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DNA & RNA Replication & Transcription Central Dogma: DNA—RNA--Protein

DNA & RNA Replication & Transcription Central Dogma: DNA—RNA--Protein

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  • DNA & RNA Replication & Transcription Central Dogma:DNARNA--Protein

  • Review DNAWhat are some of the characteristics of DNA? (Think about structure and function)

  • DNAWhat makes up the code in DNA?If there is 40% Adenine, how much Guanine is present?Compare and contrast hydrogen and covalent bonding in a DNA molecule.Strands in opposite direction (anti-parallel)

  • DNA ReplicationWhat is the end result?Identical copies of DNAMitosis

  • DNA ReplicationOccurs in the nucleusCopies chromosomesAfter un-zipping, strand serves as a templateFinal result=1 new strand: 1 original

  • DNA Replication

  • Role of enzymes:Helicase: breaks Hydrogen-bonds (H-bonds)DNA Polymerase:attaches free nucleotides

  • RNAWhy do we need RNA?DNA is trapped in the nucleusWhere are proteins made?The ribosomesmRNA is literally a messengerHow do we make mRNA?Compare and contrast DNA & RNA

  • DNA & RNADNANucleotides (phosphate, deoxyribose, nitrogen bases)AdenineGuanineCytosineThymineDouble Stranded(double helix)

    RNANucleotides (phosphate, ribose, nitrogen bases)AdenineGuanineCytosineUracil (Thymine gone)Single Stranded

  • TranscriptionThe process of making RNA using DNA as a templateHow much of the DNA molecule is utilized?Only a partOccurs in the nucleusMakes RNA

  • TranscriptionRNA polymerase bonds free nucleotides.Creates a RNA molecule with free nucleotides (No Thymine..Uracil)3 types:mRNA: messenger (This will later be translated into a polypeptide.)rRNA: ribosomal (This will be used in the building of ribosomes: machinery for synthesizing proteins by translating mRNA.)tRNA: transfer (RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the growing polypeptide.)

  • Transcription continuedRNA polymerase is usedStart and stop signals on the DNA strandComplimentary base pairingA-U & G-CA T T G C C A TU A A C G G U A

  • Genetic CodemRNA has a nucleotide sequence, taken from DNA strandmRNA carrying a genetic messageDetermines order of amino acidswhich make up your proteins!!!The genetic code consists of 64 triplets of nucleotides. These triplets are called codons on mRNA.Each codon encodes for one of the 20 amino acids used in the synthesis of proteins3 exceptions: UAA, UAG, UGA = STOPStart codon=methionine.AUG

  • More Genetic Code