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Digestive System The Gastrointestinal System

Digestive System The Gastrointestinal System. Digestive System

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Text of Digestive System The Gastrointestinal System. Digestive System

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  • Digestive System The Gastrointestinal System
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  • Digestive System
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  • Alimentary Canal Long, muscular organ that includes the mouth (oral cavity), pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine & anus
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  • Buccal Cavity Mouth receives food as it enters the body Teeth - Food in the mouth is tasted, broken down physically by the teeth, digested, by saliva & swallowed Mastication Chewing & grinding of food by the teeth
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  • Buccal Cavity Tongue Muscular organ with special receptors taste buds Hard Palate bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth Soft Palate Separates the mouth from the nasopharynx Uvula hangs from the soft palate & keeps food from entering the nasopharynx during swallowing
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  • Buccal Cavity 33 pairs of salivary glands PParotid SSublingual SSubmandibular PProduce saliva to lubricates the mouth during speech & chewing and moistens food so that it can be swallowed easily
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  • Salivary Glands SSaliva contains the enzyme salivary amylase (ptyalin) BBegins the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates (starches), into sugars that can be used by the body BBolus food that has been chewed & mixed with saliva
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  • Pharynx TThe Throat AA tube that carries the air to the trachea & food to the esophagus WWhen a bolus is being swallowed muscle action causes the epiglottis to close over the larynx, preventing the bolus from entering the respiratory tract causing it to enter the esophagus
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  • Esophagus Muscular tube dorsal to the trachea Receives the bolus from the pharynx & carries it to the stomach Relies on a rhythmic, wavelike involuntary movement of its muscles called peristalsis
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  • Stomach Enlarged part of the alimentary canal. Receives food from the esophagus Rugae folds inside the stomach Cardiac Sphincter between esophagus & stomach Pyloric sphincter between stomach & small intestine
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  • Stomach Food in stomach 1-4 hours Chyme food is converted into a semi- fluid material Gastric Juices contain hydrochloric acid & enzymes
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  • Stomach Enzymes Hydrochloric Acid kills bacteria, facilitates iron absorption & activates the enzyme pepsin Lipase starts the chemical break down of fats Pepsin starts protein digestion Rennin aids in the digestion of milk (found only in children)
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  • Small Intestine Coiled section of alimentary canal 20 feet long Divided into the: duodenum (9-10 in.) jejunum (8 ft.) ileum (12 feet) Cecum place that the small intestine connects to the large intestine. Ileocecal valves separates the ileum & cecum
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  • Small Intestine
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  • Enzymes in the Small Intestine Duodenum Bile (from the gallbladder & liver) and pancreatic juice enter through ducts Process of digestion is completed in the small intestine The products of digestion are absorbed into the blood stream for use by body cells
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  • Small Intestine Enzymes Maltase, sucrase & lactase break down sugars into simpler forms Peptidases completes the digestion of proteins Steapsin aids in the digestion of fats Bile from liver & gallbladder emulsifies fats Pancreatic enzymes complete digestion Pancreatic amylase or amylopsin acts on sugars Trypsin and chymotrypsin act on proteins Lipase or steapsin acts on fats
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  • Absorption AAfter food is digested it is absorbed into the bloodstream WWalls of small intestine are lined with finger- like projections called villi VVilli contain blood capillaries & lacteals BBlood capillaries absorb the nutrients & carry them to the liver
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  • Large Intestine 5 ft. in length & 2 in. in diameter Functions include: absorption of water & remaining nutrients, storage of indigestible materials before elimination Synthesis of some B complex vitamins & vitamin K Transportation of waste products from the body
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  • Large Intestine Cecum first section & is connected to the ileum of the small intestine. It contains a small projection called the veriform appendix
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  • Large Intestine Colon has several divisions: Ascending colon up the right side of body from the cecum to the lower part of the liver Transverse Colon Extends across the abdomen, below the liver & stomach and above the small intestine
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  • Large Intestine Descending Colon extends down the left side of the body. Connects with the sigmoid colon Sigmoid Colon, an S shaped section that joins the rectum Rectum final 6 8 in. of the large intestine & is a storage area for indigestible & waste The narrow anal canal opens at a hole called the anus Fecal material or stool, the final waste product is expelled
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  • Liver
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  • Largest Gland Secretes Bile which emulsifies fats & makes them water soluble Stores Sugar in the form of glycogen Stores Iron & Vitamins Produces heparin, fibrinogen, prothrombin & Cholesteral Detoxifies substances Destroys bacteria taken into the blood from the intestine
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  • Liver Heparin: Prevents clotting Fibrinogen: Blood Protein aids in clotting Prothrombin: Blood Protein aids in clotting
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  • Gallbladder Small, muscular sac located under liver Stores & concentrates bile Bile needed to emulsify fats
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  • Pancreas Glandular organ Produces pancreatic juices & enzymes Produces insulin
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  • Diseases Appendicitis Acute inflammation or infections of the appendix Symptoms: RLQ abdominal pain, nausea/vomting, mild fever, elevated WBC. Danger- peritonitis
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  • Diseases Cholecystitis- inflammation of the gallbladder, characterized by formation of cholelithiasis (gallstones, which are crystallized cholesterol, bile salts, and bile pigments) Symptoms- pain under the rib cage radiating to the right shoulder, indigestion, n/v occurs after eating fatty meal.
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  • continued Cholecystitis- if a gallstone blocks the bile duct, it can rupture causing peritonitis Treatment-low fat diet, lithotripsy, and possible cholecystectomy
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  • Diseases Constipation-when fecal material stays in the large intestine too long causing excessive reabsorption of water. Stool becomes hard, dry, and difficult to eliminate. Causes- low fiber diet; chronic laxative use makes the bowel lazy Treatment- high fiber diet; fluids, and exercise (avoid laxatives if possible)
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  • Diseases Diarrhea- frequent water stools caused by infection, stress, diet, irritated colon, or toxic substances. Can be dangerous in infants and small children. Treatment is directed at eliminating the cause, modifying diet, and adequate fluids.
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  • Diseases Diverticulitis- inflammation of the diverticula (sacs) that form in the lining of the intestine. Occurs when fecal material or bacteria become trapped in the sacs. Can result in abscess or rupture and cause peritonitis. Symptoms- abdominal pain, gas, abdominal distention, constipation, diarrhea Treatment-antibx, pain med, surgery
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  • Diseases Gastroenteritis- inflammation of the mucosal membrane lining the GI tract. Cause-food poisoning, infection, toxins Symptoms- abdominal cramping, n/v, diarrhea Treatment- replace fluids, rest, antibiotics, IV fluids if severe.
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  • Diseases Hemorrhoids- painful dilated or varicose veins of the rectum or anus. Symptoms- pain, itching, bleeding Treatment- high fiber diet, stool softeners, sitz baths, warm moist compresses. If severe, hemorrhoidectomy.
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  • Diseases Hepatitis- inflammation of the liver A- infectious hepatitis- transmitted in food or water that has been contaminated by feces of an infected person. Most benign type. B- transmitted by all body fluids including breast milk, saliva, and urine. (vaccine) C- also transmitted through blood and body fluids but more likely to cause cirrhosis.
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  • Hepatitis continued C-no vaccine Symptoms- fever, fatigue, anorexia, n/v, mylagia, dark urine, clay colored stool, enlarged liver and jaundice. Treatment- rest, diet high in protein and calories but low in fat. If severe, liver transplant.
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  • Diseases Hernia- a rupture that occurs when an internal organ pushes through a weakening or natural opening in a body wall. hiatal hernia- when the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity through the opening for the esophagus. If a hernia cannot be reduced, then a herniorraphy is performed.
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  • Diseases Ulcer open sore on the lining of the digestive tract. Peptic ulcers include stomach and duodenal ulcers. Causes- H. pylori bacteria is most common cause (infection) by burrowing into the lining allowing gastric juices to create an ulcer. Symptoms- burning pain, indigestion, melena, and hematemesis.
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  • Ulcers cont. Treatment- bland diet, decreased stress, avoiding irritants. Bismuth medications (pepto bismol is used) If H. Pylori is the cause, this is an infection that should be treated with antibiotics.
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  • Diseases GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)- occurs when stomach contents and acid leak back into the esophagus and there are visible signs of irritation to the lining of the esophagus. Many people have acid reflux, heartburn, and indigestion but that doesnt mean they have GERD.
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  • GERD cont. Symptoms- burning pain in your lower chest, tasting acid in your mouth, throat. Treatment- dietary and lifestyle changes; avoiding irritation to the esophagus (chocolate, peppermint, alcohol, fatty foods, coffee, citrus fruits and juices)
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