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Digestive System

Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal. • The digestive system performs these

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Text of Digestive System - nwtech.k12.wa.us · Digestive System • The digestive system consists of the...

  • Digestive System

  • Digestive System

    • The digestive system consists of the organs that make up the alimentary canal.

    • The digestive system performs these functions:

    ▫ Physically breaks down food into smaller pieces

    ▫ Chemically breaks down food into fat, carbohydrates, and protein

    ▫ Absorbs nutrients into the blood for use in the body

    ▫ Helps maintain the proper amount of water, electrolytes, and other nutrients in the body

    ▫ Eliminates waste products

  • Connections to other systems….

    • What kind of MUSCLE makes up the organs of the

    digestive system?

    • Which division of the NERVOUS system controls the

    major organs of the digestive system?

    • Voluntary movements like chewing?

    • Involuntary movements like a churning stomach?

  • Mouth

    • Food enters the alimentary canal,

    and the digestive system

    • Mastication

    • Bolus

  • Pharynx

    • Pharynx

    • The pharynx can carry both air

    and food.

    • Epiglottis

  • Esophagus

    • Esophagus

    • Peristalsis

    • Food exits the esophagus into the

    stomach by way of the Cardiac

    Sphincter. The cardiac sphincter is a

    one-way valve that allows food to

    enter the stomach, but keeps stomach

    acid from entering the esophagus (if

    everything is working right…)

  • Peristalsis explained

    • http://www.youtube.com/



  • Normal Esophagus vs Barrett’s Esophagus

  • The stomach (as illustrated by Tokeru

    Kobayashi, World Champion Hotdog eater)

    Empty, the stomach is about the same size as your fist.

    However, the stomach can expand to over 20 times its original size!

  • Stomach

    • Saclike, muscular organ that

    receives the bolus from the


    • Cardiac sphincter

    • Chyme

    • Pyloric sphincter

  • Small Intestine

    • Most of the digestive products

    pass into the bloodstream in the

    small intestine.

    • Digestion is completed in the

    small intestine

    • Next the chyme passes into the

    large intestine.

  • Large Intestine and Anus

    • Most of the water from ingested

    food is absorbed back into the

    bloodstream in the large


    • Escherichia coli (E-coli).

    • Rectum

    • Anus

    • Defecation.

  • Accessory Organs of the Digestive System

    • Three accessory organs carry

    digestive juices to the

    digestive tract:

    ▫ pancreas

    ▫ liver

    ▫ gallbladder

  • Constipation

    • Risk factors may include:

    • Being an older adult

    • Being a woman

    • Being dehydrated

    • Eating a diet that's low in fiber

    • Getting little or no physical activity

    • Taking certain medications, including

    sedatives, narcotics, some antidepressants

    or medications to lower blood pressure

    • Having a mental health condition such as

    depression or an eating disorder

    • Blockage or fissure

    • Diabetes

    • Hypothyroidism

    • Chronic constipation is infrequent bowel

    movements or difficult passage of stools

    that persists for several weeks or longer.

    • Constipation is generally described as

    having fewer than three bowel movements

    a week.

    • Though occasional constipation is very

    common, some people experience chronic

    constipation that can interfere with their

    ability to go about their daily tasks. Chronic

    constipation may also cause excessive

    straining to have a bowel movement and

    other signs and symptoms.

    • Treatment for chronic constipation depends

    in part on the underlying cause. However, in

    some cases, a cause is never found.

  • Ulcer

    • An ulcer is an open sore on the lining of the digestive tract.

    • The main cause is stress or bacteria known as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), either of which increases the amount of stomach acid being produced. As a result, damage to the lining of the digestive tract occurs.

    • Symptoms include burning pain and indigestion.

    • Treatment involves antacids, reducing stress, and avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco. If the ulcer is caused by bacteria, antibiotics may also be used.