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  • SVEUČILIŠTE U ZAGREBU

    FAKULTET ORGANIZACIJE I INFORMATIKE

    V A R A Ž D I N

    Marin Rukavina

    AGENTI U 3D OKOLINI

    DIPLOMSKI RAD

    Varaždin, 2015.

  • SVEUČILIŠTE U ZAGREBU

    FAKULTET ORGANIZACIJE I INFORMATIKE

    V A R A Ž D I N

    Marin Rukavina

    Matični broj: 42617/13–R

    Studij: Baze podataka i baze znanja

    AGENTI U 3D OKOLINI

    DIPLOMSKI RAD

    Mentor:

    Doc.dr.sc. Markus Schatten

    Varaždin, studeni 2015.

  • I

    Sadržaj

    1. Uvod ...................................................................................................................................... 1

    2. Agenti i višeagentni sustavi ................................................................................................... 3

    2.1. Pojam agenta .................................................................................................................. 3

    2.1.1. Programi, objekti, ekspertni sustavi i umjetna inteligencija ................................... 4

    2.2. Višeagentni sustav .......................................................................................................... 6

    2.3. Konačni automati ............................................................................................................ 6

    2.3.1. Agent kao konačni automat ..................................................................................... 8

    2.4. Vrste okolina .................................................................................................................. 8

    3. Agenti u 3D okolini ............................................................................................................. 11

    3.1. Pojam prostora u tri dimenzije ..................................................................................... 11

    3.1.1. Euklidski vektorski prostor ................................................................................... 12

    3.1.2. Gibanja i pomaci u Euklidovom prostoru ............................................................. 13

    3.1.3. Agentno razumijevanje prostorne stereometrije .................................................... 14

    3.2. Pokretni strojevi s mogućnosti programiranja .............................................................. 15

    3.2.1. Roboti .................................................................................................................... 15

    3.2.1.1. Primjeri ........................................................................................................... 16

    3.2.1.2. Robot Shakey ................................................................................................. 19

    3.2.2. Bespilotna prijevozna sredstva .............................................................................. 20

    3.2.2.1. Bespilotne letjelice ......................................................................................... 20

    3.3. Percepcija okoline i senzorska tehnologija ................................................................... 21

    3.3.1. Senzori udaljenosti ................................................................................................ 22

    3.4. Otkrivanje okoline ........................................................................................................ 24

    3.4.1. Procjena položaja .................................................................................................. 26

    3.4.2. Akvizicija 3D podataka ......................................................................................... 27

    3.4.3. Mapiranje ............................................................................................................... 27

    3.4.3.1. Reprezentacije metričkih mapa ...................................................................... 28

    3.4.3.2. Implementacija metričkih mapa ..................................................................... 28

    3.4.4. Istraživanje ............................................................................................................ 30

    3.4.4.1. Rubne metode ................................................................................................. 31

    3.4.4.2. Metode temeljene na dobitku informacija ...................................................... 31

    4. Simulacija 3D višeagentnih sustava .................................................................................... 34

    4.1. Potreba .......................................................................................................................... 34

    4.2. Pregled postojećih višeagentnih 3D simulatora ........................................................... 34

    4.2.1. V-REP ................................................................................................................... 35

  • II

    4.2.2. Entorama ............................................................................................................... 37

    4.2.3. AMP ...................................................................................................................... 38

    4.2.4. FLAME ................................................................................................................. 40

    5. Primjer: Simulator agentnog ponašanja u 3D okolini ......................................................... 42

    5.1. Zamisao simulatora ...................................................................................................... 42

    5.1.1. Vrsta okoline ......................................................................................................... 43

    5.1.2. Podmornica kao agent ........................................................................................... 43

    5.1.3. Učitavanje scenarija i neovisnost od definicije terena .......................................... 44

    5.1.4. Orijentacija na modularna ponašanja .................................................................... 45

    5.2. Odlučivanje o platformi ................................................................................................ 45

    5.3. Pregled korištenih tehnologija i biblioteka ................................................................... 46

    5.3.1. Three.js .................................................................................................................. 46

    5.3.2. Tween.js ................................................................................................................ 48

    5.3.3. Enmasse.io suita .................................................................................................... 49

    5.3.3.1. Hypertimer ..................................................................................................... 50

    5.3.4. Ostale tehnologije .................................................................................................. 51

    5.4. Implementacija ............................................................................................................. 52

    5.4.1. Definicija terena .................................................................................................... 52

    5.4.2. Simulator ............................................................................................................... 54

    5.4.2.1. Detekcija kolizija ............................................................................................ 54

    5.4.3. Agenti .................................................................................................................... 55

    5.4.4. Ponašanja ............................................................................................................... 57

    5.4.4.1. Algoritmi istraživanja ..................................................................................... 59

    5.4.5. Meniji, izgled simulatora i ostala funkcionalnost.................................................. 60

    5.5. Diskusija ....................................................................................................................... 62

    5.5.1. Akvizicija 3D podataka ......................................................................................... 63

    5.5.2. Sposobnosti istraživačkog ponašanja .................................................................... 63

    5.5.3. Organizacija koda .................................................................................................. 65

    6. Zaključak ............................................................................................................................. 67

    7. Literatura ............................................................................................................................. 68

    8. Popis slika ............................................................................................................................ 70

    9. Popis isječaka koda .............................................................................................................. 71

    10. Prilozi ........................................................................................................................... 72

    10.1. Resursi .................................................................................................................... 72