Digital Camera World - Complete Photography Guide - Mastering Light

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<ul><li><p> How to control and enhance natural light Creative ways to shoot with fl ash Simple techniques for spectacular results</p><p>TAKE DRAMATIC PHOTOSUSING OUR EXPERT TIPS</p><p>Complete photography guide</p><p>VITALSKILLSGUIDE</p><p>LightMaster</p><p>DCM36.b_cov 01DCM36.b_cov 01 24/6/05 6:44:08 pm24/6/05 6:44:08 pm</p></li><li><p>Light 3</p><p>LightMaster</p><p>Many photographers just starting out tend to think of the role of light only in terms of exposure. But fi nding the best light and learning how to control it can have a huge effect on the emotional impact of your images. This book will arm you with the knowledge and techniques you need to really begin mastering light.</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 3DCM36.b_chp1 3 27/6/05 9:42:18 am27/6/05 9:42:18 am</p></li><li><p>MasterLight</p><p>TAKE DRAMATIC PHOTOSUSING OUR EXPERT TIPS</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 5DCM36.b_chp1 5 27/6/05 9:42:32 am27/6/05 9:42:32 am</p></li><li><p>DCM36.b_chp1 6DCM36.b_chp1 6 27/6/05 9:42:42 am27/6/05 9:42:42 am</p></li><li><p>Light 7</p><p>Lights character p10</p><p>Chasing the light p14</p><p>Improving the quality p16</p><p>Master of light: Charlie Waite p22</p><p>Fill-in with fl ash p24</p><p>Master of light: Chris Johns p28</p><p>Dealing with low light p30</p><p>Light on the landscape p36</p><p>Master of light: George D. Lepp p46</p><p>Top 10 tips p49</p><p>Contents </p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 7DCM36.b_chp1 7 27/6/05 9:42:50 am27/6/05 9:42:50 am</p></li><li><p>8 Light</p><p>Our three previous photography guides have covered composition, exposure and colour now its time to look at the element which is the key infl uence for all three aspects. As a photographer, you need to learn to love light, appreciate its endless subtleties and try to make the most of its mood swings. Soon youll feel your heart race a little faster as the black clouds of a passing storm tear apart and rich, golden light burns through to transform even the most mundane scene (just dont forget to carry your camera at all times youll kick yourself if you miss capturing such an event). Dont pull your hair out if the light isnt right though. You just need to learn a few tricks that can help you rescue the situation this book will show you them. Well give you ideas for taming harsh light, show you how to make the most of falling light levels and how to use fl ash in understated ways. We dont cover studio lighting in this book that will come later. Instead, we focus on natural light how to capture it, how to enhance and how to use it in great new ways. </p><p>Marcus HawkinsEditor, Digital Camera Magazine</p><p>Start painting with light</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 8DCM36.b_chp1 8 27/6/05 9:42:51 am27/6/05 9:42:51 am</p></li><li><p>Light 9</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 9DCM36.b_chp1 9 27/6/05 9:43:00 am27/6/05 9:43:00 am</p></li><li><p>10 Light</p><p>You really begin to grow as a photographer when you start being able to read the different characteristics of light and are able to adjust your shooting accordingly. Where photographys concerned, there are four elements of light that you need to be able to recognise: its quality, colour, intensity and direction. You can control each of them to a certain degree, whether its through a shift in camera position, the use of light modifi ers or during image processing.</p><p>Lights character </p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 10DCM36.b_chp1 10 27/6/05 9:43:04 am27/6/05 9:43:04 am</p></li><li><p>Light 11</p><p>Quality of lightYou can judge the quality of light by the shadows it creates. Hard lighting from the sun on a cloudless summers day or an undiffused fl ashgun creates inky, sharp-edged shadows and hot highlights. Your camera will struggle to maintain detail in both, and compromises might have to be taken. Soft light early morning, late evening, a cloudy day, a misty day reduces the contrast between light and dark and produces soft-edged shadows in which details still visible. Its ideal for portraits, close-ups and revealing the glorious colours of autumn. You can improve the quality of light to some degree on a small scale using diffusors, refl ectors, fi ll-fl ash and the like (youll fi nd tips and techniques for doing just that throughout this guide), but theres very little you can do other than wait for the very best light when youre shooting landscapes.</p><p>Colour of lightWe covered the colour of light comprehensively in the previous guide, but its such an important ingredient for creating images with emotional impact that we couldnt leave it out here. In general, warmer pictures produce a more pleasurable viewing experience. Colder pictures can leave use feeling exactly that. Fortunately, its one of the easiest elements of light to correct. You can change your cameras white balance setting to enhance or reduce the warmth of a scene. You can place colour correction fi lters in front of your lens blue to cool down a scene, amber to warm it up. Or you can simply wait until youre back home editing your images on your computer before you start changing the colour balance of your picture.</p><p>The sun rising or setting creates long shadows plan for them when you </p><p>compose an image. Here, an ordinary locations been transformed by the play of light and shadow, creating a simple, powerful photograph.</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 11DCM36.b_chp1 11 27/6/05 9:43:08 am27/6/05 9:43:08 am</p></li><li><p>12 Light</p><p>Intensity of lightPerhaps not as important in enhancing the mood of a shot as the other characteristics of light, intensity, or brightness has a crucial role to play in terms of exposure. The more light there is available, the smaller your aperture can be and yet still retain action-stopping shutter speeds. Your ISO can also be set lower so theres the potential to create a higher quality image. The more intense and hard the light is, though, the more chance there is of highlights getting blown in a digital image. Check your cameras histogram an image on an LCD monitor might seem brighter or darker than it actually is.</p><p>Direction of lightLight can illuminate your subject from three basic directions front, side and back. Each brings its own unique feel to a picture. Backlighting, for instance, can be used to provide a halo around a portrait sitter. It provides mood, drama and visual interest. It brings foliage to life and gives water an edge. The only thing to watch out for is direct light striking the front of the lens. This produces fl are, which reduces contrast. You might fi nd a lens hood particularly on a wideangle lens doesnt always prevent fl are. In these instances, move a piece of card or your hand close to the front of the lens to shade it from the light (just be sure that it doesnt appear in the frame). Sidelighting is great for bringing out the texture in a landscape. It reveals shape and form and gives pictures depth. Frontlighting is good for close-up portraits, particularly of birds and animals. It might not have the impact of backlighting or sidelighting, but dont limit yourself just to these.</p><p>Backlighting can enhance mood. This shot wouldnt be as atmospheric </p><p>if shot from the other side of thesubject, with full frontlighting.</p><p>Early morning light is usually less intense than that of the sun at </p><p>midday. Youll need to work with wider apertures in order to freeze movement.</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 12DCM36.b_chp1 12 27/6/05 9:43:10 am27/6/05 9:43:10 am</p></li><li><p>Light 13</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 13DCM36.b_chp1 13 27/6/05 9:43:15 am27/6/05 9:43:15 am</p></li><li><p>14 Light</p><p>Once you start getting a feel for light, youll search out the times of day where the quality of light is generally at its best at the start and end of the day during the golden hours. The suns rays have to pass through more of the atmosphere during sunrise and sunset. This fi lters out more of the wavelengths at the blue end of the colour spectrum, leaving us to see wavelengths at the warmer end. This is why the light has a colder quality at midday, when the sun is directly overhead and passing through a much thinner part of the atmosphere. A sunset tends to produce a richer, warmer image than a sunrise because atmospheric pollutions builtup throughout the day, scattering the lightstill further. Sunsets and sunrises are probably the most cliched photographic subjectsknown to man but dont resist capturing atruly breathtaking one when the moment presents itself.</p><p>Chasing the light</p><p>You sunset shots dont have to be cliched skyscapes try incorporating </p><p>the orb in unusual ways</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 14DCM36.b_chp1 14 27/6/05 9:43:19 am27/6/05 9:43:19 am</p></li><li><p>Light 15</p><p>Get there earlyMany photographers prefer shooting at dawn that way theyre not fi ghting against falling light levels as they would be at the end of the day. Lakes and rivers also tend to be more still at this time of the day perfect for capturing refl ections. Early morning light can have more of a sharper, clearer quality than at sunset and shadows tend to creep on you rather fast at the end of the day. For those of us holding down a day job, its unlikely that we can escape work commitments to catch the sunset on a regular basis but getting up early and getting out before the sun rises can be an option. You need to make sure youre in position and ready to start shooting before the sun actually clips the horizon though, as the magic light only lasts for a few minutes. Dont include the suns bright orb in your frame when youre metering its likely to cause severe underexposure in your shot. Instead, take a spot meter reading from a bright area of sky, lock the reading in and recompose with the sun back in the frame. Bracket exposures at +/- 0.5EV around thisinitial exposure.</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 15DCM36.b_chp1 15 27/6/05 9:43:22 am27/6/05 9:43:22 am</p></li><li><p>16 Light</p><p>Close-up shots such as this collection of autumn leaves always benefi t from soft, </p><p>diffused light although when water drops are present, experiment with sidelighting</p><p>Do you want hard or soft light? Both types have their purpose in photography. If its striking, graphic shots with black, hard-edged shadows you want, seek out raw, hard light when the suns high in a clear sky or youre shooting with on-camera fl ash. Chances are, though, that youll want soft, diffused light more often than not. On a bright, cloudy day, the sky acts like a giant softbox. Youll have a much easier time metering for a scene as the contrast will have been reduced no deep shadows or bright highlights to try and rectify later on your computer. Youll be able to reveal much fi ner detail, and colour appears more saturated.</p><p>Improvingthe quality</p><p>Soften hard lightThe reason hard lights are exactly that, is because theyre a point-source of light relative to the size of the subject of your photograph, resulting in unbalanced exposures. The suns big, but so far away that, on a cloudless day it too becomes a small, harsh light source. But it can be softened to produce a much more fl attering result. Commercial diffusion panels are available thin pieces of semi-transparent material which, when held between the sun and the subject, spread and soften the light, removing glaring highlights and opening up the detail in shadows. Try using a sheet of tracing paper for macro subjects. When youre working with small subjects using a macro lens, a fl ashgun held close to them effectively becomes a large softbox relative to their size (particularly when its fi tted with its own diffusor)..</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 16DCM36.b_chp1 16 27/6/05 9:43:26 am27/6/05 9:43:26 am</p></li><li><p>Light 17</p><p>Use a refl ectorDiffusors are particularly suited to closer-up and macro work, as therell be room to place them between the light source and the subject without them appearing in the frame. If youre dealing with a larger subject, particularly outdoors, youll probably want to reach for a fl ashgun or a refl ector. Refl ectors provide the more natural-looking results of the two (they only make use of the ambient light, after all) and theyre much easier to use you can see results live (no need to take a test shot, check the cameras LCD monitor and adjust output, as youll more than likely have to do with fl ash). You can use small refl ectors to bounce light precisely where you want it, or use a large one to fi ll in detail on a much grander scale.</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 17DCM36.b_chp1 17 27/6/05 9:43:28 am27/6/05 9:43:28 am</p></li><li><p>27/6/05 9:43:31 am27/6/05 9:43:31 am</p><p>18 Light</p><p>Refl ector optionsThere are many commercially available refl ectors, ranging in size, colour and price a simple 12 one is likely to set you back around 10, while something in the region of 6x4 is unlikely to leave you with much change from 100. Despite their cost, these types of refl ectors have several advantages. Theyre hard-wearing and portable, with the circular collapsible variety folding up into something approaching a quarter of their full size. Theyre also available in double-sided variations, the classic combination being white on one side, gold on the other. White retains the colour of the natural light, while the likes of silver, gold and varying combinations of both all add their own particular colour. Silver can bring a fresh sparkle to a picture, particularly a portrait, while gold can warm up skin tones well. Just dont overdo the gold try using it when shooting on a beach, as thats where viewers would expect to see golden light refl ected by the sand</p><p>18</p></li><li><p>Light 19</p><p>Theres no need to spend a fortuneIf you cant afford a good quality refl ector, or you simply want to supplement your current set-up, why not make your own? The simplest sort is a sheet of plain white card. This will provide a soft, even illumination for the surface youre bouncing light onto. For a sharper, cleaner quality to the light, reach for </p><p>aluminium foil. Simply crinkle it up into a ball, uncrinkle it, and stick it </p><p>to a piece of card. If you dont make the surface wrinkled, youll end up </p><p>with a big, hard slice of refl ected light that feels artifi cial to the viewer. This </p><p>might be exactly the effect youre after though. A small mirror provides an even more </p><p>crisp, directional source of bounced light it can be useful for isolating details in a graphic way in </p><p>a large shot, or for really adding punch to a macro shot.</p><p>Find a natural refl ectorIf you fi nd yourself in a situation where you dont have a refl ector close to hand, look for an alternative source of refl ected light. An open book or newspaper positioned close to the face of a sitter can make a simple alternative. If youre on a beach, get your subject close to the sand, which bounces back a surprising amount of light (if you can fi nd a white beach towel, even better). The cold light refl ected by snow in winter can provide excellent fi ll light, while the rippling surface of a river, stream or pool, full of catchlights on a sunny day, provides a beautiful quality of illumination. Be aware of your camera reading for bright backgrounds though it could be fooled into underexposing the scene. Its better to get in close to your subject and take a reading from them directly. Remember to increase the exposure for pale skin and decrease it for dark skin.</p><p>DCM36.b_chp1 19DCM36.b_chp1 19 27/6/05 9:43:38 am27/6/05 9:43:38 am</p></li><li><p>20 Light</p><p>How to brighten up a faceA portrait shoots the classic situation for using a refl ector, particularly when its outdoors on a clear, bright day where, if you cant fi nd an area of shade in which...</p></li></ul>