DOCS NRA-#278792-v2-MANUAL TRH3 2007 DESIGN · PDF fileStructural design of flexible pavements for ... TMH 3 TMH 9 Traffic axle load surveys for pavement design Pavement Management

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  • TECHNICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HIGHWAYS

    TRH3 2007

    DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SURFACING SEALS

    May 2007 03659

  • Design and Construction of Surfacing Seals

    TRH 3, Pretoria, South Africa Version 1.5 May 2007 i

    PREFACE

    TECHNICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HIGHWAYS (TRH) have traditionally been aimed at informing the

    practising engineer about current recommended practice in selected aspects of highway engineering, based

    on proven South African experience.

    Companion TRH,TMH and Sabita documents to TRH 3 are given on pages (iii), (iv) and (v).

    This document was produced by a committee of practitioners from the public, private and research sectors.

    Any comments on this document may be addressed to:

    The South African National Roads Agency Ltd

    PO Box 415

    PRETORIA

    0001

    Republic of South Africa

    Alternatively comments and suggestions may be forwarded to: [email protected]

  • Design and Construction of Surfacing Seals

    TRH 3, Pretoria, South Africa Version 1.5 May 2007 ii

    DISCLAIMER

    The information given in this document is based on the knowledge and experience of organisations and

    individuals concerned with bituminous seals. This document only provides guidelines for the selection,

    design and construction of bituminous seals and is neither a specification document nor a complete manual

    for the training of inexperienced personnel.

    The views expressed and recommendations given are based on the experience of the Committee

    responsible for the compilation of the document and cannot cover the entire spectrum of possible situations.

    The information contained is given in good faith and gives guidelines on how to deal with the problems likely

    to be encountered. No responsibility will be accepted by the South African National Roads Agency or by any

    members of the committee which drew up this document for any adverse consequences arising out of the

    use of this document.

  • Design and Construction of Surfacing Seals

    TRH 3, Pretoria, South Africa Version 1.5 May 2007 iii

    LIST OF COMPANION TRH DOCUMENTS TRH 1 TRH 14

    Prime coat and bituminous curing membranes Guidelines for road construction materials

    TRH 3 TRH 15

    Design and construction of surfacing seals Subsurface drainage for roads

    TRH 4 TRH 16

    Structural design of flexible pavements for

    interurban and rural roads

    Traffic loading for pavement and rehabilitation

    design

    TRH 5 TRH 17

    Statistical concepts of quality control and their

    application in road construction Geometric design of rural roads

    TRH 6 TRH 18

    Nomenclature and methods for describing the

    condition of asphalt pavements

    The investigation, design, construction and

    maintenance of road cuttings

    TRH 7 TRH 19

    Use of bitumen emulsions in the construction

    and maintenance of roads

    Standard nomenclature and methods for

    describing the condition of jointed concrete

    pavements

    TRH 8 TRH 20

    Selection and design of hot-mix asphalt

    surfacings for highways

    The structural design, construction and

    maintenance of unpaved roads

    TRH 9 TRH 21

    Construction of road embankments Not-mix recycling

    TRH 10 TRH 22

    Design of road embankments Pavement Management Systems

    TRH 11 TRH 23

    Guidelines for the conveyance of abnormal

    loads Concrete Pavement Maintenance

    TRH 12 TRH 25

    Bituminous pavement rehabilitation design Guidelines for the hydraulic design and

    maintenance of river crossings

    TRH 13

    Cementitious materials in road construction Note: TRH 2 is no longer available

  • Design and Construction of Surfacing Seals

    TRH 3, Pretoria, South Africa Version 1.5 May 2007 iv

    LIST OF COMPANION TMH DOCUMENTS TMH 1 TMH 7

    Standard methods of testing road construction

    materials

    Code of practice for the design of highway

    bridges and culverts in SA

    TMH 2 TMH 8

    National standard for the spraying performance

    of binder distributors

    Verkeerstellingsprosedures vir buitestedelike

    paaie

    TMH 3 TMH 9

    Traffic axle load surveys for pavement design Pavement Management Systems

    TMH 5 TMH 10

    Sampling methods for road construction

    materials

    Manual for the completion of as-built materials

    data sheets

    TMH 6 Note: TMH 4 superseded by TRH17

    Special methods for testing roads

    COMPANION ASPHALT ACADEMY GUIDELINE DOCUMENTS TG 1

    The use of modified binders in road construction

  • Design and Construction of Surfacing Seals

    TRH 3, Pretoria, South Africa Version 1.5 May 2007 v

    LIST OF COMPANION SABITA DOCUMENTS MANUAL 1 MANUAL 16

    Technical Guidelines: Construction of bitumen

    rubber seals (1998)

    REACT - Economic analysis of short-term

    rehabilitation actions (1998)

    MANUAL 2 MANUAL 17

    Bituminous products for road construction

    (2002) Porous asphalt mixes : Design and use (1995)

    MANUAL 5 MANUAL 18

    Guidelines for the manufacture and construction

    of hot-mix asphalt (1992)

    Appropriate Standards for the use of sand

    asphalt (1996)

    MANUAL 7 MANUAL 19

    SUPERSURF+ Economic warrants for surfacing

    unpaved roads (2005)

    Technical guidelines for the specification and

    design of bitumen-rubber asphalt wearing

    courses (1997)

    MANUAL 8 MANUAL 20

    Guidelines for the safe and responsible handling

    of bituminous products (2003)

    Sealing of active cracks in road pavements

    (1998)

    MANUAL 9 MANUAL 21

    Bituminous surfacing for temporary deviations

    (1992)

    ETB The design and use of emulsiontreated

    bases (1999)

    MANUAL 10 MANUAL 22

    Appropriate standards for bituminous surfacings

    (1992)

    Hot-Mix Paving in Adverse Weather Interim

    Recommendations (2006)

    MANUAL 11 MANUAL 23

    Labour enhanced construction for bituminous

    surfacings (1993)

    Bitumen Hauliers Code Guideline for loading

    bitumen at refineries (2000)

    MANUAL 12 MANUAL 24

    Methods & procedures: Labour enhanced

    construction for bituminous surfacings (1994)

    User guide for the design of hot mix asphalt

    (2005)

    MANUAL 13 MANUAL 25

    LAMBs - The design and use of large aggregate

    mixes for bases (1997)

    Quality Management in the handling and

    transport of bituminous binders (2006)

    MANUAL 14 MANUAL 26

    GEMs - The design and use of granular

    emulsion mixes (1998)

    Interim guidelines for primes and stone

    precoating fluids

  • Design and Construction of Surfacing Seals

    TRH 3, Pretoria, South Africa Version 1.5 May 2007 vi

    LIST OF CONTENTS

    1. Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1

    2 Factors Influencing The Performance Of Surfacing Seals ................................ 9

    3 Pre-Design Investigations ............................................................................... 20

    4 Selection Of Appropriate Surfacings ............................................................... 30

    5 Criteria For Choosing A Binder ....................................................................... 46

    6 Surface Preparation/Pre-Treatment ................................................................ 53

    7 Design And Construction Of Seals.................................................................. 68

    8 Recommended Material Standards............................................................... 113

    9 Process Control And Acceptance Control..................................................... 125

    10 Maintenance Planning And Budgeting.......................................................... 133

    11 Construction Of Seal Work Using Labour-Intensive Methods ....................... 135

    12 References ................................................................................................... 144

  • Design and Construction of Surfacing Seals

    TRH 3, Pretoria, South Africa Version 1.5 May 2007 vii

    APPENDICES Appendix A Definitions And Glossary Of Terms........................................................................................... 149 Appendix B Life Expectancy Of Seals .......................................................................................................... 155 Appendix C Relative Cost Of Surfacings...................................................................................................... 157 Appendix D Selection Of Type Of Reseal .................................................................................................... 159 Appendix E Design Charts For Surfacing Seals........................................................................................... 163 Appendix F Stone Spread Rates .................................................................................................................. 189 Appendix G Determination Of The Consistency........................................................................................... 193 Appendix H Seal Design Worked Examples ............................................................................................. 198 Appendix I Cutt

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