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Digby Neck Quarry

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Whatever the causes of its present appearance, Digby Neck is more like something a poet or a painter might dream of, than like an actual reality in our usually tame province of Nova Scotia1 - Sir William Dawson, Geologist (1868)

In 2002, one of the worlds largest producers of concrete, the U.S. based Clayton Concrete, submitted a proposal to the Government of Nova Scotia for the opening of a massive mega-quarry adjacent to the tiny community of Little River, located on the Digby Neck of Nova Scotia.2 The company intends to blast and mine approximately two million metric tonnes of high-grade basalt from the area each year, transport it to the Eastern United States, and use it for road and highway construction.3 This proposal, if implemented, would have a significant effect on the local economy and ecosystem. Consequently, this has enraged the local residents and rallied them into a fierce battle over the future of the area. This essay will examine the battle over Digby Neck in four main sections. First, I will provide a brief geographical and historical description of the Digby Neck area for background purposes. Secondly, I will outline the battle over the proposed quarry, explaining the major events that have occurred to date. Thirdly, I will examine each side, and the reasons for their disagreement, and finally, I will take a stand and argue why the people of Digby Neck are justified in opposing the proposed mega-quarry. Digby Neck, located on the southwestern edge of Nova Scotia, is a small, narrow peninsula roughly forty kilometers long and two kilometers wide.4 The


peninsula juts out from the mainland into the mouth of the Bay of Fundy. Extending out beyond the Neck are Long and Brier Islands, which are world famous destinations for whale and bird watching. Collectively, the peninsula and islands are referred to as Digby Neck. The natural landscape is a beautiful strip of Nova Scotian coastline, and consists primarily of a Triassic geological formation, called the North Mountain Basalt.5 The basalts are actually the remnants of ancient lava flows, caused as a result of the tearing apart, due to tectonic forces, of the super-continent, Pangea.6 Prior to the formation of Pangea, Nova Scotia was separated into two halves, on two separate continents. The northern half was previously a component of the British Isles, while the southern half was a part of Northern Africa. Geologists have determined this due to the age and composition of the rocks, as well as the remarkably similar structural characteristics.7 When the pre-Pangean continental masses collided, the two halves of the province were slammed together, resulting in a mountain building event known as the Acadian Orogeny. This mountain building event, not only is responsible for the current geological structure of the province, but also is responsible for the formation of the entire Appalachian Mountain chain. When initially formed, the Appalachians would have been roughly the same height as the current Rocky Mountains. The boundary where the two continents collided (the two halves of Nova Scotia) was an extremely active area where earthquakes were a common occurrence. The area, where two


continental margins rub against each other, is known as a strike-slip fault, similar to the San Andreas Fault in California today. During this period of geological history, the newly formed Nova Scotia was very hot and dry, as it was located in the heart of the super-continent, far away from the ocean and near the equator.8 Millions of years later, for reasons well beyond the scope of this essay, Pangea began to split apart.9 During this period of continental separation, the previously weakened collision zones were the first places in the crust to split. When the crust spilt, this allowed the hot magma from the mantle to flow onto the surface as lava. This event is part of the largest known episode of volcanic activity in the Earths history.10 Once the lava rose to the surface it would have flowed much like a river and cooled very quickly, preventing any significant crystal growth and resulting in an ultra smooth and dark, glass-like rock known as basalt (a valuable resource in the present day). The lava, flowing for thousands of years and hundreds of kilometers in length, deposited layers of hardened rock hundreds of metres in thickness. This lava-based formation is known today as the North Mountain Basalt.11 Due to the powerful tidal forces of the Bay of Fundy (some of the highest tides on Earth), most rock is eroded quickly from the shoreline. The basalts of North Mountain are much more resistant and therefore, have withstood the tidal forces unlike the surrounding sandstones, which are continually eroded and


deposited on the continental shelf.12 Thus, Digby Neck stands alone, with ocean on all sides, and the rugged North Mountain rising hundreds of feet above sea level, along the entire long axis of the peninsula and islands. Wildlife on Digby Neck and the surrounding waters is abundant and diverse. On land, the natural geological beauty is accentuated with a variety of rare Atlantic coastal florae.13 In the sea, the calm waters of St. Marys Basin to the south are home to lobsters, urchin, herring, and of course, the world famous Digby scallops.14 To the west and north, the turbulent waters of the Bay of Fundy harbour many species of seals, sharks and dolphins.15 In the summer months, pods of endangered right whales frequent the area with their calves.16 Countless species of land and sea based birds also call Digby Neck their home.17 The human inhabitants of Digby Neck have also benefited greatly from this thriving ecosystem. Over the years a very profitable ecotourism industry has developed. Ecotourism, primarily in the form of whale and bird watching, account for one of the two main contributors to the overall economy of the region. In fact, Digby Neck is known by various non-profit, ecological organizations as a model community for ecotourism and sustainable development.18 The ecosystem is also tied to the second primary contributor to the economy: the fishing industry. The entire region is dotted with tiny fishing villages on both coasts that are nestled into the coves at the base of North Mountain. These fishing villages are significant to the history of the province, as


well as the European settlement of North America. Little River, the closest village to the proposed quarry, was founded soon after Champlain visited the area in 1604. 19 Not long after the French (later called the Acadians) landed, they realized that rich fishing grounds existed around the Digby Neck and settled the area. The small fishing villages that remain today are descended from those original settlements. Francophones, Anglophones and the Micmac peoples of the First Nations all presently reside in the region and live together in relative peace and stability.20 Until the mid-twentieth century, Digby Neckers, like countless other Maritime communities, engaged in destructive over fishing. The people have also had their share of disagreements over Native fishing rights.21 However, they were also one of the first regions in the province to initiate sustainable fishing practices. Comparatively though, the region is rural in nature, and by Western standards, economically depressed. One current resident of U.S. descent, fell in love with the area after his realtor had refused to show him a property because she was going fishing. He was quoted as saying, Have you ever heard of a real-estate agent who cares about more than the almighty buck? Right away I knew there was something different about this place.22 In this anecdote one can see that the values of the residents of Digby Neck are not necessarily driven by the economic bottom line. The values expressed by the local people have been a key factor


shaping their response to the proposed quarry and will be revisited later in the paper. The purpose of explaining the natural environment and people of the Digby Neck is to assist in comprehending their present situation; a situation that could potentially endanger their land and their way of life. In April 2002, Nova Scotia Exports, a subsidiary of Clayton Concrete, submitted a proposal to the Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour (NSDEL) for approval to open a basalt quarry near Little River, one of the many, small fishing villages on Digby Neck.23 Clayton Concrete is a New Jersey based firm and is one of the worlds largest producers of concrete, masonry block and construction sand.24 To produce basalt gravel would involve, clearing the land of trees and other wildlife, blasting open the side of the North Mountain to extract the basalt, and the construction of facilities for crushing and washing it. Once processed, the gravel would be shipped back to the U.S. from a deep-marine terminal (which would also be built by Clayton), to be used for road materials in the construction of highways in the Northeastern United States. The proposed quarry would cover approximately 380 acres, plus the erection of a 600foot long, deep marine terminal.25 The construction of the terminal would involve dredging a significant portion of St. Marys Bay to allow for the planned, forty to fifty, 45000 tonne, freighter ships to access the port for direct loading.26 At full capacity, the quarry could produce up to two million metric tonnes of high-grade


gravel basalt per annum, and would have a lifespan of approximately twenty to fifty years.27 Clayton Concrete received their approval to mine the area in less than a week from the NSDEL.28 The company, who had been very guarded about their intentions up to that point, could no longer keep their secret. Once the approval was granted, the information was then accessible to the public. The residents of Digby Neck, at first angered with the NSDEL, could not understand how the proposal was granted so quickly, and without any Environmental Assessment (EA). They investigated and discovered that the company had submitted plans for only a ten-acre quarry, in contrast with the actual 380-acre quarry they had planned, specifically to avoid having to conduct an EA.29 The residents reacted swiftly and with a vengeance. Almost immediately, in April 2002, the residents responded by creating a support organization, named The Digby Neck Concerned Citizens Community.30 The mandate of The Digby Neck Concerned Citizens Community is broken into five key commitments31: 1) To preserve the pristine nature of Digby Neck and Islands and to promote sustainable development that enhances the quality of life. 2) To promote the principle that the community affected approves any development proposed. 3) To create a heightened awareness which will nurture the preservation and stewardship of Digby Neck and Islands and the surrounding waters. 4) To work with other groups having similar aims and objectives.


5) To stop the mega-quarry for Whites Cove, Little River, Digby Neck, and to actively oppose other developments which are inconsistent with the above criteria. Their mandate then goes on to say, in and with this committee, we stand and fight to protect our land from anything that could/will affect our way of life that could cause endangerment or harm to ourselves now or for the generations to come.32 The people of Digby Neck were preparing for a fight. Even though Clayton was able to obtain a mining permit, the residents realized that the company still required blasting and dredging permits in order to legally begin production.33 It was here that the newly united residents struck their first blow. The residents signed a petition of over one thousand people and submitted it to their MLA, requesting that quarry proposal be axed.34 Furthermore, they also strengthened their support through other local organizations such as The Society for the Preservation of Eastern Head35, and The Partnership for Sustainable Development of Digby Neck and Islands Society36, as well as recruiting some of the major environmental organizations such as the Ecology Action Center37, the Sierra Club of Canada38, the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society.39 These powerful lobby groups have reinforced the position of the local residents by providing financial support and publishing anti-quarry articles on their websites and around the country. Also, there has been some unexpected support in the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC)40, as well as provincial Liberal41 and NDP42 politicians, who happily use the issue to distinguish


themselves from the Conservative Party (currently in power) that they characterize as having anti-environmental attitudes. Overall, the support for the locals has grown continually since the quarry became an issue. However, even with all their support, there appeared to be no real results. Just when the people were beginning to believe that their protests had been in vain and that the quarry would open, the Federal Minister of Fisheries stepped in. After evaluating the potential damage to the local fishing industry, the Minister asked the Federal Minister of the Environment for a special review of the project, in the form of a detailed EA.43 The Minister of the Environment granted him this wish. The approval of EA has effectively delayed the construction of the quarry for at least one year.44 Furthermore, the residents have continued pursuing other angles to halt the quarry development. After months of research, two of the residents were able to purchase a small, 50 x 50 piece of land almost directly in the middle of the proposed quarry site.45 A gentleman from New Jersey (ironically enough) has owned this piece of land for the past fifteen years, but in support of the residents of Digby Neck, decided to sell it. The residents, using provincial government guidelines to their advantage, intend to build a museum on the property, which will create an 800-metre buffer zone around the building.46 This buffer zone encompasses a large portion of Claytons land, and although the company will continue to own that land they will not legally be able to mine it. Another plan the residents have devised is to open the


Fundy Discovery Centre nearby, which would serve as an education center for children, as well as a research outpost for the area.47 All in all, the residents have shown remarkable ingenuity and resourcefulness in their battle for Digby Neck. The company has a different point of view. Clayton claims that the people are only focusing on the potentially negative aspects of the quarry. The quarrys main selling point is the 31 supposed jobs it will create.48 Clayton believes the region is economically depressed, and the quarry will provide much needed employment in the area. Furthermore, due to their transportation needs, they will require a large shipping company to transport the basalt back to the United States. A spokesman from Clayton has stated that Prime Minister Paul Martins former company, Canadian Steamship Lines (CSL), is the leading candidate for landing the mega-contract.49 Of course, the final remaining benefit that Clayton has not stated is that the company will generate millions of dollars in revenues from the project. Clayton expects a large return on their investment for many reasons including: the proximity to the United States will lower transportation costs, the high quality of the basalt, and the difference between the Canadian and U.S. dollar combined with the current North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)50, which eases trade restrictions between the two nations. Thus, a huge profit margin on this venture is the primary motivation for Clayton opening a quarry on Digby Neck.


As mentioned above, the vast majority of the people of Digby Neck are fighting to keep the quarry from opening. They have a variety of reasons for opposing the quarry which can be characterized into either economic or ecosystem impacts. Economically speaking, and in contrast to the 31 jobs that Clayton claims it will create for the economically depressed area, the residents believe that opening the quarry could potentially cost hundreds of jobs in the fishery and tourism industries. Also, since the Government of Nova Scotia earns zero royalties on the mining of construction materials like basalt, the province would receive no financial benefit from the quarry.51 However, it is the effects to the local fishery that are of the most concern to the residents. Siltation of the water as a result of runoff into St. Marys Bay could choke off the groundfish.52 Furthermore, the Claytons proposed shipping requirements would increase the traffic in the Bay tremendously. Thus, the fishermen believe their nets and traps would have to be completely removed from St. Marys Bay to accommodate the cargo ships. They also claim that as a result of moving locations, they would either crowd or displace other fishermen in nearby communities.53 The increased noise from shipping activities, potential leakage and exhaust could force aquatic resources to migrate elsewhere. The fishermen are also greatly concerned over the possibility of contamination of their waters by a species of paramoeba common in New York harbour (where the ships would be traveling from), which is toxic to shellfish. This same paramoeba was


responsible for a large shellfish kill in the New York area only two to three years ago. The fishermen are worried that the paramoeba could potentially be carried into St. Marys Bay in the bilges of these cargo ships. If this occurred, lobsters, scallops and other species, upon which the fishermen depend for the bulk of their livelihood, would be threatened.54 On land, the residents would immediately face a decline in their property values, since not many people want to live near a quarry. The unaesthetic qualities the quarry would produce such as a decrease in air quality from dust, light pollution from a non-stop, 24 hour a day operation, a deterioration in water quality, noise pollution from the continuous blasting and increased shipping traffic, as well as a drop in the local water table, would all negatively affect the people.55 The quarry would also level a portion of the North Mountain, and therefore severely alter the natural landscape. The unsightly presence of a large, bare, gaping hole would not only displeasure the residents, but would have an adverse effect on the prosperous tourism industry of the area. The tourist industry is based on the ecological diversity and natural beauty of the area. Hence, when the primary tourist attractions are ecological in nature, the resulting tourist industry is referred to as ecotourism. The Digby Neck ecotourism industry is currently thriving, and even expanding in the region. On land, the destruction of already precious habitat (Digby Neck is small in land area), would certainly threaten the endangered Atlantic Coastal Florae.56 At sea,


the noise and vibrations from the blasting activities, as well as the increase in shipping traffic could potentially drive the migration of the right whales away from the area permanently.57 Losing the whales would be a tremendous blow to the ecotourism economy due to the income generated from whale watching. If the above noted factors are taken into account, in my opinion, the residents stand to lose much more than the 31 jobs they would gain from the quarry. The revenues generated, would go directly back to the United States into the pockets of Clayton Concrete and therefore, provide little income to be put back into the local economy. The idea that a large, multinational company with deep pockets and an abundance of resources available to it, can enter a community, propose to open a quarry which would severely alter the residents lives and threaten the ecosystem, directly opposing the overwhelming majority of the local peoples desires, demonstrates the power of global corporatism, and is proof that the economic system requires restructuring. Also, the fact that the government is almost powerless to halt the proposal also illustrates how economic forces have influenced and changed laws to benefit corporate interests. In my position paper for this course, I have illustrated that from a Western perspective, the key to environmental regeneration lies in the abilities of the liberal, democratic individual to initiate change to the present economic system. In a liberal democracy, the individual still holds the power as a citizen and as a consumer. The rise of global corporatism has caused the erosion of the rights, real


or perceived, of the individual. According to John Ralston Saul (author of The Unconscious Civilization, 1995), the Western economic system, through the adoption of global corporatism, has taken a great leap backwards.58 Saul illustrates that corporatism is the antithesis of democracy, and through its rational ideology and hierarchical structure, the controls corporatism imposes on individuals is strikingly similar to medieval feudalism.59 I believe that once each individual achieves self-realization, a term created by the Deep Ecologist philosopher Arne Naess60, with respect to environmental sustainability, the economic system will fundamentally change. Each individual may achieve self-realization through the adoption of one of the varieties of alternative, ecologically friendly worldviews. Which alternative worldview each individual adopts is irrelevant, because whether it is Buddhism, Deep Ecology, Ecofeminism, Social Ecology, Taoism or Native American beliefs (among others), they are all similar in their desire to respect nature and view the position of humanity as integrated within the structure of nature and not separate or above it. The people who choose to embrace any ecocentric belief system are showing they intrinsically value nature. Furthermore, these same individuals as they increase in number, could collectively increase their power economically as consumers, and boycott large global corporations by purchasing only locally produced, environmentally friendly products. If these numbers grow large enough, the corporations would decrease in power and influence through


declining sales and profits. I believe this would mark the turning point in the battle for the environment. How do we initiate this fundamental change in the minds of the individual? As illustrated in my previous essay, the key is to appeal to the consumer part of the individual, since the present system is overwhelmingly consumer based. Offering individuals environmentally friendly alternatives that are cheaper, without sacrificing their standard of living would begin the transformation. Consumers would realize that if they choose to purchase locally produced environmentally friendly goods they could improve the economic success of their communities. Furthermore, they would realize that by consuming less they would spend less, again making them financially better off. In turn, they would want to elect a government that promotes these cheaper, environmentally friendly products and therefore, will exercise their power as citizens to institute change. It follows that if individuals elected an environmentally aware government to power, laws favourable to the ecosystem could be passed and a new form of society would be given the chance to evolve in much the same fashion as our current corporate dominated society has evolved: through pragmatism and self interest of the individual. The residents of Digby Neck have displayed a respect for the ecosystem by openly expressing their desires for the development of a sustainable economy in the area. They have demonstrated the first step in the aforementioned process


of transformation. As individuals, they have come to the conclusion that the quarry potentially threatens the livelihood of the community. Concurrently, they also realize, as individuals, that the quarry would damage the natural beauty and ecological diversity of the land and sea. Although it is difficult to quantify, in my opinion, the people of Digby Neck through their actions with regard to the proposed quarry have clearly demonstrated they possess an intrinsic value of the land and sea. As individuals came to realize that the quarry would damage them from both an economic and ecologic perspective, their next step was to mobilize, first as individuals, then as a collective group to fight Clayton Concrete. Their willingness to fight the forces of corporatism, and prevent it from entering their domain is something other people in other areas can learn from. The encroachment of corporate interests in the guise of benefit to economically recessed areas, similar to the situation Vandana Shiva describes in The Greening of the Global Reach as impacting the Third World,61 also occurs in small communities across North America on a daily basis. The courage of the people of Digby Neck to stand up to this corporate invasion should be applauded. This is an issue that should be widely publicized. People suffer from a lack of information. Perhaps the mass media networks, as mega-corporations in their own right, do not have a vested interest in stimulating individual empowerment and disseminating anti-corporate information. What would they do without their precious advertising


revenues? However, that is an area of research that will have to be left to future scholars.




Albert E. Roland, Geological Background and Physiography of Nova Scotia (Halifax: Ford Publishing, 1982) p. 196 2 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Nova Scotia Website: Rock Quarry Doesnt Rock in Digby Neck. 3 Kelly Toughill, Digby Neck Turned Into Quarrys. NovaServe Magazine, August 6, 2004. 4 Roland, p.196 5 Ibid, p.196 6 Atlantic Geoscience Society, The Last Billion Years: A Geological History of the Maritime Provinces of Canada (Halifax: Nimbus Publishing Ltd., 2001) p. 128 7 Ibid, p. 128 8 Ibid, p.126 9 Ibid, p. 128 10 Ibid, p. 128 11 J.P. Bujak and H.V. Donohoe, Geological Highway Map of Nova Scotia (Atlantic Geoscience Society, Halifax, Special Publication 1, 1980). 12 Roland, p.196 13 Society for the Preservation of the Eastern Head Website: 14 Kelly Toughill, Digby Neck Turned Into Quarrys 15 Ibid 16 Ibid 17 Ibid 18 Andi Rierdon,As Quarry Conflict Makes Clear Nova Scotia Needs a Coastal Policy, (Editors Notes: Gulf of Maine Times. Volume 7, No. 4: Winter 2003.), 19 Toughill, August 6, 2003 20 Ibid 21 Ibid 22 Ibid 23 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Rock Quarry Doesnt Rock in Digby Neck. 24 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Nova Scotia Website: Digby Residents Will to Try and Stall Quarry, 25 Sierra Club of Canada: Atlantic Canada Chapter Website: Digby Mega-Quarry. 26 Ibid 27 NovaServe Magazine Website: Digby Neck Quarry Light on the Horizon?, 28 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Rock Quarry Doesnt Rock in Digby Neck 29 Sierra Club of Canada, Digby Mega-Quarry 30 Digby Neck and Islands Stop the Quarry Website: 31 Ibid 32 Ibid 33 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Nova Scotia Website: Gravel Quarry Not Welcome in Digby Neck, 34 NovaServe, Digby Neck Oppose Quarry, 35 Society for the Preservation of the Eastern Head 36 Digby Neck and Islands Stop the Quarry 37 Ecology Action Center Website: Top Ten Environmental Issues Election 2003. 38 Sierra Club of Canada, Digby Mega-Quarry 39 Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society Nova Scotia Chapter Website: Assessment Process for Mines Flawed, 40 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Rock Quarry Doesnt Rock in Digby Neck 41 Nova Scotia Liberal Caucus Website: Balser Should Make Up His Mind On Who To Help,

News Release, Cooper, Anthony. The Halifax Herald Ltd, Layton Raps Short Term Focus on Jobs, 43 Toughill, August 6, 2003 44 Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, Draft Agreement, 45 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Digby Residents Building to Stop Building, 46 NovaServe Magazine, Digby Neck Quarry Light on the Horizon? 47 Andi Rierdon, On the Road to a Bay of Fundy Discovery Center, (Editors Notes: Gulf of Maine Times. Volume 7, No. 1: Spring 2003), 48 Sierra Club of Canada, Digby Mega-Quarry 49 Toughill, August 6, 2003 50 NovaServe, Digby Neck Oppose Quarry 51 Toughill, August 6, 2003 52 Ibid 53 Ibid 54 Rierdon, Winter 2003 55 Toughill, August 6, 2003 56 Society for the Preservation of the Eastern Head 57 Toughill, August 6, 2003 58 John Ralston Saul. The Unconscious Civilization. (The House of Anansi Press Inc, Toronto, ON), p. 2 59 Ibid, p.2-3 60 Arne Naess, Self-Realization: An Ecological Approach to Being in the World (North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, CA., 1995), p. 18 61 Vandana Shiva, The Greening of Global Reach(Fernwood Books, Halifax, NS, 1993), p. 15142

Bibliography Atlantic Geoscience Society. (2001). The Last Billion Years: A Geological History of the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing Ltd. Bujak, J.P. and Donohoe, H.V., 1980. Geological Highway Map of Nova Scotia. Atlantic Geoscience Society, Halifax, Special Publication 1. Naess, Arne, 1995. Self-Realization: An Ecological Approach to Being in the World. The Deep Ecology Movement: An Introductory Anthology. North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, CA. Roland, Albert E., 1982. Geological Background and Physiography of Nova Scotia. Ford Publishing Co., Halifax. Saul, John Ralston. 1995. The Unconscious Civilization. The House of Anansi Press Inc, Toronto, ON. Shiva, Vandana, 1993. The Greening of Global Reach. Global Ecology: A New Arena of

Political Conflict. Fernwood Books, Halifax, NS. Internet Resources Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Nova Scotia Website: Gravel Quarry Not Welcome in Digby Neck. Posted on May 2, 2002. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Nova Scotia Website: Rock Quarry Doesnt Rock in Digby Neck. Posted on June 12, 2002. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Nova Scotia Website: Digby Residents Will to Try and Stall Quarry. Posted on October 11, 2002. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Nova Scotia Website: Digby Residents Building to Stop Building. Posted on January 24, 2003. Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society Nova Scotia Chapter Website: Assessment Process for Mines Flawed. Posted on August 23, 2002. Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency Website: Whites Point Quarry and Marine Terminal Project. Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency Website: Draft Agreement Establishment of a Joint Review Panel for the Whites Cove Quarry Project. Cooper, Anthony. The Halifax Herald Limited Website: Layton Raps Short Term Focus on Jobs. Posted on July 30, 2003. 2003/07/30+228.raw+PE03Jul30+2 Digby Neck and Islands Stop the Quarry Website: Ecology Action Center Website: Top Ten Environmental Issues Election 2003. May, Elizabeth. The Halifax Herald Limited Website: N.S. Needs Environmentally Friendly Government. Posted on July 31, 2003. Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour Website: Draft Agreement Released for Public Comment. Posted on August 11, 2003. Nova Scotia Liberal Caucus Website: Balser Should Make Up His Mind On Who To Help, News Release Posted On: February 18, 2003. NovaServe Magazine Website: Digby Neck To Oppose New Quarry Posted on October 10, 2002. NovaServe Magazine Website: Digby Neck Quarry Light on the Horizon? Posted on January 26, 2003. Rierdon, Andi. (Ed.). On the Road to a Bay of Fundy Discovery Center. Editors Notes: Gulf of Maine Times. Volume 7, No. 1: Spring 2003.

Rierdon, Andi. (Ed.). As Quarry Conflict Makes Clear Nova Scotia Needs a Coastal Policy. Editors Notes: Gulf of Maine Times. Volume 7, No. 4: Winter 2003. Sierra Club of Canada: Atlantic Canada Chapter Website: Digby Mega-Quarry. Society for the Preservation of the Eastern Head Website: Toughill, Kelly. Digby Neck Turned Into Quarrys. NovaServe Magazine, August 6, 2004.