus side, the sense of FIRST TIME SUBSEQUENT VISITS5 L. Catledge and J. Pitkow, Characterizing Browsing Strategies in the World-Wide Web. In Proceedings of the Third International World Wide Web Conference,Darmstadt, Germany (1995).[ 59 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsweightlessness can be exhilarating, and partly explains why its so easy to losetrack of time on the Webthe same as when were lost in a good book.6On the negative side, I think it explains why we use the term Web navigationeven though we never talk about department store navigation or librarynavigation. If you look up navigation in a dictionary, its about doing two things:getting from one place to another, and figuring out where you are.I think we talk about Web navigation because figuring out where you are is amuch more pervasive problem on the Web than in physical spaces. Wereinherently lost when were on the Web, and we cant peek over the aisles to seewhere we are. Web navigation compensates for this missing sense of place byembodying the sites hierarchy, creating a sense of there. Navigation isnt just a feature of a Web site; it is the Web site, in the same way that the building, the shelves, and the cash registers are Sears. Without it, theres no there there.The moral? Web navigation had better be good. The overlooked purposes of navigationTwo of the purposes of navigation are fairly obvious: to help us find whatever it iswere looking for, and to tell us where we are. And weve just talked about a third:> It gives us something to hold on to. As a rule, its no fun feeling lost. (Wouldyou rather feel lost or know your way around?) Done right, navigation putsground under our feet (even if its virtual ground) and gives us handrails to holdon toto make us feel grounded. But navigation has some other equally importantand easily overlookedfunctions:> It tells us whats here. By making the hierarchy visible, navigation tells uswhat the site contains. Navigation reveals content! And revealing the site may be even more important than guiding or situating us.6 Which may be one more reason why slow-loading pages are so bothersome: Whats the fun offlying if you can only go a few miles an hour?> It tells us how to use the site. If the navigation is doing its job, it tells youimplicitly where to begin and what your options are. Done correctly, it shouldbe all the instructions you need. (Which is good, since most users will ignoreany other instructions anyway.) > It gives us confidence in the people who built it. Every moment were in aWeb site, were keeping a mental running tally: Do these guys know whattheyre doing? Its one of the main factors we use in deciding whether to bailout and deciding whether to ever come back. Clear, well-thought-out navigationis one of the best opportunities a site has to create a good impression.Web navigation conventionsPhysical spaces like cities and buildings (and even information spaces like booksand magazines) have their own navigation systems, with conventions that haveevolved over time like street signs, page numbers, and chapter titles. Theconventions specify (loosely) the appearance and location of the navigationelements so we know what to look for and where to look when we need them. Putting them in a standard place lets us locate them quickly, with a minimum of effort; standardizing their appearance makes it easy to distinguish them fromeverything else. For instance, we expect to find street signs at street corners, we expect to findthem by looking up (not down), and we expect them to look like street signs(horizontal, not vertical). [ 60 ]chapter 6We also take it for granted that the name of a building will be above or next to itsfront door. In a grocery store, we expect to find signs near the ends of each aisle.In a magazine, we know there will be a table of contents somewhere in the firstfew pages and page numbers somewhere in the margin of each pageand thattheyll look like a table of contents and page numbers.[ 61 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsThink of how frustrating it is when one of these conventions is broken (whenmagazines dont put page numbers on advertising pages, for instance).Navigation conventions for the Web have emerged quickly, mostly adapted fromexisting print conventions. Theyll continue to evolve, but for the moment these are the basic elements:SectionsSite IDLocal navigation(Things at thecurrent level)Page nameYou are hereindicatorSubsectionsSmall textversionUtilities>>>>[ 62 ]chapter 6Dont look now, but I think its following usWeb designers use the term persistent navigation (or global navigation) to describethe set of navigation elements that appear on every page of a site.Done right, persistent navigation should saypreferably in a calm, comforting voice: The navigation is over here. Some parts will change a littledepending on where you are, but it will always be here, and itwill always work the same way.Just having the navigation appear in the same place on every page with aconsistent look gives you instant confirmation that youre still in the same sitewhich is more important than you might think. And keeping it the samethroughout the site means that (hopefully) you only have to figure out how itworks once. Persistent navigation should include the five elements you most need to have onhand at all times:Well look at each of them in a minute. But firstA way home A way to searchUtilitiesSectionsSite ID[ 63 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsDid I say every page?I lied. There are two exceptions to the follow me everywhere rule: > The Home page. The Home page is not like the other pagesit has differentburdens to bear, different promises to keep. As well see in the next chapter, thissometimes means that it makes sense not to use the persistent navigation there.> Forms. On pages where a form needs to be filled in, the persistent navigation can sometimes be an unnecessary distraction. For instance, when Im payingfor my purchases on an e-commerce site you dont really want me to doanything but finish filling in the forms. The same is true when Im registering,giving feedback, or checking off personalization preferences. For these pages, its useful to have a minimal version of the persistentnavigation with just the Site ID, a link to Home, and any Utilities that mighthelp me fill out the form.Now I know were not in KansasThe Site ID or logo is like the building name for a Web site. At Sears, I really onlyneed to see the name on my way in; once Im inside, I know Im still in Sears untilI leave. But on the Webwhere my primary mode of travel is teleportationIneed to see it on every page.Ok. Now Im in MSNBCOk. Im still in MSNBCand now Im in Planet RxAnd there are two ways to get this primacy across in the visual hierarchy of the page: either make it the most prominent thing on the page, or make it frameeverything else. Since you dont want the ID to be the most prominentelement on the page (except, perhaps, on the Homepage), the best place for itthe place that is least likelyto make me thinkis at the top, where it frames theentire page.And in addition to being where we would expect it tobe, the Site ID also needs to look like a Site ID. Thismeans it should have the attributes we would expect tosee in a brand logo or the sign outside a store: a distinctive typeface, and a graphicthats recognizable at any size from a button to a billboard.[ 64 ]chapter 6In the same way that we expect to see the name of a building over the frontentrance, we expect to see the Site ID at the top of the pageusually in (or at leastnear) the upper left corner.7Why? Because the Site ID represents the whole site, which means its the highestthing in the logical hierarchy of the site.7 ...on Web pages written for left-to-right reading languages, that is. Readers of Arabic or Hebrew pages might expect the Site ID to be on the right. elseSite IDThis siteSections of this siteSubsectionsSub-subsections, etc.This pageAreas of this pageItems on this page[ 65 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsThe SectionsThe Sectionssometimes called the primary navigationare the links to the mainsections of the site: the top level of the sites hierarchy. In most cases, the persistent navigation will also include space to display thesecondary navigation: the list of subsections in the current section. The UtilitiesUtilities are the links to important elements of the site that arent really part ofthe content hierarchy. These are things that either can help me use the site (like Help, a Site Map, or a Shopping Cart) or can provide information about its publisher (like About Usand Contact Us).Like the signs for the facilities in a store, the Utilities list should be slightlyless prominent than the Sections.SectionsSubsectionsUtilities[ 66 ]chapter 6Utilities will vary for different types of sites. For a corporate or e-commerce site,for example, they might include any of the following:As a rule, the persistent navigation can accommodate only four or five Utilitiesthe ones users are likely to need most often. If you try to squeeze in more thanthat, they tend to get lost in the crowd. The less frequently used leftovers can begrouped together on the Home page.Just click your heels three times and say,Theres no place like home. One of the most crucial items in the persistent navigation is a button or link thattakes me to the sites Home page. Having a Home button in sight at all times offers reassurance that no matter howlost I may get, I can always start over, like pressing a Reset button or using a Getout of Jail free card.Theres an emerging convention that the Site ID doubles as a button that can takeyou to the sites Home page. Its a useful idea that every site should implement,but a surprising number of users still arent aware of it. About UsArchivesCheckoutCompany InfoContact UsCustomer ServiceDiscussion Boards DownloadsDirectoryForumsFAQsHelpHomeInvestor RelationsHow to ShopJobsMy _____NewsOrder TrackingPress ReleasesPrivacy PolicyRegisterSearchShopping CartSign inSite MapStore LocatorYour Account[ 67 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsFor now, its probably a good idea to either:> include a Home page link in either theSections or the Utilities, or > add the word Home discreetly to theSite ID everywhere but the Home pageto let people know that its clickable. A way to searchGiven the potential power of searching8 and the number of people who prefersearching to browsing, unless a site is very small and very well organized, everypage should have either a search box or a link to a search page. And unlesstheres very little reason to search your site, it should be a search box.Keep in mind that for a large percentage of users their first official act when theyreach a new site will be to scan the page for something that matches one of thesethree patterns:Its a simple formula: a box, a button, and the word Search. Dont make it hardfor themstick to the formula. In particular, avoid> Fancy wording. Theyll be looking for the word Search, so use the wordSearch, not Find, Quick Find, Quick Search, or Keyword Search. (If you useSearch as the label for the box, use the word Go as the button name.)> Instructions. If you stick to the formula, anyone who has used the Web for more than a few days will know what to do. Adding Type a keyword is like saying, Leave a message at the beep on your answering machinemessage: There was a time when it was necessary, but now it just makesyou sound clueless.8 Unfortunately, I have to say potential because on most sites the odds of a search producinguseful results are still about 50:50. Search usability is a huge subject in itself, and the bestadvice I can give is to pick up a copy of Information Architecture for the World WideWeb by Louis Rosenfeld and Peter Morville (OReilly, 2002) and take to heart everythingthey have to say about search.Home page Everywhere else[ 68 ]chapter 6> Options. If there is any possibility of confusionabout the scope of the search (whats being searched:the site, part of the site, or the whole Web?), by allmeans spell it out. But think very carefully before giving me options to limit the scope (to search just the current section of the site, for instance). And also be wary of providingoptions for how I specify what Im searching for (search by title or by author, for instance, or search by part number or by product name). I seldom see a case where the potential payoff for adding options to thepersistent search box is worth the cost of making me figure out what theoptions are and whether I need to use them (i.e., making me think). If you want to give me the option to scope the search, give it to me when its usefulwhen I get to the search results page and discover that searchingeverything turned up far too many hits, so I need to limit the scope.I think one of the primary reasons for Amazons success is the robustness of its search. As I mentioned in Chapter 1, Amazon was one of the first onlinebookstores (if not the first) to drop the Title/Author/Keyword option from theirsearch box and just take whatever I threw at them. Ive done several user tests of online bookstores, and left to their own devices,inevitably the first thing people did was search for a book they knew they shouldbe able to find to see if the thing worked. And in test after test, the result was thatpeoples first experience of Amazon was a successful search, while in sites thatoffered options many people were left puzzled when their search failed becausethey had misinterpreted their options.[ 69 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsAnd of course, if youre going to provide options, you need to make sure that they actually work. For instance, when I went looking for the Stinking badges quote fromTreasure of the Sierra Madre on the Internet Movie Database site, my search forbadges using the default scope All found only one matchan old TV show. But when I changed the scope to Quotes, there it was. Care to take a guess what the effect was on my confidence in Results[ 70 ]chapter 6Secondary, tertiary, and whatever comes after tertiaryIts happened so often Ive come to expect it: When designers I havent worked with before send me preliminary page designs so I can check for usability issues, I almost inevitably get a flowchart that shows a site four levels deep and sample pages for the Home page and the top two levels. I keep flipping the pages looking for more, or at least for the place where theyvescrawled, Some magic happens here, but I never find even that. I think this isone of the most common problems in Web design (especially in larger sites):failing to give the lower-level navigation the same attention as the top. In so manysites, as soon as you get past the second level, the navigation breaks down andbecomes ad hoc. The problem is so common that its actually hard to find goodexamples of third-level navigation.Why does this happen? XYZ loves you!ProductsAboutSupportNewsProductsXYZ>News>ProductsHardwareSoftware>Support>About XYZSoftwareXYZ>News>ProductsHardwareSoftware>Support>About XYZProductsHardware FAQsHelpAbout XYZSupportXYZ HomeLive supportSupport databaseSoftware>> >> > > > >> >LEVEL 1LEVEL 2LEVEL 3LEVEL 4> >>>> > >>>> >Home Section-level page Subsection pageNews>Contact Info>[ 71 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsPartly, I think, because good multi-level navigation is just plain hard to designgiven the limited amount of space on the page, and the number of elements thathave to be squeezed in. Partly because designers usually dont even have enough time to figure out thefirst two levels. Partly because it just doesnt seem that important. (After all, how important can itbe? Its not primary. Its not even secondary.) And theres a tendency to think thatby the time people get that far into the site, theyll understand how it works. And then theres the problem of getting sample content and hierarchy examples for lower-level pages. Even if designers ask, they probably wont get them, because the people responsible for the content usually havent thought things through that far, either.But the reality is that users usually end up spending as much time on lower-level pages as they do at the top. And unless youve worked out top-to-bottomnavigation from the beginning, its very hard to graft it on later and come up withsomething consistent.The moral? Its vital to have sample pages that show the navigation for all the potential levels of the site before you start arguing about the color scheme for the Home page.Page names, or Why I love to drive in L.A.If youve ever spent time in Los Angeles, you understand that its not just a songlyricL.A. really is a great big freeway. And because people in L.A. take drivingseriously, they have the best street signs Ive ever seen. In L.A.,> Street signs are big. When youre stopped at an intersection, you can read the sign for the next cross street.> Theyre in the right placehanging over the street youre driving on, so all youhave to do is glance up.[ 72 ]chapter 6Now, Ill admit Im a sucker for this kind of treatment because I come fromBoston, where you consider yourself lucky if you can manage to read the streetsign while theres still time to make the turn. The result? When Im driving in L.A., I devote less energy and attention todealing with where I am and more to traffic, conversation, and listening to AllThings Considered. I love driving in L.A.Page names are the street signs of the Web. Just as with street signs, when thingsare going well I may not notice page names at all. But as soon as I start to sensethat I may not be headed in the right direction, I need to be able to spot the pagename effortlessly so I can get my bearings.There are four things you need to know about page names:> Every page needs a name. Just as every corner should have a street sign,every page should have a name. Designers sometimes think, Well, weve highlighted the page name in thenavigation.9 Thats good enough. Its a tempting idea because it can save space,and its one less element to work into the page layout, but its not enough. Youneed a page name, too.> The name needs to be in the right place. In the visual hierarchy of the page,the page name should appear to be framing the content that is unique to thispage. (After all, thats what its namingnot the navigation or the ads, whichare just the infrastructure.)9 See You are here on page 74.Im at the corner ofAuctions and Sell an Item.Los Angeles BostonRussett RdCovington Road[ 73 ]street s igns and breadcrumbs> The name needs to be prominent. You want the combination of position,size, color, and typeface to make the name say This is the heading for theentire page. In most cases, it will be the largest text on the page. > The name needs to match what I clicked. Even though nobody evermentions it, every site makes an implicit social contract with its visitors: The name of the page will match the words I clicked to get there.In other words, if I click on a link or button that says Hot mashed potatoes, the site will take me to a page named Hot mashed potatoes.It may seem trivial, but its actually a crucial agreement. Each time a siteviolates it, Im forced to think, even if only for milliseconds, Why are thosetwo things different? And if theres a major discrepancy between the linkname and the page name or a lot of minor discrepancies, my trust in the siteand the competence of the people who publish itwill be diminished.Unique page ContentPage NameUnique page ContentPage NameUnique page ContentPage NameLug nuts Nuts Spare parts Error 404(No mention ofLug Nuts onthe page)Page not foundNames dont match.Frustration, loss of trust.Names match. Comfort,trust, no thought required.WHAT I CLICK... WHAT I GET...Of course, sometimes you have to compromise, usually because of spacelimitations. If the words I click on and the page name dont match exactly, theimportant thing is that (a) they match as closely as possible, and (b) the reason for the difference is obvious. For instance, at if I click the buttonslabeled Gifts for Him and Gifts for Her, I get pages named gifts for men and gifts for women. The wording isnt identical, but they feel so equivalent that Im not even tempted to think about the difference. You are hereOne of the ways navigation can counteract the Webs inherent lost in spacefeeling is by showing me where I am in the scheme of things, the same way that aYou are here indicator does on the map in a shopping mallor a National Park. [ 74 ]chapter 62000. The New Yorker Collection from All Rights Reserved.[ 75 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsOn the Web, this is accomplished by highlighting my current location inwhatever navigational bars, lists, or menus appear on the page. In this example, the current section (Womens) and subsection (Pants/Shorts)have both been marked. There are a number of ways to make the currentlocation stand out:The most common failing of You are here indicators is that theyre too subtle.They need to stand out; if they dont, they lose their value as visual cues and end up just adding more noise to the page. One way to ensure that they stand out is toapply more than one visual distinctionfor instance, a different color and bold text.Too-subtle visual cues are actually a very common problem. Designers love subtlecues, because subtlety is one of the traits of sophisticated design. But Web users aregenerally in such a hurry that they routinely miss subtle cues. In general, if youre a designer and you think a visual cue is sticking out like a sorethumb, it probably means you need to make it twice as prominent.Looks like Im inWomens Pants/ShortsPut a pointernext to it Change the text color Use bold textReverse the buttonChange the button color[ 76 ]chapter 6BreadcrumbsLike You are here indicators, Breadcrumbs show you where you are.(Sometimes they even include the words You are here.)Theyre called Breadcrumbs because theyre reminiscent of the trail of crumbsHansel dropped in the woods so he and Gretel could find their way back home.10Unlike You are here indicators, which show you where you are in the context ofthe sites hierarchy, Breadcrumbs only show you the path from the Home page towhere you are.11 (One shows you where you are in the overall scheme of things,the other shows you how to get therekind of like the difference between lookingat a road map and looking at a set of turn-by-turn directions. The directions canbe very useful, but you can learn more from the map.)You could argue that bookmarks are more like the fairy tale breadcrumbs, sincewe drop them as we wander, in anticipation of possibly wanting to retrace oursteps someday. Or you could say that visited links (links that have changed colorto show that youve clicked on them) are more like breadcrumbs since they markthe paths weve taken, and if we dont revisit them soon enough, our browser(like the birds) will swallow them up.1210 In the original story, H & Gs stepmother persuades their father to lose them in the forest duringlean times so the whole family wont have to starve. The suspicious and resourceful H spoils theplot by dropping pebbles on the way in and following them home. But the next time(!)H is forcedto use breadcrumbs instead, which prove to be a less-than-suitable substitute since birds eat thembefore H & G can retrace their steps. Eventually the tale devolves into attempted cannibalism,grand larceny, and immolation, but basically its a story about how unpleasant it is to be lost.11 Actually, the truth is a little more complicated than that. If youre interested, Keith Instone hasan excellent treatment of the whole subject of Breadcrumbs at Visited links eventually expire and revert to their original color if you dont revisit them. Thedefault expiration period varies from 7 to 30 days, depending on which browser you use.[ 77 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsFor a long time, Breadcrumbs were an oddity, found only in sites that were reallyjust enormous databases with very deep hierarchies, like Yahoos Web directory...or grafted on to the top of very large multi-site conglomerates, like CNET... where they managed to give users some sense of where they were in the grandscheme of things while still allowing the sub-sites to keep their independentand often incompatiblenavigation schemes.But these days they show up in more and more sites, sometimes in lieu of well-thought-out navigation.For most sites, I dont think that Breadcrumbs alone are a good navigationscheme. Theyre not a good replacement for showing at least the top two layers ofthe hierarchy, because they dont reveal enough. They give you a view, but its likea view with blinders. Its not that you cant make your way around using justBreadcrumbs. Its that theyre not a good way to present most sites.Dont get me wrong. Done right, Breadcrumbs are self-explanatory, they donttake up much room, and they provide a convenient, consistent way to do two ofthe things you need to do most often: back up a level or go Home. Its just that I wish Id thought of the imaginary-birds-eating-visited-links connection myself, but MarkBernstein first wrote about it in 1988. I came across it in Peter Glours book Elements ofHyper-media Design, which you can read for free online at[ 78 ]chapter 6think theyre most valuable when used as part of a balanced diet, as an accessoryto a solid navigational scheme, particularly for a large site with a deep hierarchy,or if you need to tie together a nest of has the best Breadcrumbs implementation I know of, and it illustratesseveral best practices.> Put them at the top.Breadcrumbs seem to work bestif theyre at the top of the page,above everything. I think this isprobably because it literallymarginalizes themmakingthem seem like an accessory,like page numbers in a book ormagazine. When Breadcrumbsare farther down on the pagethey end up contending withthe primary navigation. Result? It makes me think. (Which one is the realnavigation? Which one should I be using?)> Use > between levels. Trial and error seems to have shown that the bestseparator between levels is the greater than character (>). The colon (:) and slash (/) are workable, but > seems to be the most satisfyingand self-evidentprobably because it visually suggests forward motion downthrough the levels.> Use tiny typeagain, to make it clear that this is just an accessory.> Use the words You are here. Most people will understand what theBreadcrumbs are, but since its tiny type anyway it doesnt hurt to make themself-explanatory.> Boldface the last item. The last item in the list should be the name of thecurrent page, and making it bold gives it the prominence it deserves.[ 79 ]street s igns and breadcrumbs> Dont use them instead of a page name. There have been a lot of attempts tomake the last item in the Breadcrumbs list do double duty, eliminating the needfor a separate page name. Some sites have tried making the last item in the listthe largest. This seems like it should work, but it doesnt, probably because it fights ourexpectation that headings are flush left or centered, not dangling in the middleof the page at the end of a list. Four reasons why I love tabsI havent been able to prove it (yet), but I stronglysuspect that Leonardo da Vinci invented tab dividerssometime in the late 15th century. As interfacedevices go, theyre clearly a product of genius.13Tabs are one of the very few cases where using a physical metaphor in a user interface actuallyworks.14 Like the tab dividers in a three-ringbinder or tabs on folders in a file drawer, theydivide whatever theyre sticking out of intosections. And they make it easy to open a sectionby reaching for its tab (or, in the case of the Web,clicking on it). Many sites have started using tabs for navigation.FlyingMachinesCoolWeaponsTo-Do List13 Memo to self: Check to see if Microsoft began using tabbed dialog boxes before Bill Gatesbought the da Vinci notebook. 14 The idea of dragging things to a trash can icon to delete them (conceived at Xerox PARC andpopularized by Apple) is the only other one that springs to mind. And sadly, Apple couldntresist muddying the metaphorical waters by using the same drag-to-trash action to ejectdiskettesultimately resulting in millions of identical thought balloons saying, But wait.Wont that erase it?[ 80 ]chapter 6I think theyre an excellent navigation choice for large sites. Heres why:> Theyre self-evident. Ive never seen anyoneno matter how computerilliteratelook at a tabbed interface and say, Hmmm. I wonder what those do?> Theyre hard to miss. When I do point-and-click user tests, Im surprised athow often people can overlook button bars at the top of a Web page.15 Butbecause tabs are so visually distinctive, theyre hard to overlook. And becausetheyre hard to mistake for anything but navigation, they create the kind ofobvious-at-a-glance division you want between navigation and content. > Theyre slick. Web designers are always struggling to make pages morevisually interesting. If done correctly (see below), tabs can add polish and servea useful purpose.15 I shouldnt be. I managed to use My Yahoo dozens of times before it dawned on me that therow of links at the top of the page were more sections of My Yahoo. Id always assumed thatMy Yahoo was just one page and that the links were other parts of[ 81 ]street s igns and breadcrumbs> They suggest a physical space. Tabs create the illusion that the active tabphysically moves to the front. Its a cheap trick, but effective, probably because its based on a visual cue thatwere very good at detecting (things in front of other things). Somehow, theresult is a stronger-than-usual sense that the site is divided into sections and that youre in one of the sections.If you love Amazon so much, why dont you marry it?As with many other good Web practices, Amazon was one of the first sites to use tab dividers for navigation, and the first to really get them right. Over time,they tweaked and polished their implementation to the point where it was nearlyperfect, even though they had to keep adding tabs as they expanded into differentmarkets.October 1998October 1999[ 82 ]chapter 6Eventually, they were forced to push the tab metaphor to the breaking point, buteven their short-lived two-row version was remarkably well designed.Anyone thinking of using tabs should look carefully at the design of Amazonsclassic tabs, and slavishly imitate these three key attributes:> They were drawn correctly. For tabs to work to full effect, the graphics haveto create the visual illusion that the active tab is in front of the other tabs. Thisis the main thing that makes them feel like tabseven more than thedistinctive tab shape.16 To create this illusion, the active tab needs to be a different color or contrastingshade, and it has to physically connect with the space below it. This is whatmakes the active tab pop to the front.BAD: No connection, no pop.BETTER: Connected, but no contrast.Limited pop.BEST: Duck! Its coming right at you.16 Whatever you do, dont use tab-shaped graphics if theyre not going to behave like tabs. TheInternet Movie Databaseowned by Amazon, and in some ways one of the best sites on theWebmakes this mistake. The buttons at the top of each page look like tabs, but they act like ordinary buttons.> They were color coded. Amazonused a different tab color for eachsection of the site, and they used thesame color in the other navigationalelements on the page to tie them alltogether.Color coding of sections is a verygood ideaas long as you dontcount on everyone noticing it. Somepeople (roughly 1 out of 200 womenand 1 out of 12 menparticularlyover the age of 40) simply cantdetect some color distinctionsbecause of color-blindness. More importantly, from what Iveobserved, a much larger percentage(perhaps as many as half ) just arentvery aware of color coding in any useful way. Color is great as an additionalcue, but you should never rely on it as the only cue. Amazon made a point of using fairly vivid, saturated colors that are hard tomiss. And since the inactive tabs were a neutral beige, there was a lot ofcontrastwhich even color-blind users can detectbetween them and theactive tab.[ 83 ]street s igns and breadcrumbs[ 84 ]chapter 6> There was a tab selected when you enter the site. If theres no tab selectedwhen I enter a site (as on, for instance), I lose the impact of thetabs in the crucial first few seconds, when it counts the most. Amazon has always had a tab selected on their Home page. For a long time, itwas the Books tab. Eventually, though, as the site became increasingly less book-centric, they gavethe Home page a tab of its own (labeled Welcome). Amazon had to create the Welcome tab so they could promote products fromtheir other sectionsnot just bookson the Home page. But they did it at therisk of alienating existing customers who still think of Amazon as primarily abookstore and hate having to click twice to get to the Books section. As usual, theinterface problem is just a reflection of a deeperand harder to[ 85 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsTry the trunk testNow that you have a feeling for all of the moving parts, youre ready to try myacid test for good Web navigation. Heres how it goes:Imagine that youve been blindfolded and locked in the trunk of a car, thendriven around for a while and dumped on a page somewhere deep in thebowels of a Web site. If the page is well designed, when your vision clears you should be able to answer these questions without hesitation:> What site is this? (Site ID) > What page am I on? (Page name)> What are the major sections of this site? (Sections)> What are my options at this level? (Local navigation)> Where am I in the scheme of things? (You are here indicators)> How can I search?Why the Goodfellas motif? Because its so easy to forget that the Web experienceis often more like being shanghaied than following a garden path. When youredesigning pages, its tempting to think that people will reach them by starting at the Home page and following the nice, neat paths youve laid out. But the reality is that were often dropped down in the middle of a site with no idea where we are because weve followed a link from a search engine or from another site, andweve never seen this sites navigation scheme before.17And the blindfold? You want your vision to be slightly blurry, because the true test isnt whether you can figure it out given enough time and close scrutiny. Thestandard needs to be that these elements pop off the page so clearly that it doesntmatter whether youre looking closely or not. You want to be relying solely on theoverall appearance of things, not the details.1817 This is even truer today than it was five years ago, since for many people everything they doon the Web now begins with a Google search.18 Tom Tullis of Fidelity Investments did an ingenious experiment along the same lines toevaluate the effectiveness of different page templates. He populated each template withnonsense text and asked people to identify the various elements like the page title and the site-wide navigation simply by their appearance.[ 86 ]chapter 6Heres how you perform the trunk test:Step 1 Choose a page anywhere in the site at random, and print it.Step 2 Hold it at arms length or squint so you cant really study it closely.Step 3 As quickly as possible, try to find and circle each item in the list below. (You wont find all of the items on every page.)Heres one to show you how its done. Site IDPage nameSections Local navigationSearch1. Site ID2. Page name3. Sections and subsections4. Local navigation5. You are here indicator(s)6. SearchCIRCLE:[ 87 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsNow try it yourself on the four web pages below. Then compare your answerswith mine, starting on page 90. And when youve finished, try the same exercise on a dozen random pages fromdifferent sites. Its a great way to develop your own sense of what works and what doesnt.Answers on page 901[ 88 ]chapter 62Answers on page 91Answers on page 923[ 89 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsAnswers on page 934[ 90 ]chapter 6WHATS WRONG WITHTHIS PICTURE?Annuities Step by Step looks likethe page name, but its not.The page name is actually Fundother plans first, but youwouldnt know it because (a)theres no page name, and (b)theres no You are here indicatorin the list on the left.And theres no search box orsearch button, which is amazingfor a site as large and varied (andfull of useful content)> A page name at the top of the content space,> A You are here indicator in the list on the left, and > A search link, in theUtilities list.Ive added< MY VERSIONYou are hereSite ID SectionLocalnavigationSubsections[ 91 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsWHATS WRONG WITH THISPICTURE?The Site ID is below the navigation, and hard tospot. It looks too much like the internal promonext to it, and because the Site ID isnt in theupper left corner, it ends up looking like an ad.The heading DVD is positioned above the linkAudio/Video Main, but it is lower in the hier-archy. And theres no search, which is baffling in a large e-commerce site full of products.< THEIR REVISED VERSIONWhile I was writing this chapter, Global Martredesigned their site and did most of the rightthings themselves. For instance, they movedthe Site ID to the top of the page and added asearch box.But as so often happens with redesigns, forevery step forward theres one step back. Forinstance, the Utilities went from one legibleline to two illegible ones. (Always avoidstacking underlined text links; theyre veryhard to read.)< MY VERSIONI moved the link to Audio/Video above the pagename, so the visual hierarchy matches thelogical hierarchy. I also made the page name alittle more prominent, and moved it flush leftinstead of centered.(In most cases, I find leftor right alignment is more effective thancentering in telegraphing a visual hierarchy.)For the same reason, I moved the searchbutton next to the search box, instead ofcentered below it.Site IDSectionsPage nameLocal navigation[ 92 ]chapter 6WHATS WRONG WITH THISPICTURE?The navigation is spread out all over the page,making it much harder to tell whats navigation andwhat isnt. The navigation, ads, promos, and contentall run together.There is no list of major sections. The list at the toplooks like sections, but its actually a list of othersub-sites of What makes it particularlyconfusing is that (the site Im in) doesntappear in that list.The only navigation that tells me where I am is the Breadcrumbs.Its also hard to tell where the content actuallystarts. This is one of those pages that seems to keepstarting over, forcing you to scroll down just to findout what it is.< MY VERSIONThis is one of those pages where you have to havethe gumption to say, "This is beyond tweaking."There are underlying dilemmas here that need to beresolved before you even think about the pagelayout.All I did was tighten up the top a little and try tomake the content space easier to spot by adding abackground to the column on the left.At the same time, I made sure that the page namewas positioned so it was clearly connected to thecontent space.Site IDPage nameLocal navigationSearch[ 93 ]street s igns and breadcrumbsWHATS WRONG WITHTHIS PICTURE?Not much. Did you havetrouble finding anything?I rest my case.< MY VERSIONTheres really almost nothing to improvehere.I did redo the search.(I dont know whythey used "Enter Keywords" here whenthey use just plain "Search" almosteverywhere else in the site.)And if youre going to scope a search, itsworth adding the word "for" so it readslike a sentence: "Search ___ for ___."I also made the page name a little moreprominent to help make the divisionbetween the content and navigationspaces even clearer.You are hereSite IDSearchPage nameLocal navigationSectionsSubsectionsThe first step in recovery isadmitting thatthe Home pageis beyond your controldesigning the home pagechapter7[ 95 ]esigning a Home page often reminds meof the 50s TV game show Beat the Clock. Each contestant would listen patiently whileemcee Bud Collyer explained the stunt shehad to perform. For instance, You have 45seconds to toss five of these water balloonsinto the colander strapped to your head. The stunt always looked tricky, but doablewith a little luck. But then just as the contestant was ready tobegin, Bud would always add, Oh, theresjust one more thing: you have to doit...blindfolded. Or under water. Or in the fifth dimension. Its that way with the Home page. Just when you think youve covered all the bases, theres always just onemorething.Think about all the things the Home page has to accommodate:> Site identity and mission. Right off the bat, the Home page has to tell me what site this is and what its forand if possible, why I should be here and not at some other site.> Site hierarchy. The Home page has to give an overview of what the site has to offerboth content (What can I find here?) and features (What can I dohere?)and how its all organized. This is usually handled by the persistentnavigation.> Search. Most sites need to have a prominently displayed search box on the Home page.Lucy, you got some splainin to arnaz, as ricky ricardo DBud Collyer offers words of encouragement toa plucky contestant> Teases. Like the cover of a magazine, theHome page needs to entice me with hintsof the good stuff inside. Contentpromos spotlight the newest, best, ormost popular pieces of content, like topstories and hot deals. Feature promosinvite me to explore additional sectionsof the site or try out features likepersonalization and email newsletters.> Timely content. If the sites successdepends on my coming back often, theHome page probably needs to have somecontent that gets updated frequently.And even a site that doesnt need regularvisitors needs some signs of lifeeven ifits only a link to a recent press releaseto signal me that its not moribund.> Deals. Home page space needs to beallocated for whatever advertising, cross-promotion, and co-branding deals havebeen made.> Shortcuts. The most frequently requested pieces of content (software updates,for instance) may deserve their own links on the Home page so people donthave to hunt for them.> Registration. If the site uses registration, the Home page needs links for newusers to register and for old users to sign in, and a way to let me know that Imsigned in (Welcome back, Steve Krug).In addition to these concrete needs, the Home page also has to meet a few abstract objectives:> Show me what Im looking for. The Home page needs to make it obvioushow to get to whatever I wantassuming its somewhere on the site.[ 96 ]chapter 7Identity &MissionFeaturePromosShortcutsDealsFeaturePromosTimely contentTimely contentRegistrationHierarchyFeature promosSearchDealsContent promos> and what Im not looking for. At the same time, the Home page needs toexpose me to some of the wonderful things the site has to offer that I might beinterested ineven though Im not looking for them. > Show me where to start. Theres nothing worse than encountering a newHome page and having no idea where to begin.> Establish credibility and trust. For some visitors, the Home page will bethe only chance your site gets to create a good impression. And you have to do itblindfoldedAs if that wasnt daunting enough, it all has to be done under adverse conditions.Some of the usual constraints:> Everybody wants a piece of it. Since its the one page almost every visitorseesand the only page some visitors will seethings that are prominentlypromoted on the Home page tend to get significantly greater traffic.As a result, the Home page is the waterfront property of the Web: Its the mostdesirable real estate, and theres a very limited supply. Everybody who has astake in the site wants a promo or a link to their section on the Home page, andthe turf battles for Home page visibility can be fierce.And given the tendency of most users to scan down the page just far enough tofind an interesting link, the comparatively small amount of space above thefold1 on the Home page is the choice waterfront property, even more fiercelyfought over.> Too many cooks. Because the Home page is so important, its the one pagethat everybody (even the CEO) has an opinion about.> One size fits all. Unlike lower-level pages, the Home page has to appeal toeveryone who visits the site, no matter how diverse their interests. [ 97 ]the home page is beyond your control1 A term inherited from newspapers, meaning the part of the page you can see without scrolling.[ 98 ]The First Casualty of WarGiven everything the Home page has to accomplish, if a site is at all complex even the best Home page design cant do it all. Designing a Home page inevitablyinvolves compromise. And as the compromises are worked out and the pressuremounts to squeeze in just one more thing, some things inevitably get lost in theshuffle. The one thing you cant afford to lose in the shuffleand the thing that mostoften gets lostis conveying the big picture. Whenever someone hands me aHome page design to look at, theres one thing I can almost always count on:They havent made it clear enough what the site is.Everybody wants to drop a line on the Home page.And they want good bait (a large, eye-catchinglink) and a good location (above the fold).chapter 7As quickly and clearly as possible, the Home page needs to answer the fourquestions I have in my head when I enter a new site for the first time:I need to be able to answer these questions at a glance, correctly andunambiguously, with very little effort.If its not clear to me what Im looking at in the first few seconds, interpretingeverything else on the page is harder, and the chances are greater that Ill misinterpret something and get frustrated. But if I do get it, Im much more likely to correctly interpret everything I see on the page, which greatly improves my chances of having a satisfying, successfulexperience. Dont get me wrong: Everything else is important. You do need to impress me,entice me, direct me, and expose me to your deals. But these things wont slipthrough the cracks; there will always be plenty of peopleinside and outside thedevelopment teamseeing to it that they get done. All too often, though, no onehas a vested interest in getting the main point across.[ 99 ]the home page is beyond your controlWhat is this?www.essential.comWhat do theyhave here?What can Ido here?Why should I behereand notsomewhere else?[ 100 ]chapter 72 From the Wall Street Journal, March 30, 2000: For its debut in the 1999 Super Bowl, aired the now infamous ad showinggerbils being shot out of a cannon. [These have been replaced by] staid spots in whichcomedian Martin Mull explains to consumers exactly what it is sells (computers,technology, and electronic equipment). We could have told you that, but we shot gerbils outof a cannon, he jokes. What were we thinking?When youre involved in building a site, its so obvious to youwhat youre oering and why its insanely great that its hard toremember that its not obvious to everybody.Very few people will avoid a site just because they see the sameexplanation of what it is every time they go thereunless ittakes up half the page. Think about it: Even if you knowwhat JAMA is, will you be oended by seeing Journal of theAmerican Medical Association next to the logo in small print?Its tempting to think that the people who dont get your siteright away probably arent your real audience, but its just nottrue. When testing sites, its not at all unusual to have peoplesay, Oh, is that what it is? Id use that all the time, but it wasntclear what it was.Even if people understood your TV, radio, and print ads,2by thetime they get to your site will they remember exactly what itwas that caught their interest?If the site is very complex or novel, a prominent New to thissite? link on the Home page is a good idea. But its no substitutefor spelling out the big picture in plain sight, since most peoplewont click on it until theyve already triedand failedtotough it out on their own. And by then, they may already behopelessly confused.THE TOP FIVE PLAUSIBLE EXCUSES FOR NOT SPELLING OUT THE BIG PICTURE ON THE HOME PAGEWe dont need to.Its obvious.After people haveseen the explana-tion once, they willfind it annoying.Anybody who reallyneeds our site will know what it is.Thats what ouradvertising is for.Well just add a First timevisitor? linkHow to get the message acrossEverything on the Home page can contribute to our understanding of what the siteis. But there are two important places on the page where we expect to find explicitstatements of what the site is about.> The tagline. One of the most valuable bits of real estate is the space right next to the Site ID. When we see a phrase thats visually connected to the ID, weknow its meant to be a tagline, and so we read it as a description of the wholesite. Well look at taglines in detail in the next section.> The Welcome blurb. The Welcome blurb is a terse description of the site,displayed in a prominent block on the Home page thats visible without scrolling.The point isnt that everyone will use these two elementsor even that everyone will notice them. Most users will probably try to guess what the site is first fromthe overall content of the Home page. But if they cant guess, you want to havesomeplace on the page where they can go to find out.There is also a third possibility: You can use the entire space to the right of the Site ID at the top of the page to expand on your mission. But if you do, you have tomake sure that the visual cues make it clear that this whole area is a modifier forthe Site ID and not a banner ad, since users will expect to see an ad in this spaceand are likely to ignore it.[ 101 ]the home page is beyond your controlWelcome blurbTaglineHere are a few guidelines for getting the message across:> Use as much space as necessary. The temptation is to not want to use anyspace because (a) you cant imagine that anybody doesnt know what this site is,and (b) everyones clamoring to use the Home page space for other purposes. Take, for example. Because of their novel proposition (chooseyour own utility providers), has a lot of splainin to do, so theywisely use a lot of Home page space to do it. Almost every element on the pagehelps explain or reinforce what the site is about.[ 102 ]chapter 71. Prominent tagline.2. Prominent but terseWelcome blurb. The wordsWhy, How, and Plus areused cleverly to make itinto a bulleted list so itdoesnt look like onelong, imposing block oftext.3. The heading Shop ByDepartment makes itclear that the point ofthese departments is tobuy something, not justget information.4. The testimonial quote(and the photo thatdraws your eye to it) tellsthe story> but dont use any more space than necessary. For most sites, theres noneed to use a lot of space to convey the basic proposition, and messages thattake up the entire Home page are usually too much for people to botherabsorbing anyway. Keep it shortjust long enough to get the point across, andno longer. Dont feel compelled to mention every great feature, just the mostimportant ones (maximum four).> Dont use a mission statement as a Welcome blurb. Many sites fill theirHome page with their corporate mission statement that sounds like it waswritten by a Miss America finalist. XYZCorp offers world-class solutions inthe burgeoning field of blah blah blah blah blah.... Nobody reads them.> Its one of the most important things to test. You cant trust your ownjudgment about this. You need to show the Home page to people from outsideyour organization to tell you whether the design is getting this job donebecause the main point is the one thing nobody inside the organization willnotice is missing.Nothing beats a good tagline!A tagline is a pithy phrase that characterizes the whole enterprise, summing upwhat it is and what makes it great. Taglines have been around for a long time inadvertising, entertainment, and publishing: Thousands of VCRs at impossibly low prices, More stars than there are in the heavens,3 and All the News ThatsFit to Print,4 for example.[ 103 ]the home page is beyond your control3 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios, in the 1930s and 40s.4 The New York Times. I have to admit a personal preference for the Mad magazine parodyversion, though: All the News That Fits, We Print.On a Web site, the tagline appears right below, above, or next to the Site ID.Taglines are a very efficient way to get your message across, because theyre the one place on the page where users most expect to find a concise statement of thesites purpose.Some attributes to look for when choosing a tagline:> Good taglines are clear and informative.> Bad taglines are vague.> Good taglines are just long enough. Six to eight words seem to be long enough to convey a full thought, but short enough to absorb easily.[ 104 ]chapter 7Work. Wisely may be a good tagline for a TV commercial, but on a Web site it doesnt tell me enough.I think Onvia realized this and added a second tagline.Unfortunately, Taking care ofthe business of running yoursmall business goes to theopposite extreme: Its too> Good taglines convey differentiation and a clear benefit. > Bad taglines sound generic. Dont confuse a tagline with a motto, like We bring good things to life,Youre in good hands, or To protect and to serve. A motto expresses aguiding principle, a goal, or an ideal, but a tagline conveys a value proposition.Mottoes are lofty and reassuring, but if I dont know what the thing is, a mottoisnt going to tell me.> Good taglines are personable, lively, and sometimes clever. Clever is good,but only if the cleverness helps conveynot obscurethe benefit.[ 105 ]the home page is beyond your controlSaving time, money, and sanity are all clearly goodthings. But they dont tell us anything about the site.Cradle and all is a very clever, engaging tagline. But it might givesome visitors the impression that is only aboutbuying baby stu, when in reality its also an excellent source ofinformation and advice.Fortunately, BabyCenter had the senseto add a prominent Welcome blurb thatworks: almost short enough to read,with a few key words in boldface tomake it scannable.www.refdesk.comwww.netmarket.comwww.babycenter.comTagline? We dont need no stinking tagline Some sites can get by without a tagline. For instance, > The handful of sites thathave already achievedhousehold word status.5> Sites that are very well known from their offline origins.Personally, though, Id argue that even these sites would benefit from a tagline. After all, no matter how well known you are, why pass up an unobtrusive chanceto tell people why theyre better off at your site? And even if a site comes from astrong offline brand, the mission online is never exactly the same and its importantto explain the difference.The fifth questionOnce I know what Im looking at, theres still one more important question thatthe Home page has to answer for me: [ 106 ]chapter 75 Even Amazon had a tagline until as late as 1998, when it was already a household word but not yet on the cover of Time. Where do Istart?When I enter a new site, after a quick look around the Home page I should beable to say with confidence:> Heres where to start if I want to search. > Heres where to start if I want to browse. > Heres where to start if I want to sample their best stuff. On sites that are built around a step-by-step process (applying for a mortgage, for instance), the entry point for the process should leap out at me. And on siteswhere I have to register if Im a new user or sign in if Im a returning user, theplaces where I register or sign in should be prominent.Unfortunately, the need to promote everything (or at least everything thatsupports this weeks business model) sometimes obscures these entry points. It can be hard to find them when the page is full of promos yelling Start here!and No, click me first!The best way to keep this from happening is to make the entry points look like entry points (i.e., make the search box look like a search box, and the list ofsections look like a list of sections). It also helps to label them clearly, with labels like Search, Browse by Category, Sign in, and Start here (for a step-by-step process).Home page navigation can be uniqueDesigners sometimes ask me how important it is for the navigation on the Home page to be the same as on the rest of the site. For instance, if the persistentnavigation is horizontal, can the Home page navigation be vertical? The answer is definitely Yes, it can be different. But not too different. Given the unique responsibilities of the Home page, it often makes sense not to use the persistent navigation there. Typical differences include: > Section descriptions. Since the Home page has to reveal as much as it can ofwhat lies below, you may want to add a descriptive phrase to each section name, oreven list the subsectionssomething you dont have the space to do on every page.[ 107 ]the home page is beyond your control> Different orientation. The Home page often requires a very different layoutfrom all the other pages, so it may be necessary to use horizontal instead ofvertical navigation, or vice versa.> More space for identity. The Site ID on the Home page is usually larger thanin the persistent navigation, like the large sign over a store entrance, and itusually needs some empty space next to it for the tagline, which may not appearon every page.But its also important not to make any changes you dont have to. The Home pagenavigation and the persistent navigation need to have enough in common sousers can recognize immediately that theyre just two different versions of thesame thing.The most important thing is to keep the section names exactly the same: the sameorder, the same wording, and the same grouping. It also helps to try to keep asmany of the same visual cues as possible: the same typeface, colors, andcapitalization. For example, the site has a very nice design and generally excellentexecution, but theres too much of a disconnect between the navigation on theHome page and the rest of the site.[ 108 ]chapter 7Home pageEverywhere elseIt doesnt matter that the navigation is vertical on the Home page and horizontaleverywhere else. And even the minor variations in the section names (like ForCarriers / Carrier and The Company / Company) are all right because itsobvious that theyre the same.What does matter is that once you leave the Home page> I Want Wildfire becomes Consumer> WildTalk disappears entirely> Enterprise appears out of nowhere, and > Even the names that are the same arent in the same orderAs a result, its hard to recognize that the two navigation systems are related atall. When I leave the Home page, I have to figure out the sites navigation all overagain, with a flurry of question marks floating over my head.[ 109 ]the home page is beyond your Home page navigationAll other pages[ 110 ]chapter 7The trouble with pulldownsSince Home page real estate is in such shortsupply, designers are always looking for ways tocreate more of it. One common approach is usingpulldown menus.6 Theres no doubt about it:pulldowns definitely save space.Unfortunately, they suffer from several problems: > You have to seek them out. You have to click onthe pulldown to see the list, so theres no chancefor items on the list to catch your eye as you scanthe page. This can be a real drawback on the Home page where youre trying to expose the sites content.> Theyre hard to scan. If designers use the standard HTML pulldown menu,they have no control over the font, spacing, or formatting of the list to makethem more readable, and theres no really good way to divide the list intosubgroups. > Theyre twitchy. Somehow the fact that the list comes and goes so quicklymakes it harder to read.Pulldowns are most effective for alphabetized lists ofitems with known names, like countries, states, orproducts, because theres no thought involved. If Imlooking for VCRs, for instance, I can just scroll down tothe Vs. But theyre much less effective for lists where I dontknow the name of the thing Im looking for, especially ifthe list isnt alphabetized or is long enough to requirescrolling. Good Not so good6 or just pulldowns, or drop-down menus. Nobodys quite sure what to call them.Pulldown menuThe same menu, displayedas a static list[ 111 ]the home page is beyond your controlUnfortunately, since the main benefit of pulldowns is saving space, designers aremost tempted to use them when they have a long list to display.Some users love pulldowns because theyre efficient; others wont touch them. Inmost cases, I think the drawbacks of pulldowns outweigh the potential benefits.Why Golden Geese make such tempting targets, or Funny, it tastes like chickenTheres something about the Home page that seems to inspire shortsightedbehavior. When I sit in on meetings about Home page design, I often find thephrase killing the golden goose running through my head.8The worst of these behaviors, of course, is the tendency to try to promoteeverything.The problem with promoting things on the Home page is that it works too well.Anything with a prominent Home page link is guaranteed to get more trafficusually a great deal moreleading all of the sites stakeholders to think, Whydont I have one?The problem is, the rewards and the costs of adding more things to the Homepage arent shared equally. The section thats being promoted gets a huge gain intraffic, while the overall loss in effectiveness of the Home page as it gets morecluttered is shared by all sections.8 I always thought that the phrase came from the story of Jack and the Beanstalk. In fact, JacksGiant did have a goose that laid golden eggs, but nobody tried to kill it. The senselessslaughter occurs in one of Aesops fables, and theres not much to it, plot-wise: Man findsgoose, man gets greedy, man kills goose, man gets no more eggs. Moral: Greed oftenoverreaches itself.Its a perfect example of the tragedy of the commons.9 The premise is simple: Anyshared resource (a commons) will inevitably be destroyed by overuse. Take a town pasture, for example. For each animal a herdsman adds to thecommon pasture, he receives all proceeds from the sale of the animala positivebenefit of +1. But the negative impact of adding an animalits contribution toovergrazingis shared by all, so the impact on the individual herdsman is lessthan 1. The only sensible course for each herdsman is to add another animal to the herd.And another, and anotherpreferably before someone else does. And since eachrational herdsman will reach the same conclusion, the commons is doomed.Preserving the Home page from promotional overload requires constantvigilance, since it usually happens gradually, with the slow, inexorable addition ofjustonemorething. All the stakeholders need to be educated about the danger of overgrazing theHome page, and offered other methods of driving traffic, like cross-promotingfrom other popular pages or taking turns using the same space on the Homepage.[ 112 ]chapter 79 The concept, originated by nineteenth-century amateur mathematician William ForsterLloyd, was popularized in a classic essay on overpopulation by biologist Garrett Hardin(The Tragedy of the Commons, Science, December 1968). [ 113 ]the home page is beyond your controlYou be the judgeDecide for yourself how well these two Home pages get the job done. Take a quick lookat each one and answer these two questions, then compare your answers with mine.> Whats the point of this site?> Do you know where to start?[ 113 ]www.etour.comAnswers on page 115[ 114 ]chapter 7[ 114 ]Answers on page 118[ 115 ]the home page is beyond your control[ 115 ]WHATS THE POINT OF THIS SITE? eTour was10 a very interesting and (tome, at least) useful site with a simpleconcept: Tell them what your interestsare (by checking off categories like Travel,Genealogy, or Web Design) and theydwhisk you to another hand-picked, high-quality site that matched those interestseach time you clicked on their "Next Site"button.It was effortless, rewarding Websurfingall wheat, no chaff. I used totake eTour out for a spin every few weeksjust to get a fresh sampling of what wasnew out there.I think they did a very good job conveyingthe point of the site by reducing theirstory to three short phrases andnumbering them 1-2-3 to suggest thatusing the site is a simple process.Their tagline ("Surf the Web WithoutSearching") was less successful becauseit forced me to think about whethersearching is really what makes Websurfing difficult. But as taglines go itsnot bad.Of course, eTour was luckier than mostsites. Since they didnt have a contenthierarchy that they have to make visible,all the Home page had to do was conveythe concept and the value proposition.But even so, they did a better job thanother similar sites because they stuck tothe main point and resisted thetemptation to tout any of the sites otherfeatures. Like any good carnival barker,they understood that the only thing thatcounts is getting people inside the tent.Each click on eTours"Next Site" buttonopens another site.10 eTour fell victim to Web crash in 2001, shortly after I wrote this, so Ive changed it to the past tense.[ 116 ]chapter 7DO YOU KNOW WHERE TO START?Most of the people Ive shown eTour to weretempted to click on the numbers (1,2,3) or thethree graphics first. But when that didnt work(theyre not clickable), everyone clicked on thebig "Lets Go!" button at the bottom of thepage almost immediately.The Big Button works well for first-timevisitors. In fact, the only problem is that its sobig (and "Lets Go!" is so generic) that I clickedon it on my second visit, too, when what Ishould have clicked was the understated"Members Enter Here" button to its left. Infact, since a week or two elapsed between mysubsequent visits, I clicked "Lets Go!" on mythird visit, too. And my fourth.MY VERSION The only changes I would make would be thestarting points.Id make it clear that the Big Button is for newusers, and Id give registered users a clearplace to sign in right on the Home page.MY VERSION #2I always assumed that the three graphicsillustrated the three steps described by thetext. But when I started looking at the pagecarefully, I realized that they dontthey justshow sample sites from three categories.So I mocked up a version where the graphicsactually did tell the story. And I was surprisedto find that while it conveyed more information,[ 117 ]the home page is beyond your control[ 117 ]it wasnt an improvement. In fact, overall itjust made the concept seem more complicated.The moral? Things on a Web page dont alwayshave to make literal sense to be effective, aslong as they seem to make sense.MY VERSION #3I also tried another version where I took outthe numbers (1, 2, 3), to eliminate thetemptation to click on them. But I onlysucceeded in proving that the page worksbetter with them. They seem to work as asort of visual and conceptual "glue" thathelps the user make sense out of the page.The fact that users may try to click on themis a small price to pay if the numbers makethe concept clear.THEIR REDESIGN After I first wrote this chapter, eTourredesigned their Home page. As is often thecase with redesigns, they took a few stepsforward> They created clear entry points for newand returning users by giving the BigButton a more self-explanatory name("Sign Up") and adding a sign-in box forregistered users.> They improved the tagline ("Your PersonalWeb Tour Guide") and added what amountsto another tagline ("Discover Sites YoullLike, One Click at a Time")....and a few steps back> They combined the sign-in box with apulldown menu, giving users one morething to think about with very littlepayo.> They replaced the "1-2-3" graphics and textwith an animated GIF and a block of textthats too long for anyone to bother reading.Animated GIF[ 118 ]chapter 7[ 118 ]WHATS THE POINT OF THIS SITE?Productopia was10 an excellent site, but you might notknow it from its Home page.The problem is a flaw in the visual hierarchy. Because thetagline ("The Source for Product Info and Advice") is tuckedinside the Yahoo-style directory panel, it comes across as adescription of the category list instead of the whole site.And since the tagline is bland and lacking any detail, it failsto differentiate Productopia from all the other productadvice sites and ends up sounding like every other inflatedInternet claim.At first glance, the only message I get is that the site hassomething to do with product advice. The sophisticatedgraphic style and the products pictured on the left stronglysuggest that were talking about stylish, expensiveproductsdesigner furniture, not Chia Pets.I suspect that its a site where I could find either userreviews or reviews written by Productopia for specificproducts. In reality, the site is much more powerful. Itoers advice on finding the best product in a category in agiven price range, with actual useful advice on what makesa product good in a given category.For instance, when I clicked on what I thought was a promofor a Dualit 2 Slice toaster, I was shocked to find myself on apage filled with useful, thoughtful, well-written informationabout choosing a toaster.(There was a prominent link to theDualit, but it was only one of nine featured toasters in threecategories: Quality, Style, and Value.) Overall, the Home pagemessage gave me very little hint of what Id find inside.Its unclear whether the area on the left is three promosfor todays featured products or a very abstract Welcomeblurb.(The text, "top form /shapely showoffs smack of luxe"doesnt help much.)10 Productopia met the same fate as eTour.[ 119 ]the home page is beyond your control[ 119 ]The actual Welcome blurb statement ("Ourexperts provide you with the informationyou need") is underneath the promos, andit needs to come before them. And, as usual,its too long. I have to work hard to find thecrucial information: editors select productswithout any influence from manufacturersor advertisers.DO YOU KNOW WHERE TO START?There are three clear starting points on thepage:> Type something in the prominent search box.> Click on one of the categories in theYahoo-style directory.> Click on one of the three featuredproducts (if thats what they are).The only problem is, if Im unclear on what the site is, how do I decide what to search for or what category to choose? Asuccessful Home page has to tell me whatthe site is and show me where to start.[ 120 ]chapter 7[ 120 ]THEIR REVISED VERSION While I was writing this chapter, Productopiaredesigned their Home page, improving itsubstantially.They eliminated the stray tagline on theright, and put a much better tagline ("WeHelp You Find the Products Youll Love") atthe top of the area on the left.And they shortened the crucial explanation("Our experts offer unbiased advice to helpyou choose the product thats right foryou") so that it now stands a chance ofbeing read. But its still buried at thebottom of what still looks like the featuredproducts section.And they moved the Utility links (EditorialPolicy, User Reviews, and so on) into a newarea at the bottom of the page, but theylumped them together with promos like"Womens Spring Fashion" and "Do YouCook?" It took me a while to figure out thatthe two columns were different.[ 121 ]the home page is beyond your control[ 121 ]MY VERSIONId start by moving the tagline to the top of the page with the Site ID, making it clear that its a descriptor for the entire site.Id also move the Welcome blurb above thepromos, and make it more prominent.Id separate the Utility links and the promosat the bottom of the page, grouping thepromos with the "featured products" abovethem on the left side.And Id reformat the awards icons. Unlikemost Web awards, these four are actuallymeaningful.(The Digital Time award putsProductopia on a short list of e-commercesites with Amazon and eBay.) But liningthem up across the bottom of the pagemakes them look like theyre "Bobs CoolSite of the Day" icons. This is a case whereyou want to be sure you dont follow aconvention.The Farmer and the CowmanShould BeFriendswhy most web design team argumentsabout usability are a waste of time, andhow to avoid themchapter8[ 123 ]Left to their own devices, web development teamsarent notoriously successful at making decisions about usability questions.Most teams end up spending a lot of precious time rehashing the sameissues over and over. Consider this scene:One man likes to push a plough The other likes to chase a cow But thats no reason why they can't be friendsoklahoma!, oscar hammerstein iiRick fromMarketingBob theDeveloperCaroline theDesignerPeople dont likepulldowns. My fatherwont even go near a site if it usespulldowns.Kim theProjectManagerfeaturingcontinuedCaroline makes a suggestionWe could use apulldown menu forthe product list.Well, I dont think mostpeople mind them.And theyd save us a lot of space.I hatepulldowns.Besides, haveyou got abetter idea?WEB DESIGN FUNNIES Todays episode: Religious DebatesI usually call these endless discussions religious debates, because they have alot in common with most discussions of religion and politics: They consist largelyof people expressing strongly held personal beliefs about things that cant beprovensupposedly in the interest of agreeing on the best way to do somethingchapter 8[ 124 ]but Bob plays his developers trump cardDo we know if theresany research data on pulldowns?Did we ever make a decision aboutpulldowns?I think there mightbe a problem usingpulldowns on theASP pages from ourremote servers.Rick attempts an appeal to a higher authorityI hate my life.So, what doeseverybody think?Should we try using pulldowns?Two weeks laterimportant (whether its attaining eternal peace, governing effectively, or justdesigning Web pages). And, like most religious debates, they rarely result inanyone involved changing his or her point of view. Besides wasting time, these arguments create tension and erode respect amongteam members, and can often prevent the team from making critical decisions. Unfortunately, there are several forces at work in most Web teams that makethese debates almost inevitable. In this chapter, Ill describe these forces, andexplain what I think is the best antidote.Everybody likes ________.All of us who work on Web sites have one thing in commonwere also Webusers. And like all Web users, we tend to have strong feelings about what we likeand dont like about Web sites. As individuals, we love Flash animations because theyre cool; or we hate thembecause they take a long time to download. We love menus down the left side ofeach page because theyre familiar and easy to use, or we hate them because theyreso boring. We really enjoy using sites with ______, or we find ______ to be a royal pain.And when were working on a Web team, it turns out to be very hard to checkthose feelings at the door. The result is usually a room full of individuals with strong personal convictionsabout what makes for a good Web site. And given the strength ofthese convictionsandhuman naturetheres anatural tendency to projectthese likes and dislikes ontoWeb users in general: to thinkthat most Web users like thesame things we like. We tendto think that most Web usersare like us. the farmer and the cowman[ 125 ]Hes right.They stink.Whats so badabout them?People dontlike pulldowns.I like pull-downs. Whatshis problem?chapter 8[ 126 ]Its not that we think that everyone is like us. We know there are some people outthere who hate the things we loveafter all, there are even some of them on ourown Web team. But not sensible people. And there arent many of them. Farmers vs. cowmenOn top of this layer of personal passion, theres another layer: professionalpassion. Like the farmers and the cowmen in Oklahoma!, the players on a Webteam have very different perspectives on what constitutes good Web design basedon what they do for a living.1Take designers and developers, for instance. Designers tend to think that most people like sites that are visually interesting because they like sites that arevisually interesting. In fact, they probably became designers because they enjoygood design; they find that it makes things more interesting and easier tounderstand.2Developers, on the other hand, tend to think people like sites with lots of coolfeatures because they like sites with lots of cool features. The result is that designers want to build sites that look great, and developerswant to build sites with interesting, original, elegant features. Im not sure whosthe farmer and whos the cowman in this picture, but I do know that theirdifferences in perspective often lead to conflictand hard feelingswhen itcomes time to establish design priorities.1 In the play, the thrifty, God-fearing, family-oriented farmers are always at odds with thefreewheeling, loose-living cowmen. Farmers love fences, cowmen love the open range.2 Yes, Im dealing in stereotypes here. But I think theyre useful stereotypes.PIZZAZZ!The ideal Webpage as seenby someonewhose job is CEO Developer Designer Business developmentAt the same time, designers and programmers find themselves siding together inanother, larger clash between what Art Kleiner describes as the cultures of hype and craft.3While the hype culture (upper management, marketing, and businessdevelopment) is focused on making whatever promises are necessary to attractventure capital, users, strategic partners, and revenue-generating deals to thesite, the burden of delivering on those promises lands on the shoulders of thecraft culture artisans like the designers and programmers.This Internet version of the perennial struggle between art and commerce (orperhaps farmers and cowmen vs. the railroad barons) adds another level ofcomplexity to any discussions of usability issuesoften in the form of apparentlyarbitrary edicts handed down from the hype side of the fence.4the farmer and the cowman[ 127 ]3 See Corporate Culture in Internet Time in strategy+business magazine (, free registration required).4 I once saw a particularly puzzling feature on the Home page of a prominentand otherwisesensibly designedsite. When I asked about it, I was told, Oh, that. It came to our CEO in adream, so we had to add it. True story.The CEO likes the site, buthe wants everything to betwice as large as it isin time for the tradeshow next week.The myth of the Average UserThe belief that most Web users are like us is enough to produce gridlock in theaverage Web design meeting. But behind that belief lies another one, even moreinsidious: the belief that most Web users are like anything.As soon as the clash of personal and professional opinions results in a stalemate,the conversation usually turns to finding some way (whether its an expertopinion, research, focus groups, or user tests) to determine what most users likeor dont liketo figure out what the Average Web User is really like. The onlyproblem is, there is no Average User.In fact, all of the time Ive spent watching people use the Web has led me to the opposite conclusion: all Web users are unique, and all Web use is basically idiosyncratic.The more you watch users carefully and listen to them articulate their intentions,motivations, and thought processes, the more you realize that their individualreactions to Web pages are based on so many variables that attempts to describeusers in terms of one-dimensional likes and dislikes are futile and counter-productive. Good design, on the other hand, takes this complexity into account.And the worst thing about the myth of the Average User is that it reinforces the idea that good Web design is largely a matter of figuring out what people like. Itsan attractive notion: either pulldowns are good (because most people like them),or theyre bad (because most people dont). You should have links to everything inthe site on the Home page, or you shouldnt. Menus on the top work better thanmenus down the side. Frames, pages that scroll, etc. are either good or bad, blackor white.The problem is there are no simple right answers for most Web designquestions (at least not for the important ones). What works is good, integrateddesign that fills a needcarefully thought out, well executed, and tested. Take the use of Flash, for example.5 If asked, some percent of users will say theyreally like Flash, and an equal percent will probably say they hate it. But whatchapter 8[ 128 ]5 Flash, Macromedias tool for creating animated and interactive user interfaces, not flash(lowercase), the arbitrary use of whiz-bang features to make a site more interesting.they really hate is Flash used badly: large, complicated animations that take along time to download and dont add any value. If you observe them carefully andask the right questions, youll likely find that these same people will appreciatesites that use small, hardworking, well-thought-out bits of Flash to add apleasant bit of sizzle or useful functionality without getting in the way.Thats not to say that there arent some things you should never do, and some thingsyou should rarely do. There are some ways to design Web pages that are clearlywrong. Its just that they arent the things that Web teams usually argue about. The antidote for religious debatesThe point is, its not productive to ask questions like Do most people likepulldown menus? The right kind of question to ask is Does this pulldown, withthese items and this wording in this context on this page create a good experiencefor most people who are likely to use this site?And theres really only one way to answer that kind of question: testing. You have to use the collective skill, experience, creativity, and common sense of the team tobuild some version of the thing (even a crude version), then watch ordinarypeople carefully as they try to figure out what it is and how to use it.Theres no substitute for it. Where debates about what people like waste time and drain the teams energy,testing tends to defuse arguments and break impasses by moving the discussionaway from the realm of whats right or wrong and into the realm of what works or doesnt work. And by opening our eyes to just how varied users motivations,perceptions, and responses are, testing makes it hard to keep thinking that all users are like us. Can you tell that I think testing is a good thing? The next chapter explains how to test your own site.the farmer and the cowman[ 129 ]Usability testingon 10 cents a daykeeping testing simpleso you do enough of itchapter9[ 131 ]bout once a month, I get one of these phone calls: As soon as I hear launching in two weeks (or even two months) and usabilitytesting in the same sentence, I start to get that old fireman-headed-into-the-burning-chemical-factory feeling, because I have a pretty good idea of whats going on. If its two weeks, then its almost certainly a request for a disaster check. The launch is fast approaching and everyones getting nervous, and someone finallysays, Maybe we better do some usability testing.If its two months, then odds are that what they want is to settle some ongoinginternal debatesusually about something very specific like color schemes. Opinion around the office is split between two different designs; some people like the sexy one, some like the elegant one. Finally someone with enough clout to authorize the expense gets tired of the arguing and says, All right, lets get some testing done to settle this.Why didnt we do this sooner? what everyone says at some point during thefirst usability test of their web siteAEd Grimley at XYZ Corp gave me your name.Were launching our site in two weeks and we want to dosome usability testing.two weeks?And while usability testing will sometimes settle these arguments, the mainthing it usually ends up doing is revealing that the things they were arguingabout arent all that important. People often test to decide which color drapes arebest, only to learn that they forgot to put windows in the room. For instance, theymight discover that it doesnt make much difference whether you go with thehorizontal navigation bar or the vertical menus if nobody understands the valueproposition of your site. Sadly, this is how most usability testing gets done: too little, too late, and for allthe wrong reasons.Repeat after me: Focus groups are not usability tests.Sometimes that initial phone call is even scarier:When the last-minute request is for a focus group, its usually a sign that therequest originated in Marketing. When Web sites are being designed, the folks inMarketing often feel like they dont have much clout. Even though theyre theones who spend the most time trying to figure out who the sites audience is andwhat they want, the designers and developers are the ones with most of thehands-on control over how the site actually gets put together. chapter 9[ 132 ]were launching our site intwo weeks and we want to dosome focus group testing.Focus group testing?As the launch date approaches, the Marketing people may feel that their only hopeof sanity prevailing is to appeal to a higher authority: research. And the kind ofresearch they know is focus groups.I often have to work very hard to make clients understand that what they need isusability testing, not focus groups. Heres the difference in a nutshell:> In a focus group, a small group of people (usually 5 to 8) sit around a table andreact to ideas and designs that are shown to them. Its a group process, and muchof its value comes from participants reacting to each others opinions. Focusgroups are good for quickly getting a sampling of users opinions and feelingsabout things.> In a usability test, one user at a time is shown something (whether its a Website, a prototype of a site, or some sketches of individual pages) and asked toeither (a) figure out what it is, or (b) try to use it to do a typical task.Focus groups can be great for determining what your audience wants, needs, andlikesin the abstract. Theyre good for testing whether the idea behind the sitemakes sense and your value proposition is attractive. And they can be a good way to test the names youre using for features of your site, and to find out how peoplefeel about your competitors. But theyre not good for learning about whether your site works and how to improve it.The kinds of things you can learn from focus groups are the things you need tolearn early on, before you begin designing the site. Focus groups are for EARLY inthe process. You can even run them late in the process if you want to do a realitycheck and fine-tune your message, but dont mistake them for usability testing. They wont tell you whether people can actually use your site.Several true things about testingHere are the main things I know about testing:> If you want a great site, youve got to test. After youve worked on a site foreven a few weeks, you cant see it freshly anymore. You know too much. Theonly way to find out if it really works is to test it.usabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 133 ]chapter 9[ 134 ]Testing reminds you that not everyone thinks the way you do, knows what youknow, uses the Web the way you do.I used to say that the best way to think about testing was that it was like travel:a broadening experience. It reminds you how differentand the samepeopleare, and gives you a fresh perspective on things. But I finally realized that testing is really more like having friends visiting fromout of town. Inevitably, as you make the tourist rounds with them, you seethings about your home town that you usually dont notice because youre soused to them. And at the same time, you realize that a lot of things that youtake for granted arent obvious to everybody. > Testing one user is 100 percent better than testing none. Testing alwaysworks, and even the worst test with the wrong user will show you importantthings you can do to improve your site. I make a point of always doing a liveuser test at my workshops so that people can see that its very easy to do and italways produces an abundance of valuable insights. I ask for a volunteer andhave him try to perform a task on a site belonging to one of the other attendees.These tests last less than ten minutes, but the person whose site is being testedusually scribbbles several pages of notes. And they always ask if they can havethe recording of the test to show to their team back home. (One person told methat after his team saw the recording, they made one change to their site whichthey later calculated had resulted in $100,000 in savings.)> Testing one user early in the project is better than testing 50 near theend. Most people assume that testing needs to be a big deal. But if you make itinto a big deal, you wont do it early enough or often enough to get the most outof it. A simple test earlywhile you still have time to use what you learn fromitis almost always more valuable than a sophisticated test later.Part of the conventional wisdom about Web development is that its very easyto go in and make changes. The truth is, it turns out that its not that easy tomake changes to a site once its in use. Some percentage of users will resistalmost any kind of change, and even apparently simple changes often turn outto have far-reaching effects, so anything you can keep from building wrong inthe first place is gravy.> The importance of recruiting representative users is overrated. Its goodto do your testing with people who are like the people who will use your site,but its much more important to test early and often. My mottoas youll seeis Recruit loosely, and grade on a curve. > The point of testing is not to prove or disprove something. Its toinform your judgment. People like to think, for instance, that they can usetesting to prove whether navigation system a is better than navigation systemb, but you cant. No one has the resources to set up the kind of controlledexperiment youd need. What testing can do is provide you with invaluable inputwhich, taken together with your experience, professional judgment, andcommon sense, will make it easier for you to choose wiselyand with greaterconfidencebetween a and b.> Testing is an iterative process. Testing isnt something you do once.You make something, test it, fix it, and test it again. > Nothing beats a live audience reaction. One reason why the MarxBrothers movies are so wonderful is that before they started filmingthey would go on tour on the vaudeville circuit and perform scenesfrom the movie, doing five shows a day, improvising constantly andnoting which lines got the best laughs. Evenafter theyd settled on a line, Grouchowould insist on trying slight variations tosee if it could be improved.Lost our lease, going-out-of-business-sale usability testingUsability testing has been around for a long time, and the basic idea is prettysimple: If you want to know whether your software or your Web site or yourVCR remote control is easy enough to use, watch some people while they try touse it and note where they run into trouble. Then fix it, and test it again.In the beginning, though, usability testing was a very expensive proposition. Youhad to have a usability lab with an observation room behind a one-way mirror,and at least two video cameras so you could record the users reactions and thething they were using. You had to recruit a lot of people so you could get results usabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 135 ]Mrs. Teasdale (MargaretDumont) and Rufus T. Fireflyeavesdrop in Duck Soup.that were statistically significant. It was Science. It cost $20,000 to $50,000 a shot.It didnt happen very often.But in 1989 Jakob Nielsen wrote a paper titled Usability Engineering at aDiscount1 and pointed out that it didnt have to be that way. You didnt need a chapter 9[ 136 ]Its true that most Web development schedules seem to be basedon the punchline from a Dilbert cartoon. If testing is going to addto everybodys to-do list, if you have to adjust developmentschedules around tests and involve key people in preparing forthem, then it wont get done. Thats why you have to make testingas small a deal as possible. Done right, it will save time, because youwont have to (a) argue endlessly, and (b) redo things at the end.Forget $5,000 to 15,000. If you can convince someone to bring ina camcorder from home, youll only need to spend about $300 foreach round of tests.The least-known fact about usability testing is that its incrediblyeasy to do. Yes, some people will be better at it than others, butIve never seen a usability test fail to produce useful results, nomatter how poorly it was conducted.You dont need one. All you really need is a room with a desk, acomputer, and two chairs where you wont be interrupted.One of the nicest things about usability testing is that theimportant lessons tend to be obvious to everyone whos watching.The serious problems are hard to miss.THE TOP FIVE PLAUSIBLE EXCUSES FOR NOT TESTING WEB SITES We dont havethe time.We dont have the money.We dont have the expertise.We dont have ausability lab.We wouldnt knowhow to interpret the results.1 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Boston,MA, Sept. 1989. usabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 137 ]NUMBER OF USERS PER TEST RECRUITINGEFFORTWHERE TO TESTWHO DOES THE TESTINGADVANCE PLANNINGPREPARATIONWHAT/WHEN DO YOU TEST?COSTWHAT HAPPENSAFTERWARDSUsually eight or more to justify the set-up costsSelect carefully to match target audienceA usability lab, with an observationroom and a one-way mirrorAn experienced usability professionalTests have to be scheduled weeks inadvance to reserve a usability lab andallow time for recruitingDraft, discuss, and revise a test protocolUnless you have a huge budget, put allyour eggs in one basket and test oncewhen the site is nearly complete$5,000 to $15,000 (or more)A 20-page written report appears aweek later, then the development teammeets to decide what changes to makeThree or fourGrab some people. Almost anybody whouses the Web will do.Any office or conference roomAny reasonably patient human beingTests can be done almost any time, withlittle advance schedulingDecide what youre going to showRun small tests continually throughoutthe development process$300 (a $50 to $100 stipend for each user) or lessThe development team (and interestedstakeholders) debrief over lunch thesame dayTRADITIONAL TESTING LOST-OUR-LEASE TESTING usability lab, and you could achieve the same results with a lot fewer users.The idea of discount usability testing was a huge step forward. The only problem is that a decade later most people still perceive testing as a big deal, hiringsomeone to conduct a test still costs $5,000 to $15,000, and as a result it doesnthappen nearly often enough.What Im going to commend to you in this chapter is something even moredrastic: Lost our lease, going-out-of-business-sale usability testing.Im going to try to explain how to do your own testing when you have no moneyand no time. Dont get me wrong: If you can afford to hire a professional to do yourtesting, by all means do it! But dont do it if it means youll do less testing. chapter 9[ 138 ]How many users should you test?In most cases, I tend to think the ideal number of users for each round of testing isthree, or at most four. The first three users are very likely to encounter nearly all of the most significantproblems,2 and its much more important to do more rounds of testing than towring everything you can out of each round. Testing only three users helpsensure that you will do another round soon.3Also, since you will have fixed the problems you uncovered in the first round, inthe next round its likely that all three users will uncover a new set of problems,since they wont be getting stuck on the first set of problems.Testing only three or four users also makes it possible to test and debrief in thesame day, so you can take advantage of what youve learned right away. Also,when you test more than four at a time, you usually end up with more notes thananyone has time to processmany of them about things that are really nits,which can actually make it harder to see the forest for the trees.In fact this is one of the reasons why Ive almost completely stopped generatingwritten reports (what I refer to as the big honking report) for my expertreviews and for usability tests. I finally realized that for most Web teams theirability to find problems greatly exceeds the resources they have available to fixthem, so its important to stay focused on the most serious problems. Instead ofwritten reports, nowadays I report my findings in a conference call with theentire Web team, which may last for an hour or two. By the end of the call, weveall agreed which problems are most important to fix, and how theyre going to fixthem. 2 See Jakob Nielsens March 2000 Alertbox column Why You Only Need to Test with 5 Usersat for a good discussion of the topic. 3 If youre hiring someone to do the testing for you and money is no object, you might as welltest six or eight users since the additional cost per user will be comparatively low. But only ifit wont mean youll do fewer rounds of testing.Recruit loosely and grade on a curveWhen people decide to test, they often spend a lot of time trying to recruit userswho they think will precisely reflect their target audiencefor instance, maleaccountants between the ages of 25 and 30 with one to three years of computerexperience who have recently purchased expensive shoes. The best-kept secret of usability testing is the extent to which it doesnt muchmatter who you test. For most sites, all you really need are people who have used the Web enough toknow the basics.usabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 139 ]ONE TEST WITH 8 USERS TOTAL PROBLEMS FOUND: 5Second test: 3 usersTOTAL PROBLEMSFOUND: 9TWO TESTS WITH 3 USERSEight users mayfind more problemsin a single test.But the worst prob-lems will usuallykeep them fromgetting far enoughto encounter some others.Three users maynot find as manyproblems in asingle test.But in thesecond test,with the firstset of problemsfixed, theyllfind problemsthey couldnthave seen in the first test.8 usersFirst test: 3 usersIf you can afford to hire someone to recruit the participants for you and it wontreduce the number of rounds of testing that you do, then by all means be asspecific as you want. But if finding the ideal user means youre going to do fewertests, I recommend a different approach: Take anyone you can get (within limits) and grade on a curve. In other words, try to find users who reflect your audience, but dont get hung upabout it. Instead, try to make allowances for the differences between the peopleyou test and your audience. I favor this approach for three reasons: > Were all beginners under the skin. Scratch an expert and youll often findsomeone whos muddling throughjust at a higher level. > Its usually not a good idea to design a site so that only your targetaudience can use it. If you design a site for accountants using terminologythat you think all accountants will understand, what youll probably discoveris that a small but not insignificant number of accountants wont know whatyoure talking about. And in most cases, you need to be addressing novices aswell as experts anyway, and if your grandmother can use it, an expert can. > Experts are rarely insulted by something that is clear enough forbeginners. Everybody appreciates clarity. (True clarity, that is, and not justsomething thats been dumbed down.)The exceptions: > If your site is going to be used almost exclusively by one type of user andits no harder to recruit from that group, then do it. For instance, if youraudience will be almost entirely women, then by all means test just women.> If your audience is split between clearly defined groups with verydivergent interests and needs, then you need to test users from each groupat least once. For instance, if youre building a university site, for at least oneround of testing you want to recruit two students, two professors, two highschool seniors, and two administrators. But for the other rounds, you canchoose any mix.chapter 9[ 140 ]> If using your site requires specific domain knowledge (e.g., a currencyexchange site for money management professionals), then you need to recruitpeople with that domain knowledge for at least one round of tests. But dont doit for every round if it will reduce the number of tests you do.When youre recruiting:> Offer a reasonable incentive. Typical stipends for a one-hour test sessionrange from $50 for average Web users to several hundred dollars forprofessionals from a specific domain, like cardiologists for instance. I like tooffer people a little more than the going rate, since (a) it makes it clear that Ivalue their opinion, and (b) people tend to show up on time, eager toparticipate. Remember, even if the session is only 30 minutes, people usuallyhave to block out another hour for travel time. Also, Id rather have people whoare curious about the process than people who are desperate for the money.> Keep the invitation simple. We need to have a few people look at our Website and give us some feedback. Its very easy, and would take about forty-fiveminutes to an hour. And youll be paid $___ for your time.> Avoid discussing the site (or the organization behind the site)beforehand. You want their first look to tell you whether they can figure outwhat it is from a standing start. (Of course, if theyre coming to your office,theyll have a pretty good idea whose site it is.)> Dont be embarrassed to ask friends and neighbors. You dont have to feellike youre imposing if you ask friends or neighbors to participate. Most peopleenjoy the experience. Its fun to have someone take your opinion seriously andget paid for it, and they often learn something useful that they didnt knowabout the Web or computers in general.usabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 141 ]Where do you test?All you really need is an office or conference room with two chairs, a PC or Mac(with an Internet connection, if youre testing a live site), a camcorder, a longvideo cable, and a tripod. You can use the video cable to run the signal from the camcorder to a TV inanother officeor even a cubiclenearby so everyone on the development teamcan watch without disturbing the user. The camcorder needs to transmit what the user sees (the computer screen or thedesigns on paper, depending on what youre testing) and what the user and thefacilitator say. In a usability lab, youll often see a second camera used to show theobservers the users face, but this isnt necessary: The users tone of voice usuallyconveys frustration pretty effectively.You can buy the camcorder, TV, cable, and tripod for less than $600. But if yourbudget wont stretch that far, you can probably twist somebodys arm to bring ina camcorder from home on test days.chapter 9[ 142 ]Test subject (A) sits in front of computer monitor (B),while facilitator (C) tells him what to do and asks ques-tions. Camcorder (D) powered by squirrel (E) is pointed at the monitor to record what the subject sees.Meanwhile, cable (F) carries signal fromcamcorder to TV (G) in a nearby room whereinterested team members (H) can observe.I think Id click hereI think Id click hereSo what would you do next?Well, Ill bedarned!LOST-OUR-LEASE USABILITY LABI dont recommend using the camcorder to videotape the sessions. In fact, I used torecommend not doing any video recording at all, because the tapes were almostnever used and it made the whole process more complicated and expensive.In the past few years though, three things have changed: PCs have gotten muchfaster, disk drives have gotten much larger, and screen recording software hasimproved dramatically. Screen recorders like Camtasia4 run in the background onthe test PC and record everything that happens on the screen and everything theuser and the facilitator say in a video file you can play on the PC. It turns out thatthese files are very valuable because theyre much easier to review quickly thanvideotape and theyre very easy to share over a network. I recommend that youalways use a screen recorder during user tests. Who should do the testing?Almost anyone can facilitate a usability test; all it really takes is the courage to tryit. With a little practice, most people can get quite good at it.Try to choose someone who tends to be patient, calm, empathetic, a good listener,and inherently fair. Dont choose someone whom you would describe asdefinitely not a people person or the office crank. Who should observe?Anybody who wants to. Its a good idea to encourage everyoneteam members,people from marketing and business development, and any other stakeholdersto attend. When people ask me how they can convince senior management that theirorganization should be investing in usability, my strongest recommendationdoesnt have anything to do with things like demonstrating return on usabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 143 ]4 There are a number of screen recorders available, but Im partial to Camtasia, made by TechSmith, the same company that makes the screen capture program SnagIt( Its very reliable and has a number of extremely usefulfeatures, and it costs about $300. For $1,000 more, they have a product called Moraespecifically designed for capturing usability testssort of like Camtasia on steroidswhichallows observers to view the test live on a networked PC, eliminating the need for a camcorder.chapter 9[ 144 ]investment. The tactic that I think works best is getting management to observeeven one user test. Tell them that youre going to be doing some usability testingand it would be great for the Web teams morale if they could just poke their headin for a few minutes. In my experience, executives often become fascinated and staylonger than theyd planned, because its the first time theyve seen their site inaction and its often not nearly as pretty a picture as theyd imagined. What do you test, and when do you test it?The key is to start testing early (its really never too early) and test often, at eachphase of Web development. Before you even begin designing your site, you should be testing comparable sites.They may be actual competitors, or they may be sites that are similar in style,organization, or features to what you have in mind. Use them yourself, then watch one or two other people use them and see whatworks and what doesnt. Many people overlook this step, but its invaluablelikehaving someone build a working prototype for you for free.If youve never conducted a test before testing comparable sites, it will give you apressure-free chance to get the hang of it. It will also give you a chance to develop a thick skin. The first few times you test your own site, its hard not to take itpersonally when people dont get it. Testing someone elses site first will help yousee how people react to sites and give you a chance to get used to it.Since the comparable sites are live, you can do two kinds of testing: Get it testingand key tasks. > Get it testing is just what it sounds like: show them the site, and see if theyget itdo they understand the purpose of the site, the value proposition, how itsorganized, how it works, and so on.> Key task testing means asking the user to do something, then watching howwell they do.As a rule, youll always get more revealing results if you can find a way to observe users doing tasks that they have a hand in choosing. Its much better, for instance, to say Find a book you want to buy, or a book you boughtrecently than Find a cookbook for under $14. When people are doing made-up tasks, they have no emotional investment in it, and they cant use as muchof their personal knowledge.As you begin designing your own site, its never too early to start showing yourdesign ideas to users, beginning with your first rough sketches. Designers are often reluctant to show work in progress, but users may actually feel freer tocomment on something that looks unfinished, since they know you havent gotas much invested in it and its still subject to change. Also, since its not a polisheddesign, users wont be distracted by details of implementation and they can focuson the essence and the wording. Later, as you begin building parts of the site or functioning prototypes, you canbegin testing key tasks on your own site.I also recommend doing what I call Cubicle tests: Whenever you build a newkind of pageparticularly formsyou should print the page out and show it tothe person in the next cubicle and see if they can make sense out of it. This kindof informal testing can be very efficient, and eliminate a lot of potential problems.A sample test sessionHeres an annotated excerpt from a typicalbut imaginarytest session. The siteis real, but it has since been redesigned. The participants name is Janice, andshes about 25 years old.usabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 145 ]chapter 9[ 146 ]5 A copy of the script is available on my Web site ( so you can download itand edit it for your own use.6 If you didnt work on the part thats being tested, you can also say, Dont worry abouthurting my feelings. I didnt create the pages youre going to look at.This whole first section isthe script that I use when Iconduct tests.5I always have a copy infront of me, and I donthesitate to read from it,but I find its good to ad liba little, even if it meansmaking mistakes. When theusers see that Imcomfortable makingmistakes, it helps take thepressure o them.Hi, Janice. My name is Steve Krug, and Im going to be walking you through this session.You probably already know, but let me explainwhy weve asked you to come here today. Weretesting a Web site that were working on so wecan see what its like for actual people to use it.I want to make it clear right away that weretesting the site, not you. You cant do anythingwrong here. In fact, this is probably the oneplace today where you dont have to worryabout making mistakes.We want to hear exactly what you think, soplease dont worry that youre going to hurtour feelings.6 We want to improve it, so weneed to know honestly what you think. As we go along, Im going to ask you to thinkout loud, to tell me whats going through yourmind. This will help us.INTRODUCTIONusabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 147 ]Its important to mentionthis, because it will seemrude not to answer theirquestions as you go along.You have to make it clearbefore you start that (a)its nothing personal, and(b) youll try to answerthem at the end if they stillwant to know.At this point, most peoplewill say something like, Imnot going to end up onAmericas Funniest HomeVideos, am I?Give them the release andnon-disclosure agreement(if required) to sign. Bothshould be as short aspossible and written inplain English.7If you have questions, just ask. I may not beable to answer them right away, since wereinterested in how people do when they donthave someone sitting next to them, but I willtry to answer any questions you still havewhen were done.We have a lot to do, and Im going to try tokeep us moving, but well try to make sure thatits fun, too.You may have noticed the camera. With yourpermission, were going to record the computerscreen and what you have to say. The recordingwill be used only to help us figure out how toimprove the site, and it wont be seen by anyoneexcept the people working on the project. Italso helps me, because I dont have to take asmany notes. There are also some peoplewatching the screen in another room.If you would, Im going to ask you to signsomething for us. It simply says that we haveyour permission to record you, but that it willonly be seen by the people working on theproject. It also says that you wont talk toanybody about what were showing you today,since it hasnt been made public yet.Do you have any questions before we begin?No. I dont think so.7 Youll find a sample recording consent form on my Web site.chapter 9[ 148 ]Before we look at the site, Id like to ask youjust a few quick questions. First, whats youroccupation?Im a router.Ive never heard of that before. What does arouter do, exactly?Not much. I take orders as they come in,and send them to the right office.Good. Now, roughly how many hours a weekwould you say you spend using the Internet,including email?Oh, I dont know. Probably an hour a day atwork, and maybe four hours a week athome. Mostly thats on the weekend. Imtoo tired at night to bother. But I likeplaying games sometimes.How do you spend that time? In a typical day,for instance, tell me what you do, at work andat home.Well, at the office I spend most of my timechecking email. I get a lot of email, and alot of its junk but I have to go through itanyway. And sometimes I have to researchsomething at work.I find its good to startwith a few questions to geta feel for who they are andhow they use the Internet.It gives them a chance toloosen up a little and givesyou a chance to show thatyoure going to be listeningattentively to what theysayand that there are nowrong or right answers.Dont hesitate to admityour ignorance about anything. Your role here is not to come across as an expert, but as a good listener.Notice that shes not surehow much time she reallyspends on the Internet.Most people arent. Dontworry. Accurate answersarent important here. Themain point here is just toget her talking andthinking about how sheuses the Internet and togive you a chance to gaugewhat kind of user she is.BACKGROUND QUESTIONSusabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 149 ]Do you have any favorite Web sites?Yahoo, I guess. I like Yahoo, and I use it allthe time. And something, because I have a pet snake.Really? What kind of snake?A python. Hes about four feet long, buthe should get to be eight or nine whenhes fully grown.Wow. OK, now, finally, have you boughtanything on the Internet? How do you feelabout buying things on the Internet?Ive bought some things recently. I didntdo it for a long time, but only because Icouldnt get things delivered. It was hardto get things delivered, because Im nothome during the day. But now one of myneighbors is home all the time, so I can.And what have you bought?Well, I ordered a raincoat from L.L. Bean,and it worked out much better than Ithought it would. It was actually pretty easy.OK, great. Were done with the questions, andwe can start looking at things.OK, I guess.Dont be afraid to digressand find out a little moreabout the user, as long asyou come back to the topicbefore long.chapter 9[ 150 ]First, Im just going to ask you to look at thispage and tell me what you think it is, whatstrikes you about it, and what you think youwould click on first.For now, dont actually click on anything. Justtell me what you would click on.And again, as much as possible, it will help usif you can try to think out loud so we knowwhat youre thinking about.The browser has been open,but minimized. At thispoint, I reach over andclick to maximize it.REACTIONS TO THE HOME PAGEusabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 151 ]Well, I guess the first thing I notice is thatI like the color. I like the shade of orange,and I like the little picture of the sun [atthe top of the page, in the eLance logo].Lets see. [Reads.] The global servicesmarket. Where the world comes to getyour job done.I dont know what that means. I have noidea.Animate your logo free.[Looking at theCool Stuff section on the left.] 3D graphicsmarketplace. eLance community. eLancemarketplace.In an average test, itsjust as likely that thenext user will say thatshe hates this shade oforange and that thedrawing is too simplistic.Dont get too excited byindividual reactions tosite aesthetics.chapter 9[ 152 ]This user is doing a goodjob of thinking out loud onher own. If she wasnt, thisis where Id start askingher, What are youthinking?Theres a lot going on here. But I have noidea what any of it is.If you had to take a guess, what do you think itmight be?Well, it seems to have something to do withbuying and selling...something.[Looks around the page again.] Now that Ilook at the list down here [the Yahoo-stylecategory list halfway down the page], I guessmaybe it must be services. Legal, financial,creative...they all sound like services.So I guess thats what it is. Buying andselling services. Maybe like some kind ofonline Yellow Pages.OK. Now, if you were at home, what would youclick on first?usabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 153 ]I ask this question becausethe sites designers thinkmost users are going tostart by clicking on thepictures of the five steps,and that everyone will atleast look at them.I guess Id click on that 3D graphics thing.Im interested in 3D graphics.Before you click on it, I have one morequestion. What about these pictures near thetop of the pagethe ones with the numbers?What did you make of them?I noticed them, but I really didnt try to figurethem out. I guess I thought they were tellingme what the steps in the process would be.Any reason why you didnt pay muchattention to them?No. I guess I just wasnt ready to start the process yet. I didnt know if I wantedto use it yet. I just wanted to look around first.OK. Great.chapter 9[ 154 ]OK, now were going to try something else. Can you think of something you might want topost as a project if you were using this site?Hmm. Let me think. I think I saw HomeImprovement there somewhere. Werethinking of building a deck. Maybe I wouldpost that.So if you were going to post the deck as aproject, what would you do first?I guess Id click on one of the categoriesdown here. I think I saw homeimprovement.[Looks.] There it is, underFamily and Household.So what would you do?Well, Id click....[Hesitates, looking at thetwo links under Family and Household.]Now I give her a task toperform so we can seewhether she can use thesite for its intendedpurpose.Whenever possible, itsgood to let the user havesome say in choosing thetask.TESTING A TASKusabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 155 ]Well, now Im not sure what to do. I cantclick on Home Improvement, so it looks likeI have to click on either RFPs or Fixed-Price. But I dont know what thedifference is.Fixed price I sort of understand; theyllgive me a quote, and then they have tostick to it. But Im not sure what RFPs is.Well, which one do you think youd click on?Fixed price, I guess.Why dont you go ahead and do it?As it turns out, shesmistaken. Fixed-price (inthis case) means servicesavailable for a fixed hourlyrate, while an RFP (orRequest for Proposal) isactually the choice thatwill elicit quotes. This is thekind of misunderstandingthat often surprises thepeople who built the site.From here on, I just watchwhile she tries to post aproject, letting hercontinue until either (a)she finishes the task,(b)she gets really frustrated,or (c) were not learninganything new by watchingher try to muddle through.Id give her three or fourmore tasks to do, whichshould take not more than45 minutes altogether.chapter 9[ 156 ]Review the results right awayAfter each round of tests, you should make time as soon as possible for thedevelopment team to review everyones observations and decide what to do next.I strongly recommend that you do three or four tests in a morning and thendebrief over lunch.Youre doing two things at this meeting:> Triagereviewing the problems people saw and deciding which ones need to be fixed.> Problem solvingfiguring out how to fix them.It might seem that this would be a difficult process. After all, these are the same team members whove been arguing about the right way to do things all along. Sowhats going to make this session any different?Just this: The important things that you learn from usabilitytesting usually just make sense. They tend to beobvious to anyone who watches the sessions. Also, the experience of seeing your handiwork through someone elses eyes willoften suggest entirely new solutions for problems, or let you see an old idea in a new light.And remember, this is a cyclic process, so the team doesnt have to agree on theperfect solution. You just need to figure out what to try next.Typical problemsHere are the types of problems youre going to see most often when you test:> Users are unclear on the concept. They just dont get it. They look at the siteor a page and they either dont know what to make of it, or they think they dobut theyre wrong.> The words theyre looking for arent there. This usually means that eitherusabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 157 ](a) the categories youve used to organize your content arent the ones theywould use, or (b) the categories are what they expect, but youre just not usingthe names they expect. > Theres too much going on. Sometimes what theyre looking for is rightthere on the page, but theyre just not seeing it. In this case, you need to either(a) reduce the overall noise on the page, or (b) turn up the volume on the thingsthey need to see so they pop out of the visual hierarchy more.Some triage guidelinesHeres the best advice I can give you about deciding what to fixand what not to.> Ignore kayak problems. In any test, youre likely to see several caseswhere users will go astray momentarily but manage to get back on trackalmost immediately without any help. Its kind of like rolling over in a kayak;as long as the kayak rights itself quickly enough, its all part of the so-calledfun. In basketball terms, no harm, no foul. As long as (a) everyone who has the problem notices that theyre no longerheaded in the right direction quickly, and (b) they manage to recover withouthelp, and (c) it doesnt seem to faze them, you can ignore the problem. Ingeneral, if the users second guess about where to find things is always right,thats good enough.Of course, if theres an easy and obvious fix that wont break anything else,then by all means fix it. But kayak problems usually dont come as a surprise tothe development team. Theyre usually there because of some ambiguity forwhich there is no simple resolution. For example, there are usually at least oneor two oddball items that dont fit perfectly into any of the top-level categoriesof a site. So half the users may look for movie listings in Lifestyles first, and theother half will look for them in Arts first. Whatever you do, half of them aregoing to be wrong on their first guess, but everyone will get it on their secondguess, which is fine.8 8 You may be thinking Well, why not just put it in both categories? In general, I think its bestfor things to live in only one place in a hierarchy, with a prominent see also crosslink inany other places where people are likely to look for them.chapter 9[ 158 ]> Resist the impulse to add things. When its obvious in testing that usersarent getting something, most peoples first reaction is to add something, likean explanation or some instructions.Very often, the right solution is to take something (or things) away that areobscuring the meaning, rather than adding yet another distraction.> Take new feature requests with a grain of salt. People will often say, Idlike it better if it could do x. It always pays to be suspicious of these requests fornew features. If you probe deeper, it often turns out that they already have aperfectly fine source for x and wouldnt be likely to switch; theyre just tellingyou what they like. > Grab the low-hanging fruit. The main thing youre looking for in each roundof testing is the big, cheap wins. These fall into two categories:> Head slappers. These are the surprises that show upduring testing where the problem and the solutionwere obvious to everyone the moment they saw thefirst user try to muddle through. These are like foundmoney, and you should fix them right away.> Cheap hits. Also try to implement any changes that(a) require almost no effort, or (b) require a littleeffort but are highly visible.And finally, theres one last piece of advice about making changes that deservesits own section:Dont throw the baby out with the dishes Like any good design, successful Web pages are usually a delicate balance, andits important to keep in mind that even a minor change can have a major impact.Sometimes the real challenge isnt fixing the problems you findits fixing themwithout breaking the parts that already work. Whenever youre making a change, think carefully about what else is going to beaffected. In particular, when youre making something more prominent than itwas, consider what else might end up being de-emphasized as a result. usabil ity testing on 10 cents a day[ 159 ]One morning a month: thats all we ask Ideally, I think every Web development team should spend one morning a monthdoing usability testing.In a morning, you can test three or four users, then debrief over lunch. Thats it. When you leave lunch, the team will have decided what youre going to fix, andyoull be done with testing for the month. No reports, no endless meetings. Doing it all in a morning also greatly increases the chances that most teammembers will make time to come and watch at least some of the sessions, whichis highly desirable.If youre going to try doing some testing yourselfand I hope you willyoullfind some more advice about how to do it in a chapter called Usability testing:The Movie that was in the first edition of this book.9 My next book is going to beall about do-it-yourself usability testing, but I do not want you to wait for it beforeyou start testing. Start now.9 You can download the chapter for free at ascommon courtesy why your web site should be a mensch 1chapter10 1Mensch: a German-derived Yiddish word originally meaning human being. A person ofintegrity and honor; a stand-up guy; someone who does the right thing. [ 161 ]Some time ago, I was booked on a flight to Denver. As ithappened, the date of my flight also turned out to be the deadline forcollective bargaining between the airline I was booked on and one of its unions.Concerned, I did what anyone would do: (a) Start checking Google News everyhour to see if a deal had been reached, and (b) visit the airlines Web site to seewhat they were saying about it.I was shocked to discover that not only was there nothing about the impendingstrike on the airlines Home page, but there wasnt a word about it to be foundanywhere on the entire site. I searched. I browsed. I scrolled through all of theirFAQ lists. Nothing but business as usual. Strike? What strike?Now, on the morning of a potential airline strike, you have to know that theresreally only one frequently asked question related to the site, and its being askedby hundreds of thousands of people who hold tickets for the coming week:Whats going to happen to me? I might have expected to find an entire FAQ list dedicated to the topic:Is there really going to be a strike?Whats the current status of the talks?If there is a strike, what will happen?How will I be able to rebook my flight?What will you do to help me?Nothing. What was I to take away from this? Either (a) the airline had no procedure for updating their Home page for specialcircumstances, (b) for some legal or business reason they didnt want to admitthat there might be a strike, (c) it hadnt occurred to them that people might beinterested, or (d) they just couldnt be bothered. Sincerity: thats the hard part. If you can fake that, the rest is easy.old joke about a hollywood agentchapter 10[ 162 ]No matter what the real reason was, they did an outstanding job of depleting mygoodwill towards both the airline and their Web site. Their brandwhich theyspend hundreds of millions of dollars a year polishinghad definitely lost someof its luster for me. Most of this book has been about building clarity into Web sites: making sure thatusers can understand what it is theyre looking atand how to use itwithoutundue effort. Is it clear to people? Do they get it?But theres another important component to Web usability: doing the rightthingbeing considerate of the user. Besides Is my site clear? you also need to be asking, Does my site behave like a mensch? The Reservoir of GoodwillI've always found it useful to imagine that every time we enter a Web site, westart out with a reservoir of goodwill. Each problem we encounter on the sitelowers the level of that reservoir. Here, for example, is what my visit to the airlinesite might have looked like:I enter the site.My goodwill is a little low,because I'm not happythat their negotiationsmay seriouslyinconvenience me.Latest press release is fivedays old.I go to the About Us page.No promising links, butplenty of promotions,which is very annoying.Why are they trying tosell me more ticketswhen I'm not surethey're going to fly metomorrow?I search for strike and findtwo press releases about astrike a year ago, and pagesfrom the corporate historyabout a strike in the 1950s.At this point, I would like toleave, but they're the solesource for this information.I look through their FAQlists, then leave.I glance around theHome page.It feels well organized,so I relax a little. I'mconfident that if theinformation is here, I'llbe able to find it.There's no mention ofthe strike on theHome page.I dont like the factthat it feels likebusiness as usual.There's a list of fivelinks to News stories on the Home page butnone are relevant.I click on the PressReleases link at thebottom of the list.usabil ity a s common courtesy[ 163 ]The reservoir is limited, and if you treat users badly enough and exhaust ittheres a good chance that theyll leave. But leaving isnt the only possible negativeoutcome; they may just not be as eager to use your site in the future, or they maythink less of your organization. There are a few things worth noting about this reservoir:> Its idiosyncratic. Some people have a largereservoir, some small. Some people are moresuspicious by nature, or more ornery; others areinherently more patient, trusting, or optimistic. Thepoint is, you cant count on a very large reserve.> Its situational. If Im in a huge hurry, or have just come from a bad experience on another site, my expendable goodwill may already be low when I enter your site, even if I naturally have a large reserve.> You can refill it. Even if youve made mistakesthat have diminished my goodwill, you canreplenish it by doing things that make me feel like youre looking out for my best interests.> Sometimes a single mistake can empty it. Forinstance, just opening up a registration form withtons of fields may be enough to cause somepeoples reserve to plunge instantly to zero.Im out of herechapter 10[ 164 ]Things that diminish goodwillHere are a few of the things that tend to make users feel like the peoplepublishing a site dont have their best interests at heart:> Hiding information that I want. The most common things to hide arecustomer support phone numbers, shipping rates, and prices. The whole point of hiding support phone numbers is to try to keep users from calling, because each call costs money. The usual effect is to diminishgoodwill and ensure that theyll be even more annoyed when they do find the number and call. On the other hand, if the 800 number is in plain sightperhaps even on every pagesomehow knowing that they can call if theywant to is often enough to keep people looking for the information on the sitelonger, increasing the chances that theyll solve the problem themselves.Some sites hide pricing information in hopes of getting users so far into theprocess that theyll feel vested in it by the time they experience the stickershock. My favorite example is Web sites for wireless access in public placeslike airports. Having seen a Wireless access available! sign and knowingthat its free at some airports, you open up your laptop, find a signal, and tryto connect. But then you have to scan, read, and click your way through threepages, following links like Wireless Access and Click here to connectbefore you get to a page that even hints at what it might cost you. It feels likean old phone sales tactic: If they can just keep you on the line long enoughand keep throwing more of their marketing pitch at you, maybe they canconvince you along the way. Punishing me for not doing things your way. I should never have to thinkabout formatting data: whether or not to put dashes in my Social Securitynumber, spaces in my credit card number, or parentheses in my phonenumber. Many sites perversely insist on no spaces in credit card numbers,when the spaces actually make it much easier to get the number right. Dontmake me jump through hoops just because you dont want to write a little bitof code. usabil ity a s common courtesy[ 165 ]Asking me for information you dont really need. Most users are veryskeptical of requests for personal information, and find it annoying if a siteasks for more than whats needed for the task at hand. Shucking and jiving me. We'realways on the lookout for fauxsincerity, and disingenuousattempts to convince me that youcare about me can be particularlyannoying. Think about what goesthrough your head every time youhear Your call is important to us. Putting sizzle in my way. Having to wait through a long Flash intro, orwade through pages bloated with feel-good marketing photos makes it clearthat you dont understandor carethat Im in a hurry. Your site looks amateurish. You can lose goodwill if your site looks sloppy,disorganized, or unprofessional, like no effort has gone into making itpresentable. Note that while people love to make comments about the appearance of sitesespecially about whether they like the colorsalmost no one is going to leavea site just because it doesnt look great. (I tell people to ignore all commentsthat users make about colors during a user test, unless three out of fourpeople use a word like puke to describe the color scheme. Then its worthrethinking.2)There may be times when youll choose to have your site do some of these user-unfriendly things deliberately. Sometimes it makes business sense not to doexactly what the customer wants. For instance, uninvited pop-ups almost alwaysannoy people to some extent. But if your statistics show you can get 10 percentmore revenue by using pop-ups and you think its worth annoying your users,you can do it. Its a business decision. Just be sure you do it in an informed way,rather than inadvertently.Right. Thats why your unusuallyhigh call volume is keeping me on hold for 20 minutes: because my call is important to you, but my time isnt.2 This actually happened once during a round of testing I facilitated. We changed the color.chapter 10[ 166 ]Things that increase goodwill The good news is that even if you make mistakes, its possible to restore mygoodwill by doing things that convince me that you do have my interests at heart.Most of these are just the flip side of the other list: Know the main things that people want to do on your site and makethem obvious and easy. Its usually not hard to figure out what people want to do on a given Web site. I find that even people who disagree abouteverything else about their organizations site almost always give me the sameanswer when I ask them What are the three main things your users want todo? The problem is, making those things easy doesnt always become the toppriority it should be. (If most people are coming to your site to apply for amortgage, nothing should get in the way of making it dead easy to apply for a mortgage. ) Tell me what I want to know. Be upfront about things like shipping costs,hotel daily parking fees, service outagesanything youd rather not beupfront about. You may lose points if your shipping rates are higher than Id like, but youll often gain enough points for candor and for making it easy for me to make up the difference.Save me steps wherever you can. For instance, instead of giving me theshipping companys tracking number for my purchase, put a link in my emailreceipt that opens their site and submits my tracking number when I click it.(As usual, Amazon was the first site to do this for me.)Put effort into it. My favorite example is the HP technical support site,where it seems like an enormous amount of work has gone into (a) generatingthe information I need to solve my problems, (b) making sure that its accurateand useful, (c) presenting it clearly, and (d) organizing it so I can find it. Ivehad a lot of HP printers, and in almost every case where Ive had a problemIve been able to solve it on my own.usabil ity a s common courtesy[ 167 ]Know what questions Im likely to have, and answer them. FrequentlyAsked Questions lists are enormously valuable, especially if > They really are FAQs, not marketing pitches masquerading as FAQs(also known as QWWPWAs: Questions We Wish People Would Ask). > You keep them up to date. Customer Service and Technical Support caneasily give you a list of this weeks five most frequently asked questions.I would always put this list at the top of any sites Support page. > Theyre candid. Often people are looking in the FAQs for the answer toa question youd rather they hadnt asked. Candor in these situationsgoes a long way to increasing goodwill.Provide me with creature comforts like printer-friendly pages. Peoplelove being able to print stories that span multiple pages with a single click,and CSS makes it relatively easy to create printer-friendly pages with littleadditional effort. Drop the ads (the possibility of a banner ad having anyimpact other than being annoying is even greater when its just taking upspace on paper), but dont drop the illustrations, photos, and figures.Make it easy to recover from errors. If you actually do enough usertesting, youll be able to spare me from many errors before they happen. But where the potential for errors is unavoidable, always provide a graceful,obvious way for me to recover. See Defensive Design for the Web in myRecommended Reading for excellent advice on the subject.When in doubt, apologize. Sometimes you cant help it: You just dont have the ability or resources to do what the user wants (for instance, youruniversitys library system requires separate passwords for each of yourcatalog databases, so you cant give users the single log-in theyd like). If you cant do what they want, at least let them know that you know youreinconveniencing them. Accessibility,Cascading StyleSheets, and youjust when you think youre done, a cat floatsby with buttered toast strapped to its backchapter11[ 169 ]eople sometimes ask me, What about accessibility? Isnt that part of usability?And theyre right, of course. Unless youre going to make a blanket decision thatpeople with disabilities arent part of your audience, you really cant say your site isusable unless its accessible.At this point,1 everyone involved in Web design knows at least a little bit about Webaccessibility, even if its only that theres something special about the number 508.2And yet almost every site I go to fails my three-second accessibility testincreasingthe size of the type. Why is that?When a cat is dropped, it always lands on its feet, and when toast is dropped, italways lands with the buttered side facing down. I propose to strap buttered toast tothe back of a cat; the two will hover, spinning, inches above the ground. With a giantbuttered-cat array, a high-speed monorail could easily link New York with Chicago.john frazee, in the journal of irreproducible resultsPBeforeBrowser Text SizecommandAfter (no difference)1 2005 AD2 In case youve literally been hiding under a rock for the past few years, 508 refers toSection 508 of the 1988 Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act, which specifies accessibilitystandards for information technology (like Web sites) that must be met by any vendor thatwants to do business with the U.S. government.What developers and designers hearIn most organizations, the people who end up being responsible for doingsomething about accessibility are the people who actually build the thing: thedesigners and the developers.When they try to learn about what they should do, whatever books or articlesthey pick up inevitably list the same set of reasons why they need to make theirsites accessible:Theres a lot of truth in all of these. Unfortunately, theres also a lot thats unlikelyto convince 26-year-old developers and designers that they should be doingaccessibility. Two arguments in particular tend to make them skeptical:> Since their world consists largely of able-bodied 26-year-olds, its very hard forthem to believe that a large percentage of the population actually needs helpaccessing the Web. Theyre willing to write it off as the kind of exaggerationthat people make when theyre advocating for a worthy cause, but theres also anatural inclination to think, If I can poke a hole in one of their arguments, Imentitled to be skeptical about the rest. > Theyre also skeptical about the idea that making things more accessiblebenefits everyone. Some adaptations do, like the classic example, closedcaptioning, which does often come in handy for people who can hear.3 Butsince this always seems to be the only example cited, it feels a little like arguing[ 170 ]chapter 11Section 508: Itsnot just a goodidea; its the law.Most accessibilityadaptations benefiteveryone, not justpeople with disabilities.It s a huge potentialmarket. 65% of thepopulation has a disability.3 Melanie and I often use it when watching British films, for instance.It makes good business sense.People with disabilities usethe Web, and they have lots ofmoney to spend.Everyone should havethe same opportunitiesand equal access to information.[ 171 ]accessibil ity, c a sc ading style sheets, and youthat the space program was worthwhile because it gave us Tang.4 Its mucheasier for developers and designers to imagine cases where accessibilityadaptations are likely to make things worse for everyone else.The worst thing about this skepticism is that it obscures the fact that theresreally only one reason thats important:> Its the right thing to do.And not just the right thing; its profoundly the right thing to do, because the oneargument for accessibility that doesnt get made nearly often enough is howextraordinarily better it makes some peoples lives. Personally, I dont thinkanyone should need more than this one example: Blind people with access to acomputer can now read the daily newspaper on their own. Imagine that.How many opportunities do we have to dramatically improve peoples lives justby doing our job a little better? And for those of you who dont find this argument compelling, be aware thatthere will be a legislative stick coming sooner or later. Count on it.What designers and developers fearAs they learn more about accessibility, two fears tend to emerge:> More work. For developers in particular, accessibility can seem like just onemore complicated new thing to fit into an already impossible project schedule.In the worst case, it gets handed down as an initiative from above, completewith time-consuming reports, reviews, and task force meetings. > Compromised design. What designers fear most is what I refer to as butteredcats: places where good design for people with disabilities and good design foreveryone else are going to be in direct opposition. Theyre worried that theyregoing to be forced to design sites that are less appealingand less usefulforthe majority of their audience.4 A powdered orange-flavored breakfast drink, invented for the astronauts (see also: freeze-dried food).[ 172 ]chapter 11In an ideal world, accessibility would work like a sign I saw in the back of aChicago taxi. At first it looked like an ordinary sign. But something about the way it caught the light made me take a closer look, and when I did, I realized that it was ingenious.The sign was overlaid with a thin piece of Plexiglas, and the message wasembossed in Braille on the Plexiglas. Ordinarily, both the print and the Braillewould have been half as large so they could both fit on the sign, but with thisdesign each audience got the best possible experience. It was an elegant solution. I think for some designers, though, accessibility conjures up an image somethinglike the Vonnegut short story where the government creates equality byhandicapping everyone.5The real solutionas usualis a few years awayWhen people start reading about accessibility, they usually come across one pieceof advice that sounds very promising:5 In Harrison Bergeron, the main character, whose intelligence is way above normal, isrequired by law to wear a mental handicap radio in his ear that blasts various loud noisesevery 20 seconds to keep people like George from taking unfair advantage of their brains.The problem is, when they run their site through a validator, it turns out to bemore like a grammar checker than a spell checker. Yes, it does find some obviousmistakes and oversights that are easy to fix, like missing alt text.6 But it alsoinevitably turns up a series of vague warnings that you may be doing somethingwrong, and a long list of recommendations of things for you to check which itadmits may not be problems at all. This can be very discouraging for people who are just learning aboutaccessibility, because the long lists and ambiguous advice suggest that theres an awful lot to learn. And the truth is, its a lot harder than it ought to be to make a site accessible.After all, most designers and developers are not going to become accessibilityexperts. If Web accessibility is going to become ubiquitous, its going to have to beeasier to do. Screen readers and other adaptive technologies have to get smarter,the tools for building sites (like Macromedia Dreamweaver) have to make it easierto code correctly for accessibility, and the guidelines need to be improved. [ 173 ]accessibil ity, c a sc ading style sheets, and you6 Alt text provides a text description of an image (Picture of two men on a sailboat, forexample), which is essential for people using screen readers or browsing with images turned off.Use a validator like Bobbyto make sure your site complies with theWCAG guidelines.Great! A spellchecker foraccessibility.Real progress is going to require improvements on four different fronts, motivatedby things like profit incentive, the threat of lawsuits and legislation, and the desireto support mobile devices, which share some problems with accessibility.The five things you can do right now The fact that its not a perfect world at the moment doesnt let any of us off thehook, though. Even with current technology and standards, its possible to make any site veryaccessible without an awful lot of effort by focusing on a few things that will havethe most impact. And they dont involve getting anywhere near a buttered cat.#1. Fix the usability problems that confuse everyoneOne of the things that I find annoying about the Tang argument (making sitesaccessible makes them more usable for everyone) is that it obscures the fact thatthe reverse actually is true: Making sites more usable for the rest of us is one ofthe most effective ways to make them more effective for people with disabilities. [ 174 ]chapter 11Smarter adaptivetechnologiesUniversal use of CSSBetter developer toolsBetterstandards and best practiceexamples$$$508CELL PHONES AND PDASSmarter adaptivetechnologiesUniversal use of CSSBetterdevelopertoolsBetterstandards and best practiceexamples[ 175 ]accessibil ity, c a sc ading style sheets, and youIf something confuses most people who use your site, its almost certain toconfuse users who have accessibility issues. (They dont suddenly becomeremarkably smarter because they have a disability.) And its very likely thattheyre going to have a harder time recovering from their confusion.For instance, think of the last time you had trouble using a Web site (running into a confusing error message when you submitted a form, for instance). Nowimagine trying to solve that problem without being able to see the page.The single best thing you can do to improve your sites accessibility is to test itoften, and continually smooth out the parts that confuse everyone. In fact, if youdont do this first, no matter how rigorously you apply accessibility guidelines,people with disabilities still wont be able to use it. If your sites not clear to beginwith, making it Bobby-compliant is like [insert your favorite putting-lipstick-on-a-pig metaphor here].#2. Read an articleAs I hope youve seen by now, the best way to learn how to make anything moreusable is to watch people actually try to use it. But most of us have no experienceat using adaptive technology, let alone watching other people use it. If you had the time and the motivation, Id highly recommend locating one or twoblind Web users and spending a few hours with them observing how theyactually use their screen reader software.Fortunately, someone has done the heavy lifting for you. Mary Theofanos andJanice (Ginny) Redish watched 16 blind users using screen readers to do anumber of tasks on a variety of sites and reported what they observed in anarticle titled Guidelines for Accessible and Usable Web Sites: Observing UsersWho Work with Screen Readers.7As with any kind of user testing, it produced invaluable insights. Heres oneexample of the kinds of things they learned:7 Published in the ACM Magazine, Interactions (November-December 2003). With permissionfrom ACM, Ginny has made it available for personal use at[ 176 ]chapter 11Screen-reader users scan with their ears. Most blind users are just as impatientas most sighted users. They want to get the information they need as quickly aspossible. They do not listen to every word on the pagejust as sighted usersdo not read every word. They scan with their ears, listening to just enough todecide whether to listen further. Many set the voice to speak at an amazinglyrapid rate. They listen to the first few words of a link or line of text. If it does not seemrelevant, they move quickly to the next link, next line, next heading, nextparagraph. Where a sighted user might find a keyword by scanning over theentire page, a blind user may not hear that keyword if it is not at the beginningof a link or a line of text.I highly recommend that you read this article before you read anything else aboutaccessibility. In 20 minutes, it will give you an appreciation for the problemsyoure trying to solve that you wont get from any other articles or books.#3. Read a bookAfter youve read Ginny and Marys article, youre ready to spend a day (or aweekend) reading a book about Web accessibility. There are several good ones> Building Accessible Websites by Joe Clark> Constructing Accessible Websites by Jim Thatcher et al.> Maximum Accessibility: Making Your Web Site More Usable for Everyone by JohnSlatin and Sharron Rush> A CD-ROM called The WebAIM Guide to Web Accessibility Techniques and Conceptsand Im sure there will be more in the near future.8These books cover a lot of ground, so dont worry about absorbing all of it. Fornow, you just need to get the big picture. 8 Ill keep an updated list of recommendations on my Web site.#4. Start using Cascading Style SheetsFirst, a little Web history.In the beginning, everything was text. When the first visual browsers arrived,designers found that unlike desktop publishing, which gave them control ofeverything, HTMLwhich was really only intended to display research papersgave them almost no control over anything. Commands for styling text were crude,and it was very hard to position things precisely on a page. And even if you could,pages often looked completely different when viewed in different browsers. To wrestle back some control, designersand developers started using tables tocontrol layout. For years, the only wayto control the position of things on aWeb page was to put them in tables...and tables within tables. Most pagesended up seeming like a series ofRussian nesting dolls.Unfortunately, this didnt work well with earlyscreen readers, which tended to read ratherslavishly line-by-line from left to right, like this:They also started using various HTML commands in ways they werent meant tobe used, to try to get more control over text styling. It was a messy world ofhacks, held together with chewing gum.[ 177 ]accessibil ity, c a sc ading style sheets, and youAdvanced Common Sense cant afford a consultant heres is theonline home of web everything Iknow about web usability[ 178 ]chapter 11Fortunately, beginning in 1998 some very determined people got fed up with thisstate of affairs, and decided to convince browser manufacturers to support Webstandards that would give designers a consistent target. A group of designerscalling themselves The Web Standards Project employed a brilliant form ofnonviolent resistance: They simply stopped making their own sites backwardlycompatible with browsers that didnt support standards like CSS, andencouraged others to do the same.Several year later, CSS Zen Garden9 (a single HTML page that looked completelydifferent depending on which of the many designer-contributed style sheets youapplied to it) demonstrated that you could create beautiful, sophisticated designswith CSS.Cascading Style Sheets are now so well supported by most browsers that itdoesnt make any sense to create a site without them, because the advantages areenormous:> Infinitely greater control of formatting.> Flexibility. A single change in a style sheet can change the appearance of anentire site, or automatically generate useful variations like printer-friendly pages. > Consistency among browsers. Workarounds and hacks are still required toensure that your CSS works across all browers, but these will fall away as brower makers continue to improve their CSS support.And implementing CSS will make it easy for you to do two things that willgreatly improve your sites accessibility:> Serialize your content. Unlike table-based layout, with CSS you can put yourcontent in sequential order in the source filewhich is how a screen readeruser will hear itand still position things where you want them on the page.> Allow your text to resize. CSS makes it easy to make your text resizable,which is enormously helpful for low-vision users (and people old enough toneed bifocals).9 See The Zen of CSS Design by Dave Shea and Molly Holzschlag(New Riders, 2005) for a great description of the project. [ 179 ]accessibil ity, c a sc ading style sheets, and youProbably the fastest way to learn CSS is to get someone who specializes in it to doa markover for yourecoding a few of your sites page templates to use CSSand learn by watching them do it. When youre ready, there are also a number ofgood books on CSS, especially the ones by Eric Meyer.#5. Go for the low-hanging fruitNow youre ready to do what most people think of as Web accessibility:implementing specific changes in your HTML code.As of right now, these are probably the most important things to do:> Add appropriate alt text to every image. Add an alt attribute for images thatscreen readers should ignore, and add helpful, descriptive text for the rest. All ofthe Web accessibility books have very good explanations of how to do this.> Make your forms work with screen readers. This largely boils down tousing the HTML label element to associate the fields with their prompts, sopeople know what theyre supposed to enter.> Create a Skip to Main Content link at the beginning of each page.Imagine having to spend 20 seconds (or a minute, or two) listening to the globalnavigation at the top of every page before you could look at the content, andyoull understand why this is important. > Make all content accessible by keyboard. Remember, not everyone can usea mouse. > Dont use JavaScript without a good reason. Some adaptive technologiesdont support it very well yet.> Use client-side (not server-side) image maps. Alt tags dont work withserver-side image maps.Thats it. Youll probably learn how to do a lot more as you go along, but even ifyou only do what Ive covered here, youll be doing a pretty good job. Hopefully in five years Ill be able to just remove this chapter and use the spacefor something else because the developer tools, browsers, screen readers, andguidelines will all have matured and will be integrated to the point where peoplecan build accessible sites without thinking about it.Help! My bosswants me to _____.when bad design decisions happen to good peoplechapter12[ 181 ]When i teach my Web usability workshops,Ive noticed that a lot of the questions people ask take this form:Help! My boss (or My marketing manager, or Our CEO) wants me to ______________. For instance, My marketing manager insists that we make people provide theirpostal mailing address before we send them our email newsletter! What can I do?Two of these questions about usability disasters imposed from above tend to comeup over and over: > My boss wants us to ask users for more personal information than we really need.> My boss wants our site to have more pizazz (read: splash pages, animation,music, etc., etc.) .I've reached the point where when people ask me either of these questions, Illoften sayhalf jokinglythat if it will help I'll be happy to write their boss an email (from a usability expertwith a book, no less) explaining why this is areally bad idea. Here are the emails. Feel free to use them as you see fit.Be afraid. Be very afraid.geena davis in the fly[ 182 ]chapter 12The perils of asking for too much personal dataFrom: Steve Krug ( []At my recent Web usability workshop in [name of city], your Web [designer|developer|manager][your name] asked my advice about how much personal information you shouldask for on a registration form. I offered to send you email recapping my advice to him.Anyone who uses the Web has run into this many times: You decide to subscribe to anemail newsletter (or request a free sample, register a product, or create an acount).Anything that involves you providing information about yourself and getting somethingin return.You click Subscribe and a form appears. It looks longer than you expected, and youquickly discover why. For no good reason, you're being asked to provide your mailingaddress. And your phone number. And your occupation. Suddenly, quick task has becomea project.Usability professionals have a technical term for this practice. It's what we call a verybad idea.I can understand that it's tempting to try to get as much personal data as you can,given the uses you can put it to. The problem is that people filling in any kind of formon the Web are always asking themselves, Why are they asking me for this piece ofinformation? Do they really need it to give me what I want? If the answer is no, thenthe next question is, Then what do they want it for?In most people's minds there are only are two possible explanations: either (a) youre soclueless about the Web that you dont know that they find this offensive, or (b) you doknow, but you want the information badly for some other purpose, and you dont mindoffending them to get it.As a result, there are three serious downsides to asking for more than what you need:- It tends to keep you from getting real data. As soon as people realize you're askingfor more than you need, they feel completely justified in lying to you. I often tell myclients that email addresses are like heroin to marketing peopleso addictive that itdoesn't strike them as odd that 10% of their subscribers happen to be namedBarney Rubble.- You get fewer completed forms. The formula is simple: the less data you ask for, themore submissions you'll get. People tend to be in an enormous hurry on the Web, andif the form looks even a little bit longer than they expect, many just won't bother.- It makes you look bad. People who really want your newsletter may jump through[ 183 ]help! my boss wants me to _______.whatever hoops they have to, but make no mistake: it will diminish their impression ofyou while theyre doing it. On the other hand, if you only ask for the information youneed, you've established a relationship with them and can get more data later insubsequent exchanges.Here are three guidelines:- Only make me provide what you need to complete this transaction.- Dont ask for a lot of optional information, either. Just the sight of a lot of fields isdepressing. Asking for fewer optional items will get you more replies.- Show me the value I'm going to receive in exchange for my information. Tell meexactly what Ill get by registering, show me a sample of the newsletter, etc.I hope this is helpful. By the way, based on the brief chance I had to chat with [yourname],[he|she] seems to be an excellent [designer|developer|manager ]. You're lucky tohave [him|her] on your team.Steve KrugAuthor of Dont Make Me Think! A Common Sense Approach to Web UsabilityAdding sizzle to your Web siteFrom: Steve Krug ( []Your Web [designer|developer|manager],[your name], recently attended one of my Webusability workshops and asked my advice about your plans to make your site [morevisually interesting|more engaging] by adding [a splash page|some animation|largephotos|background music].I told [him|her] I'd be happy to pass along some of the advice I give to my own executiveclients when they make similar requests of their Web teams.Unfortunately, there's an inherent problem with the way executives are involved in Website design. Given that the site is crucial to your organization, naturally your input issolicited. But because of the way sites are developed, all you're really asked to commenton is the appearance of the site, based on a few preliminary designs. Given what youhave to go on, the only thing you can reasonably judge is Does it look good to me? andDoes it create a good impression? As a result, CEO's almost always push for somethingthat's more visually appealing, something with more pizzazz or sizzle.[ 184 ]chapter 12The problem is that except in a few specific caseswhich I'll get to in a minuteWebsites don't really need much sizzle. Yes, looks do count. Yes, it has to look presentable,professional, and attractive. But "flashy"? "Engaging"? Almost never.Most of the time on the Web, people dont want to be engaged; they just want to getsomething done, and attempts to engage them that interfere with their current missionare perceived as annoying, clueless, and the worst kind of hucksterism. And attempts toadd sizzle almost always get in their way. I won't bother cataloging all the problems withall the different forms of sizzle: Splash pages that signal you as several years behind thetimes. Big photos that take a long time to load (have you ever used your own site from ahotel room?) and leave less room on the page for what people are looking for. Anddistracting music and animation that most people cant stand.Unless your site gives people the information they want and makes it easy for them todo what you want them to, the main thing it's doing is announcing that you're eitherclueless about the Web, or you care more about your image than you do about them.Of course there are exceptions. There are some sites where sizzle makes sense, siteswhere what you're selling is sizzle: entertainment sites (for music, movies, etc.), purebranding sites (for a breakfast cereal, for instance), and portfolio sites for Webdevelopers. But if your site isn't on that list, most sizzle is going to becounterproductive.The moral is, you can do as much as you want to make your site look good, but only if it'snot at the expense of making it work well. And most sizzle gets in the way of it workingwell.Think about your own experience: the sites you enjoy using. Is it because they'reflashy, or because they have content you want or need? Can you name a site that hascontent thats interesting or useful to you that you dont use because it's not visuallyinteresting enough?I hope this helps.By the way, youre lucky to have [your name]on your Web team.[He|she really knows[his|her] stuff.Steve KrugAuthor of Dont Make Me Think! A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability[ 185 ]help! my boss wants me to _______.Never say neverJust one caution: Note that I'm not saying you should never do any of thesethings. If there's one thing you learn by working on a lot of different Web sites,it's that almost any design ideano matter how appallingly badcan be madeusable in the right circumstances, with enough effort. And almost any gooddesign idea can be made unusable, by messing up the details of theimplementation.But the things I'm talking about here are generally very bad practices, and youshouldn't be doing any of them unless (a) you really know what you're doing, (b) you have a darned good reason, and (c) you actually are going to test it whenyou're done to make sure you've managed to make it work; you're not just goingto intend to test it.Also, realize that your boss is probably not just being perverse. There is almostalways a good (or at least not-so-awful) intention lurking behind insistence on abad design idea. Trying to understand that good intention is often the best way tofigure out how to make your case for a different approach.Thats all, folksAs Bob and Ray used to say, Hang by your thumbs, and write if you get work. Ihope youll check in at my Web site from time to time. But above all, be of good cheer. As I said at the beginning, building a great Web site is an enormous challenge, and anyone who gets it even half right has my admiration.And please dont take anything Ive said as being against breaking the rulesorat least bending them. I know there are even sites where you want the interfaceto make people think, to puzzle or challenge them. Just be sure you know whichrules youre bending, and that you at least think you have a good reason forbending them.Recommendedreading[ 187 ]There are dozens of worthwhile usability-relatedbooks and Web sites I could recommend, but these are the ones that havereally influenced the way I think about the Web.> Information Architecture for the World Wide WebLouis Rosenfeld and Peter Morville, OReilly, 2nd Edition, 2002 Hands down, the single most useful book about Web site design.They tackle the issues of navigation, labeling, and searching withadmirable clarity and practicality.> Why We Buy: The Science of ShoppingPaco Underhill, Simon and Schuster, 2000 A wonderful summary of many years of detailed observation ofshoppers in their natural habitat. Even though the subject is thebrick-and-mortar shopping experience, the problem is the same asWeb design: creating complex, engaging environments where peoplelook for thingsand find them.> Sources of Power: How People Make DecisionsGary Klein, MIT Press, 1999 Kleins study of naturalistic decision making is another wonderfulexample of how field observation can reveal the differencebetween the way we think we do things and the way we actuallydo them. If the Whole Earth Catalog still existed, this book and WhyWe Buy would both be in it.Now that you have read the Classics Illustrated edition, dont miss the addedenjoyment of reading the original, obtainable at your school or public library. obligatory disclaimer/exhortation at the end of every classics illustrated comic book [ 188 ]recommended reading> The Practice of Creativity: A Manual forDynamic Group Problem SolvingGeorge M. Prince, Macmillan, 1972. I took a course in the Synectics method thirty-five years ago, and there hasnt been a week since then that I havent usedsomething I learned from it. Think of it as brainstorming onsteroids, coupled with some remarkable insights into howpeople work in groups. The book is out of print, but you canfind a copy pretty easily via the Web.> Jakob Nielsens Web site, ( Beginning withUsability Engineering in 1984, Jakob Nielsen has long been usabilitys mostarticulate and thought-provoking advocate. And since the advent of the Web,hes shown up everywhere but on milk cartonspreaching the value of Web usability. I dont always agree with what he says, but I alwaysadmire the way he says it. His site houses hisbiweekly Alertbox columns (another reason toadmire him: a columnist whos smart enough toknow he doesnt have something important to sayevery week), and links to all of the best usabilityresources on the Web.Also check out his Nielsen Norman Group reports( They may seempricey (typically $100-$300), but they contain reliable information you won'tfind anywhere else on specific areas (like intranet usability) and specificaudience segments (like children, seniors, and people with disabilities). Have you seen this man?[ 189 ]recommended reading> Homepage Usability: 50 WebsitesDeconstructedJakob Nielsen, Marie Tahir, New Riders, 2001The bad news about this book is that after youve seen theproblems of twenty-five Home pages, youve seen them all.The good news, though, is that the excellent set of 113 Homepage design guidelines crammed into the first 28 pages isworth the price of the entire book.> Web Application Design Handbook: Best Practicesfor Web-Based SoftwareSusan Fowler and Victor Stanwick, Morgan Kaufmann, 2004Susan and Victor have written the Junior Woodchucks Guidebookof Web applications: Everything you need to know is in there,including tons of best practice examples, insights from years ofexperience, and assorted fascinating arcana. If you're designingor building Web applications, you'd be foolish not to have a copy.> Defensive Design for the Web37 Signals, New Riders, 2004The subtitle (How to Improve Error Messages, Help, Forms, andOther Crisis Points) says it all. An excellent, practical, shortbookfull of best practice examplesabout how to design toprevent user errors from happening, and to help them recoverpainlessly when they do.[ 190 ]recommended reading> The Design of Everyday ThingsDon Norman, Basic Books, 2002Originally published as The Psychology of Everyday Things,then renamed because designers werent finding it in thePsychology department of bookstores, this actually is ausability classic. Because it was first published in 1984, youwont find any mention of the Web, but the principles arethe same.Youll never look at doorknobs the same way again.> A Practical Guide to Usability TestingJoseph Dumas and Janice (Ginny) Redish, Intellect, 1999The best how-to book out there on user testing, and myfavoriteat least until I write the one I keep scribbling notes for.Ginny is also currently writing a book on writing for theWeb, which I can recommend highly, sight unseen. In the same vein, Caroline Jarrett (,whom I consider the authority on designing Web forms, iswriting the definitive book on, well...designing Web forms. If it hasnt appearedby 2006, send her an email and pester her about it. > Usability News newsletter is my favorite source of usability research. Published twice ayear by the Wichita State University Software Usability Research Laboratory(SURL), it always contains several very nice, bite-sized pieces of well-thought-out research. The full archives are available online.[ 191 ]recommended reading> WebWord RhodesUsabilityViews.com McEvoyThese sites are currently the two best ways to keep up to date oneverything thats being published online about usability. John RhodesWebWord is more of a true blog in that he comments on the articles helinks to, but Chris McEvoy is dogged in tracking down everything worthlooking at. Between the two of them, you wont miss anything.> research-basedguidelines excellent set of Web design andusability guidelines, published by theNational Cancer Institute (NCI), includesvery nice examples and references to theresearch each guideline is based on. If you have a usability question, its alwaysworth checking here first to see if theyvecovered it.www.usability.govAcknowledgmentsand all i got was this lousy t-shirt[ 193 ]Dont kid yourself. a book like this is largely thework of one person. Theres no other single human being whos spentnearly as much time as I have thinking about it, perseverating over it,changing the same sentence back and forth between two different versionsover and over. But I get my name on the cover, where everyone else involved gets just slightlyless than bupkus. And even if Id had a million years to work on it, youd never bereading this if it hadnt been for the talent, skill, encouragement, kindness,patience, generosity, and forbearance of many people. Editors, designers, patrons, and enablersIve always heard horror stories about stormy farmer/cowman relationshipsbetween authors and editors, but personally I love having a good editor tell mewhere Ive gone astray. With a bookjust as with a Web siteyou dont have towork on it long before youre just too close to it to see things clearly. I wasfortunate enough to have the benefit of two editors:> Karen Whitehouse from Macmillan always thought this book was a goodidea, always knew what I was trying to get at (even when I didnt), neverrapped my knuckles (even when I deserved it), and was always a delight to bearound. If you write a book, you should be so lucky. I will miss not having anexcuse to talk to her all the time. > Barbara Flanagan, a longtime friend and masterful copy editor who by herown admission cant even read a novel without a pencil in her hand, read themanuscript at several stages out of the goodness of her heart, in her copiousspare time. She showed me elegant ways out of countless corners I had paintedmyself into.Wherever you detect a flaw in this book, you should just imagine either Karen or Barbaraor bothsaying, Well, if you really insist.......and the men of the U.S.S. Forrestal, without whose cooperation this film would never have been made. conventional movie acknowledgment[ 194 ]acknowledgmentsIn designing this book, Allison Cecil knowingly took on a maniacs job.1Imagine designing a book for a nitpicking, opinionated author whos written abook espousing his own design principles and insists that the book has to reflectthem. And naturally, in the grand Beat the Clock do-it-under-water tradition, it allhad to be done in a nightmarishly small amount of time. She managed it only by(a) forgoing sleepand everything elsefor weeks on end with enormous goodgrace, and (b) displaying talent equal to her patience. As with Karen and Barbara,anything that strikes you as a design flaw is almost certainly something she didonly because I twisted her arm.David Matt and Elizabeth Oh at Roger Black Consulting and Trina Wurst andSandra Schroeder at Macmillan made major contributions to the design andproduction, and Mark Matcho provided the illustrations in an ungodly rush.Roger Black has generously encouraged my work for years now, and its always atreat to work with him and watch the uniqueand amusingthought balloons that form over his head. The only downside is that I all-too-rarely get to enjoy thepleasure of his company because hes always in Uruguay or Singapore. It was hissuggestion that I do this book in the first place, and he and Jock Spivy saw to itthat provided support that made it possible.Alexandra Anderson-Spivy (Ally) managed the project from Circle.coms endand provided valuable editorial advice andas is her wayinvaluable moralsupport from start to finish. Sounding boardsI relied on many people to tell me whether I was actually making any sense, orjustin the words of Scotty the reporter in The Thing from Another World2 stuffed full of wild blueberries. But I relied most heavily on my two best friends:1 cf. Kevin Klines explanation of his life as a fireman in The January Man: Buildings onfire, everybody runs out, you run in. Its a maniacs job.2 ...the 1949 Howard Hawks original, not the John Carpenter remake.[ 195 ]acknowledgments> Paul Shakespear spent many hourshourswhen he could have been paintingreadingdrafts that barely made sense, things I couldnever have shown to anyone else, and telling mewhat to complete and what to throw overboard.The ensuing discussions were much moreinteresting than this book, as is always the casewith Paul.> Richard Gingras knows more about online publishing and creating a positive user experience than anyone I know. His reaction to my first chapter was whatenabled me to go on, as his friendship has made many things in my lifepossible. I finished writing this book while staying with Richard, his wife,Mitzi Trumbo, their daughter, Molly, and Mitzis wonderful mother, Cleo, asI do whenever Im working in Silicon Valleymy other family, as my wifesays. Their companionship means more to me than I can say here.Many other people were generous enough to take time they didnt really have toread and comment on various drafts: Sue Hay, Hilary Goodall, PeggyRedpath, Jennifer Fleming, Lou Rosenfeld, Robert Raines, Richard SaulWurman, Jeff Veen, Donna Slote, Matt Stark, Christine Bauer, Bob Gower,Dan Roam, Peter Stoermer, and John Kenrick. As is always the case with usertesting, their reactions and suggestions improved the end result enormously.In addition to reading drafts, Cleo Hugginsone of the finest designers I know,and one of the most pleasant and interesting peoplemade an outlandishlygenerous offer of help when I needed it most.Gail Blumberg was my problem-solving lifeline through this whole process,steering me safely through every situation that required finesse or any sense ofpolitics and making me laugh while she did it. At this point, I owe her so manydinners for so many favors that I think I have to buy her a restaurant.My next-door neighbor, graphic designer Courtney McGlynnwho hascheerfully played the role of average user on short notice over the yearswhenever Ive needed to do a quick user testhelped me think through somevexing design issues.Little Wing 200459" x 28"acrylic on[ 196 ]acknowledgmentsMentorsDave Flanagan, John Kirsch, and Jon Hirschtick taught me by their examplethat hard-nosed business and extraordinary decency are not incompatible, whichenabled me to be comfortable working as a consultant. John also dragged mekicking and screaming into professional adulthood at no small personal expense,standing by patiently while I learned to write something longer than a pageagift I can never repay. Pete Johnson improved this book enormously withouteven looking at itjust by showing me by his example over the years what reallygood writing is.Clients, co-workers, clients-turned-friends,and co-workers-turned-friendsMuch of what I know about Web usability came from working with many smart,talented people like Arwyn Bryant, Jim Albrecht, John Lennon, JohnGoecke, Jim Kent, Bill McCall, Dan Roam, James Caldwell, John LyleSanford, Lucie Soublin, Peter Karnig, and Theo Fels. FamilyMy brother Phil Krug has been there for me all my life, not counting the earlyyears of holding me down and tickling me.My son Harry was enormously patient while I was writing this, even when itmeant turning down the sound on his computer while he played MidtownMadness. Lately, hes assumed the role of nine-year-old press agent, taking themanuscript along to our local Barnes & Noble to see how it would look on theshelf, creating a cover for it when we needed one, and declaring it a good read.My wife Melanie Sokol has told me for a long time now that Id better not sayanywhere in the book that she was supportive. The truth is, she was incrediblysupportive during the four months the book was supposed to take, and evenduring the next four months. And it wasnt even the third four months that did it;it was little things, like the fact that I apparently had no idea whenif everIwould be finished. She knows how grateful I am.[ 197 ]acknowledgmentsOtherFlo and the crew at Brueggers Bagel Bakery in West Roxbury never made me feel like a nuisance in all the mornings I occupied a table for hours on end,nursing a cup of coffee, scrawling on countless pieces of paper, and staring offinto space.Being a bear of little brain, I know Ive overlooked someone; probably you.Hopefully, by the time you read this, your T-shirt will be in the mail.Update: The Second EditionI consider myself very fortunate that when I went to round up the usualsuspectsKaren Whitehouse, Allison Cecil (if you need a book designed, findher!), Paul Shakespear, Barbara Flanagan and Roger Blackthey allgraciously agreed to help again.Once again Harry and Melanie have put up withme in writing mode (never a pretty picture), whilemaking it all worthwhile.Several people were very generous in sharing theirknowledge with me, including Ginny Redish,Jeffrey Zeldman, Eric Meyer, Caroline Jarrett,Carol Barnum, and Lou Rosenfeld, myworkshop traveling companion, and now goodfriend.Thanks to the folks at Peachpit, Nancy Runzel, Marjorie Baer, Lisa Brazieal,Kim Lombardi, and the rest, and particularly to Rachel Charlton Tiley (andKathy Malmloff before her) who fielded scores of book-related questions andrequests with great patience over the years.The coffee this time was from the Putterham Circle Starbucks in Brookline.They have really good fruit saladfirm grapes being the keyand theyve beenjust as hospitable as the folks at Brueggers were last time around. Finally, to everyone whos written me or said hello in person because of the book,thank you. Its been a pleasure.Harry Krug, circa 2005Indexindex[ 199 ]$25,000 Pyramid, 3637 Signals, 187508. See Section 508AAccessibility, 169Amazon.comsearching, 17use of tabs, 81Animal, vegetable, or mineral?, 41average user, myth of the, 18, 128BBeat the Clock, 95big honking report, 3, 138Breadcrumbs, 76browse-dominant users, 55browsing, 55, 57Burma-Shave, 31CCamtasia, 143Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), 177178clickability, 14, 37Collyer, Bud, 95conventions, 34, 60culture clash, 127DEdesigningHome page, 95navigation, 51Dumas, Joseph, 190Elements of Style, The, 45expert usability review, 3FFAQ, 166Farmer and the Cowman Should Be Friends, The, 122focus groups, 132133forms, 63Fowler, Susan, 189GGates, Billmuddling through, 27purchase of da Vinci notebook, 79global navigation. See persistent navigationgolden goose, temptation to kill, 111goodwill reservoir, 163167HHansel and Gretel, 76happy talk, eliminating, 46[ 200 ]indexHatch, Sen. Orrin, 37head slappers, 158hierarchy, 95wide vs. deep, 41Home pagedesigning, 95different navigation on, 107link to, 66IKinstructions, eliminating, 46Jarrett, Caroline, 190kayak problems, 157Klein, Gary, 24, 187Krugs laws of usability, 11, 41, 45Llogo. See Site IDlost-our-lease usability testing, 135, 137Mmensch, 160, 161, 162mindless choices, 41mission statement, 103Morae, 143muddling through, 2629Nnames, importance of, 14navigationconventions, 60designing, 51lower-level, 70persistent, 62revealing content, 59needless words, omitting, 45new feature requests, 158Nielsen, Jakob, 54, 137, 188, 189noise. See visual noiseNorman, Don, 190PQpage nameimportance of, 71matching what user clicked, 73position on page, 72persistent navigation, 62primary navigation. See SectionsPrince and the Pauper, The, 26Prince, George M., 188printer-friendly pages, 167promoscontent promos, 96feature promos, 96pulldown menus, limitations of, 110RRedish, Janice (Ginny), 175, 190registration, 96index[ 201 ]reinventing the wheel, 36religious debates, 124, 129right way to design Web sites, 7Rosenfeld, Louis, 67, 187Ssatisficing, 2425scanning pages, 22search box, 38, 67on Home page, 95options, 68wording, 68search-dominant users, 54secondary navigation. See subsectionsSection 508, 169section fronts, 46Sections, 65Site ID, 63sizzle, 184slow-loading pages, 59Spool, Jared, 7Stanwick, Victor, 189street signs, 72subsections, 65Synectics, 188Ttabs, 79color coding, 83importance of drawing correctly, 82tagline, 101, 103106Talking Heads, 51teleportation, 58, 63Theofanos, Mary, 175tragedy of the commons, 112trunk test, 85UUnderhill, Paco, 187URLs, typed in search box, 27usability, defined, 5usability lab, 142usability testing, 3, 135number of users to test, 138recruiting participants, 139, 141reviewing results, 156sample session, 146value of starting early, 134what to test, 144Utilities, 65VZvalidator, accessibility, 173visual hierarchy, 31parsing, 33visual noise, 38Welcome blurb, 101White, E. B., 45Yahoo, 27You are here indicator, 27This page intentionally left blank STEVE KRUGmanaged to labor happily innear-total obscurity as ahighly respected usabilityconsultant until thepublication of this book in 2000. Hes spentalmost twenty years making software and Websites easier to use at companies like Apple,Netscape, AOL, Lexus, Excite@Home, BL ACKis an editorial designconsultant. Over the past 30 years, he has worked onteams at Rolling Stone, NewYork, Newsweek, Esquire, Los Angeles Times,, and Recentlyhe advised on redesigns for andNintendo Power book was produced digitallyusing Microsoft Word, AdobePhotoshop, and Adobe Illustrator.Layout and production wereaccomplished using QuarkXPress.Files were passed among all parties concerned and wereproofed using Adobe Acrobat. The text face is Farnham,designed by Christian Schwartz,Font Bureau. The chapter titlesand paragraph headings were setin MetaPlus, designed by ErikSpiekermann. All captions wereset in FF Letter Gothic Text,designed by Albert Pinggera.