Dialectical and Historical Materialism

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Dialectical and Historical Materialism.J. Stalin

Text of Dialectical and Historical Materialism

02/06/15 21:58 1938: Dialectical and Historical MaterialismPgina 1 de 30 https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1938/09.htmJ. V. Stalin September 1938Dialectical and HistoricalMaterialismFirst published September 1938;Transcribed by M.DialecticalmaterialismistheworldoutlookoftheMarxist-Leninistparty.Itiscalled dialecticalmaterialismbecauseitsapproachtothephenomenaofnature,itsmethod of studying and apprehending them, is dialectical, while its interpretation ofthephenomenaofnature,itsconceptionofthesephenomena,itstheory,ismaterialistic.Historical materialism is the extension of the principlesofdialecticalmaterialismto the study of social life, an application of the principles of dialectical materialism tothe phenomena of the life of society, to the study of society and of its history.When describing their dialectical method, Marx and Engels usually refer to Hegelasthephilosopherwhoformulatedthemainfeaturesofdialectics.This,however,doesnotmeanthatthedialecticsofMarxandEngelsisidentical with the dialecticsof Hegel. As a matter of fact, Marx and Engels took from the Hegelian dialectics onlyits"rationalkernel,"castingasideitsHegelianidealisticshell,anddevelopeddialectics further so as to lend it a modern scientific form."Mydialecticmethod,"saysMarx,"isnotonlydifferentfromtheHegelian,butisitsdirectopposite.ToHegel,...theprocessofthinkingwhich,underthenameof'theIdea,'heeventransformsintoanindependent subject, is the demiurgos (creator) of the real world, and thereal worldisonlytheexternal,phenomenalformof'theIdea.'Withme,on the contrary, the ideal is nothing else than the material world reflectedbythehumanmindandtranslatedintoformsofthought."(Marx,Afterword to the Second German Edition of Volume I of Capital.)When describing their materialism, Marx and Engels usually refer to Feuerbach asthe philosopher who restored materialism to its rights. This, however, does not meanthat thematerialismofMarxandEngelsisidenticalwithFeuerbach'smaterialism.02/06/15 21:58 1938: Dialectical and Historical MaterialismPgina 2 de 30 https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1938/09.htmAsamatteroffact,MarxandEngelstookfromFeuerbach'smaterialismits"innerkernel,"developeditintoascientific-philosophicaltheoryofmaterialismandcastasideitsidealisticandreligious-ethicalencumbrances.WeknowthatFeuerbach,althoughhewasfundamentallyamaterialist,objectedtothenamematerialism.Engelsmorethanoncedeclaredthat"inspiteof"thematerialist"foundation,"Feuerbach "remained...boundbythetraditionalidealistfetters,"andthat"therealidealismofFeuerbachbecomesevidentassoonaswecometohisphilosophyofreligion and ethics." (Marx and Engels, Vol. XIV, pp. 652-54.)Dialectics comes from the Greek dialego, to discourse, to debate. In ancient timesdialecticswastheartofarrivingatthetruthbydisclosingthecontradictionsintheargumentofanopponentandovercomingthesecontradictions.Therewerephilosophersinancienttimeswhobelievedthatthedisclosureofcontradictionsinthoughtandtheclashofoppositeopinionswasthebestmethodofarrivingatthetruth. This dialectical method of thought, later extended to the phenomena of nature,developedintothedialecticalmethodofapprehendingnature,whichregardsthephenomenaofnatureasbeinginconstantmovementandundergoingconstantchange,andthedevelopmentofnatureastheresultofthedevelopmentofthecontradictions in nature, as the result of the interaction of opposed forces in nature.In its essence, dialectics is the direct opposite of metaphysics.1) Marxist Dialectical MethodThe principal features of the Marxist dialectical method are as follows:a) Nature Connected and DeterminedContrarytometaphysics,dialecticsdoesnotregardnatureasanaccidentalagglomerationofthings,ofphenomena,unconnectedwith,isolatedfrom,andindependent of,eachother,butasaconnectedandintegralwhole,inwhich things,phenomena are organically connected with, dependenton,anddeterminedby,eachother.Thedialecticalmethodthereforeholdsthatnophenomenoninnaturecanbeunderstoodiftakenbyitself,isolatedfromsurroundingphenomena,inasmuchasany phenomenoninanyrealmofnaturemaybecomemeaninglesstousifitisnotconsidered in connection with the surroundingconditions,butdivorcedfromthem;02/06/15 21:58 1938: Dialectical and Historical MaterialismPgina 3 de 30 https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1938/09.htmand that, vice versa, any phenomenon can be understood and explained if consideredinitsinseparableconnectionwithsurroundingphenomena,asoneconditionedbysurrounding phenomena.b) Nature is a State of Continuous Motion and ChangeContrarytometaphysics,dialecticsholdsthatnatureisnotastateofrestandimmobility,stagnationandimmutability,butastateofcontinuousmovementandchange, of continuous renewal and development, where something is always arisingand developing, and something always disintegrating and dying away.Thedialecticalmethodthereforerequiresthatphenomenashouldbeconsiderednot only from the standpoint of their interconnection and interdependence, but alsofromthestandpointoftheirmovement,theirchange,theirdevelopment,theircoming into being and going out of being.The dialectical method regards as important primarily not that which at the givenmoment seems to be durable and yet is already beginning to die away, but that whichis arising and developing, even though at the given moment it may appear to be notdurable, for the dialectical method considers invincible only that which is arising anddeveloping."Allnature,"saysEngels,"fromthesmallestthingtothebiggest.fromgrains of sand to suns, from protista (the primary living cells J. St.) toman,hasitsexistenceineternalcomingintobeingandgoingoutofbeing, in a ceaseless flux, in unresting motion and change (Ibid., p. 484.)Therefore,dialectics,Engelssays,"takesthingsandtheirperceptualimagesessentiallyintheirinterconnection,intheirconcatenation,intheirmovement,intheir rise and disappearance." (Marx and Engels, Vol. XIV,' p. 23.)c) Natural Quantitative Change Leads to Qualitative ChangeContrary to metaphysics, dialectics does not regard the process of development asasimpleprocessofgrowth,wherequantitativechangesdonotleadtoqualitativechanges,butasadevelopmentwhichpassesfrominsignificantandimperceptiblequantitativechangestoopen'fundamentalchanges'toqualitativechanges;adevelopmentinwhichthequalitativechangesoccurnotgradually,butrapidlyand02/06/15 21:58 1938: Dialectical and Historical MaterialismPgina 4 de 30 https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1938/09.htmabruptly,takingtheformofaleapfromonestatetoanother;theyoccurnotaccidentallybutasthenaturalresultofanaccumulationofimperceptibleandgradual quantitative changes.The dialectical method therefore holds that the process of development should beunderstoodnotasmovementinacircle,notasasimplerepetitionofwhathasalready occurred,butasanonwardandupwardmovement,asatransitionfromanoldqualitativestatetoanewqualitativestate,asadevelopmentfromthesimpletothe complex, from the lower to the higher:"Nature,"saysEngels,"isthetestofdialectics.anditmustbesaidformodernnaturalsciencethatithasfurnishedextremelyrichanddailyincreasingmaterialsforthistest,andhasthusprovedthatinthelastanalysis nature's process is dialectical and not metaphysical, that it doesnotmoveinaneternallyuniformandconstantlyrepeatedcircle.butpassesthrougharealhistory.HereprimementionshouldbemadeofDarwin, who dealt a severe blow to the metaphysical conception of naturebyprovingthattheorganicworldoftoday,plantsandanimals,andconsequentlymantoo,isallaproductofaprocessofdevelopmentthathas been in progress for millions of years." (Ibid., p. 23.)Describingdialecticaldevelopmentasatransitionfromquantitativechangestoqualitative changes, Engels says:"Inphysics...everychangeisapassingofquantityintoquality,asaresult of a quantitative change of some form of movement either inherentin a body or imparted to it. For example, the temperature of water has atfirstnoeffectonitsliquidstate;butasthetemperatureofliquidwaterrisesorfalls,amomentarriveswhenthisstateofcohesionchangesandthe water is converted in one case into steam and in the other into ice....Adefiniteminimumcurrentisrequiredtomakeaplatinumwireglow;everymetalhasitsmeltingtemperature;everyliquidhasadefinitefreezing point and boiling point at a given pressure, as far as we are ablewiththemeansatourdisposaltoattaintherequiredtemperatures;finally,everygashasitscriticalpointatwhich,byproperpressureandcooling, itcanbeconvertedintoaliquidstate....Whatareknownastheconstants of physics (the point at which one state passes into another J.St.)areinmostcasesnothingbutdesignationsforthenodalpointsatwhich a quantitative (change) increase or decrease of movement causes a02/06/15 21:58 1938: Dialectical and Historical MaterialismPgina 5 de 30 https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1938/09.htmqualitativechangeinthestateofthegivenbody,andatwhich,consequently, quantity is transformed into quality." (Ibid., pp. 527-28.)Passing to chemistry, Engels continues:"Chemistrymaybecalledthescienceofthequalitativechangeswhichtake place in bodies as the effect of changes of quantitative composition.his was already known to Hegel.... Take oxygen: if the molecule containsthree atoms instead of the customary two, we get ozone, a body definitelydistinctinodorandreactionfromordinaryoxygen.Andwhatshallwesay of the different proportions in which oxygen combines with nitrogenorsulphur,andeachofwhichproducesabodyqualitativelydifferentfrom all other bodies !" (Ibid., p. 528.)Finally,criticizingDhring,whoscoldedHegelforallhewasworth,butsurreptitiously borrowed from him the well-known thesis that the transition from theinsentient world to the sentient world, from the kingdom of inorganic mattertothekingdom of organic life, is a leap to a new state, Engels says:"This is precisely the Hegelian nodal line of measure relations in which atcertain definite nodal points, the purely quantitative increase or decreasegives rise to a qualitative leap, for example, in the case of water which isheated or cooled, where boiling point and freezing point a