Digital libraries in the context of social systems: the ... libraries in the context of social systems: ... terms of learning, ... institutional repositories in research communities

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<ul><li><p>1 </p><p>Digital libraries in the context of social systems: the roles of academic support function. </p><p>Apantree Kandet* </p><p>Librarian Practitioner </p><p>Academic Resource Center </p><p>The world of media, news and online information is growing continuously, playing </p><p>significant roles in the lifestyles of people today. Many people are bypassing traditional </p><p>media such as newspapers, magazines or books, and entering the world of online media and </p><p>news media, most of which are in the form of electronic media that are convenient and easy </p><p>to use. The boundaries of knowledge are open worldwide, so that people can access </p><p>information everywhere and at any time. Online information is a part of everyday life that </p><p>people will interact with, either for individual purposes or to communicate with each other. </p><p>People, as members of a community, have to communicate with other people in knowledge </p><p>societies. Their activities must engage with information-seeking to support their needs in </p><p>terms of learning, understanding, making decisions or solving their problems - the necessities </p><p>of their life (Case, 2012). Nowadays, the regular method of people to search for everyday </p><p>information is to involve themselves with information systems in the form of information </p><p>technologies, in order to find useful information. The way for people to find information in </p><p>the age of social media and the web is affecting institutions such as libraries by changing </p><p>their roles to support user needs, creating innovations to disseminate and share information </p><p>between users and libraries in the context of social communication. Creating digital libraries </p><p>for collecting, disseminating, preserving and contributing digital documents, by integrating </p><p>many important social and public information systems so that they work together, means that </p><p>the role of the library occupies a vital part of society, as a learning centre that concentrates on </p><p>interaction with users and building collaboration in the research community. This essay will </p><p>focus on digital libraries as social systems that are places for the providing, collecting and </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>sharing of knowledge in the form of digital resources. This essay will also refer to digital </p><p>libraries in the context of them being the centre of social communication as information </p><p>repositories and user communities, making them a socio-technical system, which is an </p><p>organizational design regarding interaction between people and society by using technology. </p><p>Information-seeking behaviour in the social system in the digital age </p><p>In social systems, people have to communicate with each other; every person is part of social </p><p>groups, whether at home, at school or the workplace, which are the places where knowledge </p><p>will be shared, created and organized between people. The traditional way of information-</p><p>seeking to gather information or knowledge when people need to know something is to ask </p><p>friends or colleagues or find information in the library. People in the digital, web-based age </p><p>have changed their behavior in regard to seeking information, the way in which people search </p><p>for information to find answers is more complex than in the past. Search engines are popular </p><p>tools for people to access information via digital devices; through them, it is easy to get </p><p>information by typing their question in a search box such as Google, from which the answer </p><p>will be shown in a few minutes. However, people still have questions: how do they know that </p><p>the answers they get from search engines are reliable or accurate, and where do they find </p><p>specific knowledge to make decisions or solve their problems? </p><p>A wide range of information in the new forms of multimedia, which are mostly in digital </p><p>form, affect libraries as information services by creating technologies to support the large </p><p>amount of digital information in terms of social information retrieval and social networking </p><p>technologies. Digital libraries are the new model of library, which use new technologies to </p><p>manage digital resources and operate digital information systems available to their users. </p><p>The definition of a digital library, from the Digital Library Federation (2004), is: Digital </p><p>Libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p>select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and </p><p>ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and </p><p>economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities. In the </p><p>information landscape, digital materials are increasing; people can access information by </p><p>using the internet network anytime and anywhere. In terms of libraries without walls, the </p><p>significant point seems to be that all libraries are beginning to realize and try to create a </p><p>strategy to reach the target groups under a communication framework which focuses on the </p><p>new form of materials or new formats of information, combined with new technology. </p><p>Among digital content, digital libraries are created and managed systems to access digital </p><p>information in the role of information providers in the learning community that are suitable </p><p>for people to access information easily and take them to the right information at the right time </p><p>(Chowdhury and Chowdhury, 2011). </p><p>Figure 1. Definition of a digital library, based on a practice community </p><p>(Choi and Rasmussen, 2006) </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>In Figure 1, Choi and Rasmussen (2006) described the transformative model which focuses </p><p>on a user-centred design that shows how digital libraries connect with their users and this </p><p>model presents the system framework of digital libraries characteristics as host systems for </p><p>gathering collections for communities and organizations. </p><p>Digital libraries: institutional repositories in research communities </p><p>Libraries are non-commercial organizations where people can access information for free; </p><p>this is the main reason why libraries are important for society, because libraries provide </p><p>powerful information collections to serve their patrons, which can be different types of user </p><p>group. The architecture of digital libraries is focused on integrating various kind of data </p><p>formats that are designed to interact with patrons in terms of social communities, where users </p><p>can communicate and participate with the system. Digital libraries, in the context of </p><p>institutional repositories, have a responsibility to manage repositories of digital materials, </p><p>such as online journals, e-books, images, etc. The roles of digital libraries in terms of </p><p>institutional repositories in social and research communities are to generate digital content via </p><p>online networks, by using standard tools which can support metadata formats and data </p><p>storage through a host of information and knowledge communities (John, Richard D. and </p><p>Theo, 2006). </p><p>Open Access (OA) is a new service of digital libraries, a kind of institutional repository that </p><p>is a system for disseminating information, data or research in the form of digital content, </p><p>where users can access any information free of charge. The definition of Open Access from </p><p>JISC (2010) is that Open Access is not self-publishing, nor a way to bypass peer-review and </p><p>publication, nor is it a kind of second-class, cut-price publishing route. It is simply a means to </p><p>make research results freely available online to the whole research community. The </p><p>significant role of open access in the form of database publications and digital content is to </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>share and provide free access materials to anyone in a scholarly community. This content can </p><p>be created by authors on their personal websites in a specific subject area by using self-</p><p>archiving software such as Fedora, DSpace and EPrint (Bawden and Robinson, 2012). </p><p>Moreover, the reason for academic institutions to use open access as a broadcast community </p><p>for researchers to disseminate and publish their journal or articles is to promote and </p><p>accelerate multi-disciplinary research areas. Due to the fact that academic institutions will </p><p>face funding problems, which may cause some research results to go unpublished, open </p><p>access can be the alternative way for academic institutions to distribute their scholarly </p><p>information and create new opportunities for their researchers to broadcast their own works </p><p>to the public; this system allows any user to download, copy, or distribute material under </p><p>lawful access (SPARC, 2013). </p><p>The mission of digital libraries as institutional repositories is to provide information services </p><p>and the dissemination of digitized materials, which is stored in digital format as the wisdom </p><p>of academic institutions. The preservation of those contributions will be maintained in the </p><p>long term by archiving. Moreover, these are the places for peer reviews for researchers who </p><p>want to disseminate their works to the public or in a research community, where their works </p><p>will be validated by others who are experts or referees, and their credibility as scholars or </p><p>research experts in their field will be thus proven. This platform will thus be used as a </p><p>channel of communication between researchers, both inside and outside the country, on </p><p>issues or topics of common interest (John, Richard D. and Theo, 2006). </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>Figure 2. The Computing Research Repository of Cornell University Library </p><p>(www.arXiv.org) </p><p>Figure 2 shows the contents of the Computing Research Repository, which is an open access </p><p>of digital content that provides the e-print of scholarly information collections in various </p><p>subjects that are available on the internet and free to access. </p><p>Figure 3. Social media applications for sharing information in the digital library repository of </p><p>Cornell University Library (www.arXiv.org) </p><p>http://www.arxiv.org/http://www.arxiv.org/</p></li><li><p>7 </p><p>In Figure 3, the area circled in red on the right hand side of the picture shows mini icons of </p><p>social media applications such as Facebook, CiteUlike, Linkedln, etc. These services allow </p><p>patrons to share web resources as social bookmarks, which enable users to share links or </p><p>make their personal bookmarks. Users can use these sites for tagging, ranking, giving </p><p>feedback, or commentary outside the arXiv webpage. Integrating between social network </p><p>sites and digital libraries is helping users to participate with community information and it </p><p>also facilitates interaction between patrons and media devices to exchange knowledge and </p><p>share information, which is the way of adding value to digital library services (Chowdhury </p><p>and Foo, 2012). </p><p>Web 2.0 and social media: the tools of the digital library in the knowledge society </p><p>Nowadays, digital resources in libraries are increasing: the roles of libraries are about more </p><p>than sharing knowledge and information, due to the new types of information resources that </p><p>are increasing, leading to the development of information technology to support user needs </p><p>and user behavior, which makes the responsibility of libraries more complicated. According </p><p>to Bilandzic and Johnson (2013), the library has an important role in society; it is a place for </p><p>sharing, meeting, and community gathering between members of society, reflecting social </p><p>interaction in different ways. Digital libraries have to make efforts to encourage people to use </p><p>library space as a public space for socialization and creating an information community. </p><p>From this viewpoint, the concept of the knowledge community occurred, which is all about </p><p>the effective way to transform knowledge between people in communities that will focus on </p><p>social interaction in terms of collaboration among users and libraries or information </p><p>institutions. </p><p> The adoption of new technologies through social media is growing among digital library </p><p>services. To connect the users, Web 2.0 and social media applications can help libraries to </p></li><li><p>8 </p><p>reach their users needs in the form of social media platforms, which are digital spaces on the </p><p>web that allow users to create and share information (Wang, 2011). Facebook, Twitter, </p><p>Weblogs, Wiki or Pinterest are the kind of social media applications that go together with </p><p>communication technologies; t people can use these social media applications to connect with </p><p>other users and allow people to share, tag or comment on the document or contents (in the </p><p>context of user-generated content), through which libraries can track users or gather feedback </p><p>immediately. Social media, as part of the digital libraries services, can be an effective tool to </p><p>create relationships between libraries and patrons in social communities, which also increases </p><p>the capacity of digital libraries to benefit researchers and users in terms of communication </p><p>processes in the knowledge society. </p><p>Digital library collaboration: communication in a social perspective </p><p>The common ways to make digital libraries be the centre of the information society are to </p><p>engage in user communities and understand the users. Libraries should study user behaviour </p><p>and user needs and know how digital libraries should design the system to support the users. </p><p>In recent years, the way in which information-seeking among users has changed, and the </p><p>wide spread of digital resources, has affected information spaces in that most libraries have </p><p>moved to creating a visual space for digital resources. Digital libraries, as new forms of </p><p>research communities, have to create strategies to support their patrons, who are from various </p><p>disciplines. The system will focus on being user-centred in the context of social interactions, </p><p>and a modified version of a library system that focuses on users experience to create usable </p><p>systems. The collaboration between digital libraries and academic institutions to disseminate </p><p>and contribute digital content to share in research communities can support the growth of the </p><p>knowledge society. A collaborative partnership within digital libraries can facilitate </p><p>researchers or scholars in academic institutions such as museums, archives or educational </p><p>organisations, to transform information across institutions, which is the appropriate way to </p></li><li><p>9 </p><p>create an academic network for researchers and scholars to gain more knowledge </p><p>(MacMillan, 2012). </p><p>Edward (2012) (cited in MacMillan, 2012), was interviewed by Canadian Broadcasting </p><p>Corporation radio about the collaboration in academic social networks, that there is no </p><p>conflict between data-sharing and getting high profile publications, because the more you </p><p>share the more people contact you, the more ideas you have together, the larger academic </p><p>network you have, the more knowledge you gain and the faster you can publish high quality </p><p>science. From this point, it shows that digital library collaboration and users interaction, </p><p>whether they are researchers or not, can increase the value of digital libraries in the context of </p><p>research communities, and digital libraries can also brand and market digital materials to their </p><p>patrons via online social network applications and...</p></li></ul>