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Digestion. Digestive System (Blank) Digestive System (Labeled)

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  • Digestion

  • Digestive System(Blank)

  • Digestive System (Labeled)

  • Digestive SystemPrimary Organs:Mouth TeethAmylase enzymeEsophagus peristalsisStomach Protease enzymeEnzymes and pHSmall intestine (Duodenum and Ileum)Amylase, Protease and Lipase EnzymesAbsorptionColon Water absorptionAccessory Organs:Liver-Bile SaltsGall Bladder-Stores Bile SaltsPancreas-Amylase, Protease and Lipase

  • EnzymesRemember :Large particles cannot be absorbed in the small intestinestarchstarchstarchstarchGGGGUTINSIDE THE BODY (BLOOD)Large particles (e.g. starch) are left in the gut and small particles (e.g. glucose) go through into the blood.GGGBUT large particles can be broken down into small particles. This is called DIGESTION

  • EnzymesMacromolecules need to be broken down chemically by ENZYMES.Enzymes are biological catalysts. They speed up chemical reactions in the body. Digestive enzymes speed up the breaking down process by holding the substrate (the large particle to be broken down) in place

  • This continues until the molecule has been broken down completely

  • Digestive EnzymesThere are 3 main types of digestive enzymes:Amylase breaks starch down into glucose.Protease(Pepsin, Trypsin, Chymotrypsin) breaks protein down into amino acids.Lipase breaks fats down into fatty acids and glycerol

  • The enzyme fits over the substrate perfectly like a key fits a lock.It holds the starch molecule in place as a water molecule breaks the bond between two glucose particlesStarch moleculeAmylase enzyme

  • Digestive EnzymesStarchGlucoseProteinAmino Acids

  • Digestive EnzymesGlycerolFatty AcidFatty AcidFatty AcidGlycerolFatty AcidFatty AcidFatty AcidLipaseFatFatty Acids and Glycerol

  • REVIEW: What factors affect the rate of reaction of enzymes?How do you think you can speed up the rate of an enzymatic reaction? (Hint: Its the same as any other reaction!)

  • EsophagusPeristalsis: Peristalsis is a distinctive pattern of smooth muscle contractions that propels foodstuffs distally through the esophagus and intestines

    WRITE IN YOUR OWN WORDS.

  • StomachStomach muscles contract and relax to mechanically break down the foodThey also mix the food up with gastric juice and hydrochloric acidThe acid kills germs in the foodThe gastric juice contains the protease enzyme PEPSIN to digest protein into amino acidsFood spends about 3-4 hours in here.

  • DuodenumThe first part of the small intestine is called the duodenum. Food, still mixed with gastric juice is squirted into it from the stomach. The food is now a semi liquid, highly acidic mush.

  • Accessory Organs: PancreasInjects Amylase, Protease and Lipase Enzymes into the duodenum

  • Accessory Organs: LiverCreates bile salts and injects into the gall bladder

  • Accessory Organ: Gall BladderInjects and stores bile salts made by the liver

  • Liver

  • The small intestineThe small intestine has 3 enzymes to complete digestion:Amylase breaks starch down into glucose.Protease breaks protein down into amino acids.Lipase breaks fats down into fatty acids and glycerol

  • AbsorptionThe food is then ABSORBED through the wall of the small intestine into the blood stream.To do this effectively, the small intestine needs to have a large surface area.

  • General StructureThe tube is over 6 meters longThe inner wall of the tube has bends in itThe wall is covered in villi (small finger-like structures)Pathway for Food

  • Specific Structure: Villi

  • A closer look at absorptionFood is absorbed (taken in) to the body in the small intestine. The wall of the small intestine has small holes in it. Only small particles can pass through it:starchstarchstarchstarchGGGGUTINSIDE THE BODY (BLOOD)Large particles (e.g. starch) are left in the gut and small particles (e.g. glucose) go through into the blood.GGGBUT large particles can be broken down into small particles. This is called DIGESTION

  • ColonAny indigestible food (e.g. fiber) passes into the large intestine (colon).Water is absorbed back into the body.Where has this water come from?The food becomes a solid waste called feces. Feces are stored in the rectum and removed through the anus.