Digital Photography Fundamentals

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    Digital Photography

    FundamentalsFilling in the Gaps

    Martin B. Goldstein DMD

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    According to Dr. Greg Lutke there are

    5 dimensions of a digital photograph

    Exposure; monitored by the histogram

    Tonal Range; adjusted in software postprocessing

    Color; controlled by white balance/colortemperature setting of your camera

    Sharpness; influenced by camera shake anduse of the unsharp mask in post processing

    Depth of Field; controlled by the F stop settingof the camera

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    The Good News:

    Camera settings are pre-set on a onetime basis (except for F stop)

    Software Post Processing is Simple

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    TheThe Chip that makes it happen.Chip that makes it happen.TheThe Chip that makes it happen.Chip that makes it happen.

    The cameras sensor is a Tiny Wonder

    And is supported by the cameras built in micro-processor

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    24 X 36 mm

    22.2 X 14.8 mm

    7.8 X 5.32 mm

    In dentistry we need a bigger bucket: Sensor Size

    Point and shoots.

    Digital SLRs.

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    Digital Camera Sensorscontain millions of photo-sites or diodes

    Conventional photographyuses chemical compounds

    to record light Digital photography uses

    tiny light-sensitive photo-sites to detect light

    Each Photo-site is

    responsible for a PIXEL

    Pixels = picture elements

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    Pixels Make The Image

    Portmanteau is a Lewis Carroll term for combining two words into a new

    word..Thus,the PIXEL (picture + element)

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    ResolutionResolution5 x 4 = 20 pixel CCD 10 x 8 = 80 pixel CCD

    Resolution refers to the number of pixels on a CCD

    2272 X 1704 for a 4 megapixel camera

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    When you think resolution

    think file or image SIZE

    hold that thought..

    When you think resolution

    think file or image SIZE

    hold that thought..

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    Exposure Variables

    ShutterSpeed

    Aperture Setting

    Iso setting

    Light source

    ExposureCompensation

    White Balance

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    Shutter Speed=length of time the

    camera sensor is exposed to light

    In dental photography the shutter speed is aconstant

    We use the cameras flash synch speed

    The flash synch speed is the fastest shutter speedthat can ordinarily be used to take a picture withan electronic flash. Typical value would be 1/200of a second. (Rebel Xti) 1/250 for a 40D. Thefaster the better so as to reduce the effects of

    camera shake We set it and forget it!

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    Aperture Priorityperture PriorityOur chief variable is altering the size of the aperture.

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    Whats an FWhats an F--Stop??Stop??

    OrHow Aperture Effects Image FocusOrHow Aperture Effects Image Focus

    Whats an FWhats an F--Stop??Stop??

    OrHow Aperture Effects Image FocusOrHow Aperture Effects Image Focus

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    Depth of Field Is Critical to Our Efforts

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    F stop settings hint:

    Think high number=more depth of field=more

    image clarity (F22-F32)

    Thing low number=less depth of field=lessimage clarity (F5.6-F8.0)

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    ISO=International Organization for

    Standardization

    ISO is the yardstick for sensitivity to light

    The higher the ISO, the faster the speed of

    the camera with respect to image recording

    Digital SLRs now feature ISOs up to 3200 andup useful for low (light photography:VELscope)

    In dental digital photography (flash-based) we

    set it and forget it at 100. This keeps noise outof the picture

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    Light Sources

    Flash photography; Ring flash, Point Source,Dual Point Source; Combined point source andring flash

    Can be controlled by TTL or ETTL: EvaluativeThrough the lens metering; The camera tellsthe flash when to turn off! This is how WEDO IT.

    We are using automatic exposure controls vsmanual exposure controls

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    What is a Histogram? The histogram is simply a graph that allows

    you to judge the brightness of an image. Youcan think of the area under the graph as

    comprising all the pixels in your captured

    digital image. The left side of the histogram

    depicts how many "dark" pixels you havecaptured; the right side, how many "bright"

    pixels you have captured.

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    Histograms: They can guide us in setting the

    Exposure Compensation Value as well as on-the-fly aperture setting adjustments

    Image too dark Image just right

    With peak just

    left of center

    Image too light

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    What is Exposure Compensation?

    A pre-determined exposure adjustment matched to thecameras system components; It adjusts the ExposureValue

    It over-rides what the camera initially tells the flashand adjusts the flash output up or down

    Typically +1 in the Canon systems

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    White Balance

    Influences color temperature of image; warm(gold/yellow) to cold (bluish)

    Can be pre-set to Kelvin value (5000-5700);Canon allows setting variables in 100 degree

    increments Can be pre-set to daylight setting or flash

    setting

    Can be pre-set using Custom white balance

    Photomed presets this value in cameras shippedin kit form.

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    Macbeth Mini Color Checker Chart

    A word about Custom White Balance

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    Color Calibration for your monitor

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    Typical SLR settings for dental

    photography shooting in Aperture

    Priority Mode Av Shutter Speed: Flash Synch Speed of 1/200 of a second to

    1/250

    F Stops: 22-32 for close ups, 5.6-6.7 for portraits

    ISO = 100

    Quality setting to highest offered by camera (may includesimultaneous RAW recording)

    Flash set to ETTL for automatic exposure control

    Color temperature: 5000 to 5700 Kelvin or daylight

    Exposure Compensation +1

    All values (except F stop) are pre-set by Photomed beforeshipped to you; not to worry

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    Photomeds Quick Start Guides

    Worth the price of admission

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    Image Quality is pre-determined

    by format capture selection:

    JPEG vs RAW

    The concept of compression factors in!

    Compression happens in the camera but can

    happen in software applications as well

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    With Respect to Image Quality Settings:

    Image Size (resolution) and Qualityare

    options that you choose when you set up your

    camera for the first time

    Canon and Nikon Settings Combine both

    With Respect to Image Quality Settings:

    Image Size (resolution) and Qualityare

    options that you choose when you set up your

    camera for the first time

    Canon and Nikon Settings Combine both

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    File Formats: JPEG vs RAW

    JPEG = Selectable Compression

    JPEG = A lossy format

    JPEG = Most compatible format

    JPEG = less room on memory cards

    JPEG = can reduce file size by a factor or 20 or

    more

    JPEG = in camera and out of camera selectablecompression

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    In the RAW; All you need to know RAW is the broad term applied to all the proprietary formats

    created by each digital camera manufacturer

    RAW is not compressed; Sensors native resolution RAW eliminates camera pre-sets such as white balance,

    sharpness, color saturation, exposure, etc

    You fix em up after the image is captured

    RAW is your digital negative; archive them

    AACD submissions are done in RAW Shoot with your cameras JPEG+RAW option

    A 12 megapixel camera can save 132 JPEG FINE+RAW imagepairs on a 4 GB card

    Most popular 3rd party converter: Adobe Camera Raw

    supplied with Photoshop Elements and Photoshop CS Canon RAW = CR2 or CRW Nikon RAW = NEF

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    ADOBE RAW as found in Adobe PhotoShop Elements

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    Whats a magnification ratio?

    The magnification ratio is the ratio of the size of the

    image projected on the sensor compared to theactual size of the object.

    A magnification ratio of 1:10 means that the imageon the sensor is 1/10 of life size.

    magnification ratio of 1:1 indicates a life size imageon the sensor. The more an image is magnified, thelarger it is projected on the sensor which results ina larger image seen on the view screen.

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    1:1 = actual size of imaging media

    In the case of XSi: 9/10s inch which = about 3 teeth

    1:2 = about 8 teeth (1.8 inches imaged)

    1:3 = full anterior retracted (just under 3 inches imaged)

    Magnification Ratios

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    1:1 magnification 1:3 magnification

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    Focusing Options:Manual focus vs Autofocus

    What is Autofocus and when should you use it?

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    In Manual Focus mode, using the magnifcation ratio scale will guarantee

    consistent image sizes and illumination.

    Auto-focus is fast but will yield varying sizes and illuminationas your distancefrom the subject will vary.you can be in focus anywhere.

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    Magnification Ratios on a Canon lensMagnification Ratios on a Canon lensMagnification Ratios on a Canon lensMagnification Ratios on a Canon lens

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    Digital Film

    Digital FilmReaderUSB cable

    PC

    USB portImage Tranfer OptionsImage Tranfer Options

    Eye-Fi Card

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    Post Processing Classification

    Global Editing: cropping, sharpening,brightening, darkening, changing contrast, etc

    Spot Editing: similar to above but involves limitedareas in your image, ie brightening a smile

    Focal editing: changing content at the pixel levelas in using the clone tool to remove an uwantedspot

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    Post Imaging Processing Made Easy

    for JPEG images the ADOBE way

    Straightening; use the straightening tool

    Cropping

    Levels Adjustment Ctrl L

    Unsharp Mask

    Saving

    This can all be done in Adobe Photoshop Elements 7.0

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    Courtesy of Dr. Greg Lutke of Plano, Texas

    Enhancing your imagess tonal range with the histogram

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    The Schmutz tool..(Clone Tool)

    The Healing Brush works as well.

    The Alt key marks the spot

    that will clone to whats underyour brush

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    Folder Management and More

    Move it, Save it, Fix it, Re-Save it

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    Summary of Post Processing in ADOBE

    PhotoShop Elements Straighten tool used to level the shot

    Cropping Tool to create a 4X6 format

    Levels tool to expand tonal range : left carrot moved to beginning of

    graph; right carrotto clip of the right side (Ctrl L)

    Unsharp Mask to sharpen the image :

    Amount: 100, Radius: 3 pixels, Threshold: 0%

    Save as jpeg to desired size; I use 750 KB to 1 MB

    via the quality promptwhen saving in Adobe Photoshop Elements

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    Digital SLR Outfits

    and accessories

    The Latest and Greatest

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    SLR Pros

    See what the lens sees (nearly 95% of life size!)

    Easy to focus

    Ultra close images made easy

    Extremely high depth of field possible

    Faster to operate

    SLRSLR ConsConsMore expensiveMore expensive

    Heavier and take up more counter spaceHeavier and take up more counter space

    Requires extra sets of batteries for flash unitRequires extra sets of batteries for flash unit

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    Latest SLR outfit Price Points

    Canon Rebel Xs and Xsi (Starting at $1800)

    Canon 50D (Starting at $2500)

    Nikon D90 (Starting at $2200)

    Nikon D300 and D700 (Starting 1t $2900)

    Includes basic components in Kit form: camerabody, macro lens and ring flash as well as neededaccessories. (case, battery charger, Quick Startguide, flash memory); Photomed Pricing

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    SLR outfits are best sold as kits

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    Flash Unit Options

    Sigmas EM-140 DG Canons MR-14 EX

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    Nikon SLR with Nikon wireless flash and Photomed flash bracket

    Nikon R1 and R1C1 macro flashes as well as standard flashes

    Next to lens

    for deep intra-

    oral close-ups

    Away from lens for

    anterior shots

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    Canon MT-24EX Twin Light Macro Flash

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    Split flash Nikon vs Ring Flash Canon

    Split Flash with Nikon Ring Flash with Canon

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    The Most Popular Mirror Shapes.

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    Top shelf Mirrors

    Doctorseyes occlusal mirror

    www.jlblosser.com

    Photomed mirror handle with

    Titanium mirror

    Ultra-bright coating

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    Printer Heaven.Weve arrived

    What do you need in your office?

    Printer Heaven.Weve arrived

    What do you need in your office?

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    The Canon Pixma series / HP Photosmart seriesThe Canon Pixma series / HP Photosmart series

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    What makes a stand-alone?

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    Ink Vending Machines.

    More colors for more accurate: six colors as a minimum

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    he All-In-One Printerhe All-In-One Printer

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    Sweet Spot Printer of the month

    The HP Photosmart C7280 with Premium Plus Photo Paper;

    Soft Gloss, 50 pack Features printer, copier, fax, film card reader, six ink colors and

    is wireless (estimated street cost: under $250)

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    Epson Notables

    Stylus Photo R1900 with Ultrachrome Hi Gloss

    pigment ink; 13 X 19 format printer

    Artisan 800 All In One with Claria Six color inkand hi-tech touch panel screen

    PictureMate Dash or Zoom

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    A Suitable Combo

    A mini ink jet in your operatories

    AAn All In Onen All In One in a private office where a PC isin a private office where a PC is locatedlocated

    for full size prints and textfor full size prints and text

    A Suitable Combo

    A mini ink jet in your operatories

    AAn All In Onen All In One in a private office where a PC isin a private office where a PC is locatedlocated

    for full size prints and textfor full size prints and text

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    Photographic Documentation

    AACD Accreditation Photography

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    Our model, Sandy

    Full Face Frontal View

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    Full Face, Frontal View

    1:15 magnification, non-retracted

    Horizontal only with chin near the lower border

    Full natural smile, relaxed facial muscles

    Patients nose is the center point

    Use the interpupillaryline and vertical midline of face to

    orient the camera.

    Use a uniform non-distracting, non-reflective background

    Take the photo straight on, avoiding angulations

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    Full Smile, Frontal View

    1:3 magnification, non-retracted

    Document the maximum amount of teeth and gingiva shown

    during a broad smile

    The vertical center is the philtrum of the upper lip The incisal plane of the upper teeth should be the horizontal

    midlineof the photo

    Capture any cants or midline discrepancies

    Focus on the centrals and laterals

    F ll S il 1 3 ifi ti

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    Full Smile 1:3 magnification

    Right and Left Lateral Views, Non-Retracted

    The vertical midline should be the lateral incisor

    The horizontal midline should be the incisal plane,

    perpendicular to the vertical midline.

    Focus on the lateral incisor

    Some background maybe visible on the contra-lateral side

    Not a sagital view; contralateral central should be in view

    Upper and Lower Teeth Frontal View

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    Upper and Lower Teeth, Frontal View

    1:3 magnification, Retracted View

    Upper and lower teeth slightly parted

    Show as much gingiva as possible

    Minimize appearance of lips and retractors

    Vertical midline: midline of face

    Horizontal midline: incisal plane of uppers

    Camera 90 degrees to the subject, avoid tilting

    U d L T h

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    Upper and Lower Teeth

    Right and Left Lateral View, 1:3 Retracted

    Upper and lower teeth slightly parted, incisal edges visible

    Show as much gingiva as possible

    Minimize retractors and lips from shot

    Vertical midline: lateral incisor

    Horizontal midline: incisal plane

    This is not sagital; the contralateral central (and more)

    should be visible

    Maxillary Anterior View

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    Maxillary Anterior View

    1:1.5 Magnification; Retracted View

    Vertical Reference: midline and frenum

    Horizontal Reference: midline of photo should bisect the

    central incisors No retractors visible; contraster optional

    90 degrees

    4 to 6 teeth in the frame

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    Close Up with Contraster

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    Contrasters From PhotomedContrasters From Photomed

    Maxillary Anterior View Retracted

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    Maxillary Anterior View, Retracted

    Right and Left Lateral View, 1:1.5,

    The lateral incisor is centered to bisect the view vertically

    Horizontal reference: the midline bisects the lateral incisor No retractors or opposing teeth visible

    Photo at 90 degrees to the facial of the lateral

    4 to 6 teeth in the frame

    Maxillary Arch; Occlusal View

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    Maxillary Arch; Occlusal View

    1:3 Magnification, Retracted with mirror

    Taken with mirror and retractors

    The facial surfaces of the centrals should be visible near the

    edge of the photo

    Minimize mirror edges and lips.

    Patients nose should be excluded

    Photo should extend from the central incisors to the mesial

    of the second molars

    Can be taken in front of or behind patient

    Mandibular Arch; Occlusal View

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    Mandibular Arch; Occlusal View

    1:3 Magnification, Retracted with mirror

    Taken with mirror and retractors

    The facial surfaces of the centrals should be visible near the

    edge of the photo

    Minimize mirror edges and lips.

    Photo should extend from the central incisors to the mesial

    of the second molars

    The patients tongue should not hide the teeth

    Can be taken in front of or behind patient

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    NonRetractedViews

    Retracted Views

    The 12 AACD Required Views

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    AACD image submissions

    http://www.aacd.com/index.php?module=cms&page=141

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    Shot Taking for the Rest of Us

    1:15 Frontal Full Face Smiling (The Portrait)

    1:3 Frontal Smile

    1:3 Front Retracted, teeth in occlusion

    1:3 Maxillary Occlusal View

    1:3 Mandibular Occlusal View

    The Basic Exam Set

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    The Basic Exam Set

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    Cheek

    Retraction

    Cheek

    Retraction

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    Frontal Retracted

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    Frontal Retracted

    Full Smile

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    Full Smile

    Upper Occlusal

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    45 degrees

    Lower Occlusal Shot

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    Lower Occlusal Shot

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    Up/Down and Away Occlusal Shots

    Occlusal Shot Tips

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    Occlusal Shot Tips

    Retract the cheeks up and out / down and out

    Hold the mirror against the opposing arch

    Have patient reclined about 30 degrees back

    Use 1:3 magnification

    If the tongue is problematic on the lower, ask patient tomove their tongue behind the mirror

    Air to defog the mirror

    Wide end of mirror first

    As close to perpendicular to mirror as possible (45 degreescloser to reality)

    Mirrored shots need to be flipped vertically in software

    Occlusal Image Considerations

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    g

    If shooting in front of the patient, flip image to vertical

    mirror image to obtain proper perspective: Thumbs Plus

    will do this in one step with the vertical flip tool.

    Ideal Occlusal shots

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    Ideal Occlusal shots

    Quadrant Shots are useful when there is difficulty getting an adequate occlusal shot

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    Buccal Shots are simply obtuse retracted shots

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    Buccal Shots are simply obtuse retracted shots.

    Shade Taking Shots

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    S ade a g S o s

    1:3 magnification

    Taken with two closest shade tabs (one lighter and one darker)

    In same verticle plane as teeth you are matching

    Wet with water or glaze liquid

    Some Bonus Photo Tips

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    Some Bonus Photo Tips

    Brace yourself against the chair when takingphotos.this will steady you Vaseline to lips or retractors will ease retractor

    placement For occlusal shots, the mirror is at least 45 degrees to

    arch, focusing on bicuspids (closer to perpendicular thebetter)

    urn the patients head towards you to facilitate theimaging.

    Use Quadrant shots when wishing to zoom in on aparticular area of interest

    Wear Glasses when using an LCD if you normally do Peripheral lighting only from your overhead light; excess

    light will confuse the flash sensor

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    Portraiture

    Two Varieties

    1. Clinical as in the AACD horizontal Full Face Frontal View

    (landscapemode)

    2. Enhanced Vertically Oriented Portrait: Suitablefor

    Simulation.

    Summary of Tips for Effective Portraits

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    Summary of Tips for Effective Portraits

    Distance: 6 to 8 feet from patient: zoom in F 5.6-6.7 or portrait mode Camera turned vertically Lens perpendicular to the nose Focus on the teeth; lock focus

    Recompose to fill LCD with face Have patient say hiiiieeeeeee Steady as she goes: count 1.1000 after shutter

    release Check for little white focus points

    Di t i k

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    Distance is key

    The message: Back up and zoom in

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    Portrait Enhancements

    A set of useful tools

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    Portable Portrait

    Photo Enhancement

    Device

    The PPPED

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    My Photo Studio

    Photomeds Portrait Kit

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    Photomed s Portrait Kit

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    Just click on the facial landmarks as prompted

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    Just click on the facial landmarks as prompted

    Portrait Professional 8.0

    The Five Crimes of Digital Dental

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    The Five Crimes of Digital DentalPhotographers

    The Crime of ProximityThe Crime of Proximity

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    The Crime of Proximity.The Crime of Proximity.

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    The Shaky Hand.The Shaky Hand.

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    Wasted Pixels.(now you know what they are)Wasted Pixels.(now you know what they are)

    he same crime when shooting teethhe same crime when shooting teeth

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    he same crime when shooting teethhe same crime when shooting teeth

    he Wrong Angle

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    he Wrong Angle

    H i l Mi fi

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    Horizontal Misfires.

    Stopobserve plane.shoot ..for better results

    F AREA!!F AREA!!

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    FogAREA!!FogAREA!!

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    The Worst Offense..

    Not taking the camera out of thebox once you get it in your office.

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    Putting your camera to work

    Fight the battle on two fronts:

    Anterior Dentistry

    Posterior Dentistry

    Cosmetic Simulation As A Marketing Tool

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    Cosmetic Simulation As A Marketing Tool

    Getting Patients to Accept Treatment

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    And so the courtship begins

    - with a simulation-

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    Two approaches to smile simulations.

    Option 1: Do It Yourself

    Kodaks KDI with the cosmetic suite

    Digital Dentist Tutorial Package

    Snap Instant Dental Imaging

    But what is your time worth?

    Accuracy issues

    Drop In Smiles from Smile Library

    Time Consuming and potentially frustrating

    Option 2

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    Cosmetic Imaging with

    Smile-Vision

    Cosmetic Imaging with

    Smile-Vision

    www.smile-vision.net

    Just send them a portrait and theyll return you a newly designed smile

    Option 2

    Web Based Interaction from

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    Smile Vision; why I like it!

    Convenienceno need to phone

    Access from anywhere with a password

    Easy to check status of imaging order

    Economicalprint your own if you like

    Easy for staff to interact with

    Calls for HIGH SPEED CONNECTION

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    Ready to Print?

    Remember..

    Smile Vision will send prints

    or

    Do it yourself

    Simulation Strategies

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    Patients of record

    that already trustyou!

    New Patient: Full

    mouth restorativewith potential foranterior dentistry

    New Patient

    CosmeticConsulation

    The $50 cosmetic

    dentistry screen;Reappoint to

    discuss simulation

    The $50 cosmeticdentistry screen

    No fee,mailed

    simulations withletter; patient tocall if interested

    No fee for the

    simulation;focused marketing

    Patient Categories

    Lorin LibraryLorin Library

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    y

    Interactive Smile Style Guide

    y

    Interactive Smile Style Guide

    www.digident.com $149

    Select theshapeof the4 incisors

    Th 6 h i f ll 3 i t

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    Centrals- Square

    Laterals - Square

    Centrals- SquareLaterals - Square

    /round

    Centrals- Square

    Laterals - Round

    Centrals-

    Square/round

    Laterals -

    Square/round

    Centrals-

    Square/round

    Laterals -

    Round

    Centrals-

    Round

    Laterals -

    Round

    There are 6 choices for all 3 canine types.

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    In Office Finance Programs

    Care Credit!!www.carecredit.com

    A Recent Study from the Academy of Dental CPAs

    Practices enrolled in CareCredit increased their gross annual production by 25%vs 4% for practices without a patient financing program: an average of $126,000

    more per year for those offering CareCredit

    Accounts receivable Aging decreased 38% vs 4%

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    Bottom Line..

    Once youve delivered a convincing,

    quality simulation.You can stop selling.

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    Premiers ALFA Triple Tray

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    This is all you need to get the ball rolling..This is all you need to get the ball rolling..

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    Coltene Whaledent

    Monobody and a triple tray

    Bite record and Bite Jig for a

    vertical reference

    Resin Replica

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    Temporary Veneers Finished Case

    Hard Soft Templates

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    The Finished Casevery

    much in synch with themock up and

    simulation

    The old way.Siltek Putty Matrix to translate Resin

    Replica to final restoration

    The old way.Siltek Putty Matrix to translate Resin

    Replica to final restoration

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    Replica to final restorationReplica to final restoration

    A new approach: Milled Empress

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    The Resin Replica, aka Wax Up is

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    scanned and coronal shapes milled

    Remarkable similarities between wax

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    up and machined restorations

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    The Beauty of a System

    Predictability

    Comfort Zone

    A consistent Routine.

    Make it an always procedure

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    Digital Imaging to Validate YourDigital Imaging to Validate Your

    Diagnosis and TreatmentDiagnosis and TreatmentRecommendations of FracturedRecommendations of Fractured

    TeethTeeth

    Just what the doctor ordered.Just what the doctor ordered.

    Digital Imaging to Validate YourDigital Imaging to Validate Your

    Diagnosis and TreatmentDiagnosis and TreatmentRecommendations of FracturedRecommendations of Fractured

    TeethTeeth

    Just what the doctor ordered.Just what the doctor ordered.

    Especially helpful for third party reimbursement

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    The digital camera as it emulates a

    microscope.

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    Epson PictureMate Series

    What Patients Are ShownWhat Patients Are Shown

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    www.ecdentalsolutions.com www.photomed.net

    Schedule a Diagnostic Restoration Removal

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    Schedule a Diagnostic Restoration Removal

    An hour appointment (or more) Arrange to replace adjacent alloys of similar

    vintage to the one being explored

    Prepare for the possibility of indirectrestoration

    Start with the tooth in question

    Have your digital camera handy for on the

    spot demonstration of what youve uncovered

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    Upgrade Your View:

    Class III or Class IV Loupes

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    preferably with a light

    Laser Loupe from Orascoptic.

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    Filter in the carrier lens

    is made of high index

    polycarbonateFilter in the telescope is

    made of glass and is

    significantly clearer thanthe carrier lens

    Magnification and laser eye protection in a single product.Laser filters are in BOTH the telescopes and the carrier lenses.

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    Hands On Exercises

    Meet Your Camera.

    The Backside

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    Film Slot

    Most Important Buttons XTi

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    Mode dial AV:Aperture priority

    Main dial for F

    stop settings

    Shutter Release

    Erase button

    Playback button Menu buttonCross Keys for

    advancing images in

    playback mode

    Zoom buttonsDisplay sensor

    DisplayMadeSimple

    Fstop

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    Exposure count remaining

    Image

    Quality

    Shutter

    speed

    Mode

    The Sigma Flash

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    Ready light

    Turns on focus lamp

    Should see ETTL when in use

    The Sigma Macro Lens:

    M l A t f

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    Manual vs Autofocus

    Focus toggle for lens M/AFMagnification Ratios

    Basic Camera Settings

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    Close ups: F22 (Set withMaindial)

    Portraits: F5.6 to 6.7

    Mode Selector in AV mode

    Exposure compensation ispreset to +1 by Photomed.See Quick Start guide forinfo on how to alter thissetting.

    Rebel XTi

    The AACD 12 Views

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    Natural Full Face (1:15) Full Natural Smile: frontal, right lateral, left

    lateral (1:3)

    Retracted upper and lower, slightly parted:

    frontal, right lateral, left lateral (1:3) Retracted maxillary anterior only: frontal, right

    lateral, left lateral (1: 1.5)

    Retracted occlusal views: maxillary,

    mandibular, mirrored (1:3)

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    Additional Shots to take

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    Vertical Portrait

    Contrasted maxillary anterior shot if

    contrasters available

    Contact Info [email protected] net to reach Dr Goldstein

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    [email protected] to reach Dr. Goldstein

    www.drgoldsteinspeaks.com for Dr. Goldsteins web site; to download aphoto release form for your patients

    www.smilevision.net for Smile Vision

    800-634-3480 (Dr. Larry Brooks)

    www.photomed.net for Photomed

    800-998-7765 (Mike Mckenna or Sean Chappel)

    www.orascoptic.com for upgrading your vision

    www.carecredit.com for setting up a credit program

    www.ecdentalsolutions.com for What the Eyes Cant See booklet www.digident.com for the Smile Style Guide

    www.jlblosser.com for Doctors Eyes mirrors

    www.portraitprofessional.com for Portrait Professional 8.0

    www.adobe.com for PhotoShop Elements 7.0