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Digestive System

Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

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Page 1: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Digestive System

Page 2: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Digestive System

• The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal.

• The digestive system performs these functions:

▫ Physically breaks down food into smaller pieces

▫ Chemically breaks down food into fat, carbohydrates, and protein

▫ Absorbs nutrients into the blood for use in the body

▫ Helps maintain the proper amount of water, electrolytes, and other nutrients in the body

▫ Eliminates waste products

Page 3: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Connections to other systems….

• What kind of MUSCLE makes up the organs of the

digestive system?

• Which division of the NERVOUS system controls the

major organs of the digestive system?

• Voluntary movements like chewing?

• Involuntary movements like a churning stomach?

Page 4: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Mouth

• Food enters the alimentary canal,

and the digestive system

• Mastication

• Bolus

Page 5: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Pharynx

• Pharynx

• The pharynx can carry both air

and food.

• Epiglottis

Page 6: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Esophagus

• Esophagus

• Peristalsis

• Food exits the esophagus into the

stomach by way of the Cardiac

Sphincter. The cardiac sphincter is a

one-way valve that allows food to

enter the stomach, but keeps stomach

acid from entering the esophagus (if

everything is working right…)

Page 8: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Normal Esophagus vs Barrett’s Esophagus

Page 9: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

The stomach (as illustrated by Tokeru

Kobayashi, World Champion Hotdog eater)

Empty, the stomach is about the same size as your fist.

However, the stomach can expand to over 20 times its original size!

Page 10: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Stomach

• Saclike, muscular organ that

receives the bolus from the

esophagus

• Cardiac sphincter

• Chyme

• Pyloric sphincter

Page 11: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Small Intestine

• Most of the digestive products

pass into the bloodstream in the

small intestine.

• Digestion is completed in the

small intestine

• Next the chyme passes into the

large intestine.

Page 12: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Large Intestine and Anus

• Most of the water from ingested

food is absorbed back into the

bloodstream in the large

intestine.

• Escherichia coli (E-coli).

• Rectum

• Anus

• Defecation.

Page 13: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Accessory Organs of the Digestive System

• Three accessory organs carry

digestive juices to the

digestive tract:

▫ pancreas

▫ liver

▫ gallbladder

Page 14: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Constipation

• Risk factors may include:

• Being an older adult

• Being a woman

• Being dehydrated

• Eating a diet that's low in fiber

• Getting little or no physical activity

• Taking certain medications, including

sedatives, narcotics, some antidepressants

or medications to lower blood pressure

• Having a mental health condition such as

depression or an eating disorder

• Blockage or fissure

• Diabetes

• Hypothyroidism

• Chronic constipation is infrequent bowel

movements or difficult passage of stools

that persists for several weeks or longer.

• Constipation is generally described as

having fewer than three bowel movements

a week.

• Though occasional constipation is very

common, some people experience chronic

constipation that can interfere with their

ability to go about their daily tasks. Chronic

constipation may also cause excessive

straining to have a bowel movement and

other signs and symptoms.

• Treatment for chronic constipation depends

in part on the underlying cause. However, in

some cases, a cause is never found.

Page 15: Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

Ulcer

• An ulcer is an open sore on the lining of the digestive tract.

• The main cause is stress or bacteria known as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), either of which increases the amount of stomach acid being produced. As a result, damage to the lining of the digestive tract occurs.

• Symptoms include burning pain and indigestion.

• Treatment involves antacids, reducing stress, and avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco. If the ulcer is caused by bacteria, antibiotics may also be used.