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  • International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management 29

    th June 2015. Vol.38 No.1

    2012-2015 JITBM & ARF. All rights reserved

    ISSN 2304-0777 www.jitbm.com







    Lecturer in the Department of Information Technology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Mount Kenya

    University (MKU), Rwanda.1

    Lecturer in the Department of Information Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Kigali -


    Senior lecturer department of finance, Faculty of Business and management, University of Kigali Rwanda3

    tinegaharon@gmail.com daisyondwari@gmail.com kerosijb@gmail.com


    Organizations are constantly transforming in order to keep pace with the rapid changes in business environment.

    However, if the underlying values remain the same, all the proposed changes might be in vain as people will

    continue working in a same way than they are used to. Change is not just adopting new systems and methods, but it

    requires changes in underlying assumptions and values, hence organisational culture. This research used Quinn

    and Rohrbaugh s Competing Values Framework in diagnosing the overall cultural profile of the organisation and

    dominant characteristic traits. By the help of the Organizational Cultural Assessment Instrument (OCAI), the

    researchers were able to identify the current and preferred culture that exists in the University of Kigali and the

    extent to which this is perceived to be appropriate by those involved at the University. The OCAI printed

    questionnaire was filled by thirteen full time academic staff. It was observed that market culture is the most general

    culture however, the academic staff feel that adhocracy culture should be preferred.

    Keywords: Competing Values Framework, Corporate Culture, Cultural Profile, Organisational



    In spite the fact that it is difficult to accurately define

    what organization or corporate culture is, majority of

    researchers agree to the definition that describes

    organization culture as deeply held values, beliefs

    and assumptions, symbols, heroes, and rituals that

    tends to be shared by all or most members of some

    social group and are passed from older members to

    the younger members [14]. Other researchers define

    organization culture as practices established by a

    strong organizational belief system and that dictates

    what people believe to be the best thing to do in

    given circumstance [13]. This views are supported by

    Kropp who views organization culture as the shared

    meanings or assumptions, beliefs, and understandings

    that is apprehended by a particular group or a section

    in the society about its problems, practices, goals and

    even on the way then work as a team[15] [3] [9].

    Organisational culture is now considered as the major

    determinant of the organization success [1] especially

    through improved employees morale that results in

    creating organizations competitive advantage [9].

    Organization culture has the potential of shaping

    employee behavior and structures perceptions of the

    organization and it sums up the way the business

    functions [5] [12]. Organization culture also called as

    corporate culture is organisation-specific [11] and

    therefore differs from one organization to the other in

    terms of symbols, heroes and rituals [4].


  • International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management 29

    th June 2015. Vol.38 No.1

    2012-2015 JITBM & ARF. All rights reserved

    ISSN 2304-0777 www.jitbm.com


    Organization culture not only emanates from the

    founders beliefs, national cultures and industry

    pressures [9]. It can also originate from the behavior

    of leaders among followers [2] and it is thought that

    the types of practices involved arise from the basic

    assumptions managers make in developing and

    attempting to implement visions/philosophies and/or

    business strategies necessary for the companys long-

    term survival[11]. When these are adopted by the

    owners and employees, the assumptions become part

    of the companys culture [11]. According to this

    view, the resulting attitudes and processes reflect the

    creators view and definition of organisational culture


    Diagnosing Organization Culture in Organization

    using the Competing Values Framework (CVF)

    The Competing Values Framework (CVF) has

    received wide acceptance both in theory and in

    practice as one of the most important models in the

    history of business study that has proven its worth

    since its conception in the mid-1980s in determining

    both the type and strength of cultures prevalent in an

    organisation. Whilst initially intended primarily as a

    tool for undertaking cultural audits, it has been shown

    to be also of use as a guide and indicator of cultural

    change, employee motivation and development of

    leadership skills [16]. According to the competing

    Value Framework, culture exists in four forms: Clan,

    Hierarchy, Market and Adhocracy forms now widely

    used for culture audit and comparison purposes as

    shown in figure 1 below [1].

    Figure 1: Competing Value Framework [1]

    The clan culture is distinctive in organizations that

    focus on the internal flexibility, concern of its

    employees and sensitivity for customers. Such

    organizations emphasize on human relations based on

    co-operation, consideration, agreement, fairness and

    social equality. Employees find these organizations

    as very friendly places to work where people share a

    lot of themselves. It is like an extended family where

    leaders are thought of as mentors and loyalty and

    tradition hold the organisation together. The

    employees are committed to the company as well as

    the company to its employees. The work is done by

    teams that can have quite autonomous roles and the

    customers are seen as partners [10] [17].

    The hierarchical culture is evidenced in organizations

    that focus on internal maintenance. Such

    organizations seek to achieve stability and control

    through clear task setting and enforcement of strict

    rules. In these organizations, leaders are viewed as

    coordinators and organizers and they always toe the

    party line. It places emphasize is on economy,

    formality, rationality, order and obedience. However,

    the relatively faster changing environment

    emphasizes nowadays other cultural elements [10]


    Organizations that practice the adhocracy culture

    seeks to concentrate on the external positioning with

    a high degree of flexibility and individuality that is


  • International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management 29

    th June 2015. Vol.38 No.1

    2012-2015 JITBM & ARF. All rights reserved

    ISSN 2304-0777 www.jitbm.com


    supported by an open system that promotes the

    willingness to act. Such organizations are very

    dynamic, entrepreneurial and creative place to work

    where people stick their necks out and take risks. In

    these organizations, leaders are viewed as visionary

    and innovative. And success is measured by

    producing unique and original products and services.

    These organizations embrace creativity,

    experimentation, risk, autonomy, and responsiveness.

    In adhocracy culture, the environment forces the

    organizations to be very flexible in their actions.

    Employees are motivated to be innovative, creative,

    and entrepreneurial. However, the external factors

    guide the development of this type of organization

    [10] [17]

    The Market culture is typical for organizations that

    work towards clear and rational goals that are

    achieved through high productivity and economical

    operation. Tends to be results orientated and

    concentrate on getting the job done and its members

    value competitiveness, diligence, perfectionism,

    aggressiveness, and personal initiative. Its leaders are

    inclined to be hard-driving producers intent on

    outperforming competitors and being at the forefront

    of their field of endeavor by maintaining stability and

    control. The term Market is not to be confused with

    the marketing function or with customers in the

    market place. It represents a focus on transactions

    with external bodies such as suppliers and customers.

    The effectiveness of this type of company is viewed

    through, for example, profitability and market shares.

    The main values are competitiveness and