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Diphtheria microbio

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From the Greek word, diphthera (“leather”)Acute, toxin-mediatedHighly contagious diseaseCauses inflammation in the tissue of the Upper Respiratory Tract.Respiratory disease

Text of Diphtheria microbio

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What is Diphtheria?

• From the Greek word, diphthera (“leather”)

• Acute, toxin-mediated

• Highly contagious disease

• Causes inflammation in the tissue of the URT.

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Signs and Symptoms

• characterized as sore throat, localized pain, fever, pharyngitis

• Formation of pseudomembrane; a mixture of bacteria, blood clotting factors, and the remains of dead pharyngeal and laryngeal cells.

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Pathogen and virulence factors

• Corynebacterium diphtheriae - a species of pleomorphic, non-endospore-forming, aerobic gram-positive bacteria

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• The bacterium divides via a type of binary fission called snapping division, in which daughter cells remain attached to form characteristic V-shapes and side-by-side palisade arrangements

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Pathogenesis andEpidemiology

• Toxigenic diphtheria bacilli in

nasopharynx organism produces

a toxin toxin produced: absorbed

into the bloodstream tissues of

the body

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• Transmitted from person to person via

respiratory droplets or skin contact

• Have different effects depending on a

host’s immune status and the site of


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• Infections in immune individuals are asymptomatic, whereas infections in immunocompromised individuals result in a mild respiratory disease

• Diphtheria is a leading cause of childhood death among the unimmunized

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Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

• Diagnosis is based on observation of the pseudomembrane and an immunodiffusion assay• Elek Test – a test wherein antibodies

against the toxin react with the toxin in a sample of fluid from the patient

• The most important aspect of treatment is the administration of antitoxin (immunoglobulins against the toxin) to neutralize diphtheria toxin before it binds to cells

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• Penicillin or erythromycin kills Corynebacterium, preventing the synthesis of more toxin

• Humans are the only known host for C. diphtheriae•most effective way to prevent diphtheria is through Immunization

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• In severe cases, tracheostomy is needed.

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Cases in the Philippines

• In the Philippines, DPT is given between two months and six months of age and booster shots are given at 18 months and before a child enters school.

• Adults, on the other hand, are immunized with TD vaccine (tetanus-diphtheria).

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• : http://health.wikipilipinas.org/index.php/Diptheria