Development of a Laboratory Scale Test - FAA Fire Safety of a Laboratory-Scale Test for ... COCl2 phosgene

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Louise C. Speitel/ Timothy MarkerFire Safety BranchFAA William J. Hughes Technical CenterAtlantic City International Airport, NJ 08405 USALouise.Speitel@faa.govDevelopment of a Laboratory-Scale Test for Evaluating the Decomposition Products Generated Inside an Intact Fuselage During a Simulated Postcrash Fuel FireThe Fifth Triennial International Fire & Cabin Safety Research ConferenceAtlantic City, New JerseyOctober 29- November 1, 20072Outline Purpose Background Laboratory Scale Test Rig for Evaluation of Buildup of: Toxic GasesFlammable Gases Insulation Systems Tested Gas Sampling Methodology Gases Measured Methods of Analysis Results Coclusions3Purpose Develop a laboratory-scale test to evaluate the thermal decomposition products that accumulate inside an intact transport category fuselage during exposure to a simulated external fuel fire. Perform this test on:Two thermal acoustical insulation configurations. A prototype structural composite material (without thermal acoustic insulation. Measure buildup of gases within test enclosure.Toxic gasesFlammable gases Compare test results for the 3 material systems. Subsequent tests will be conducted on a fire-hardened Full-Scale Burntrough Test Rig to provide a scaling factor for gas concentration data.4BackgroundFull-Scale Fuselage Burnthrough Test Rig5Background B-707 Burnthrough Test of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Insulation AssemblyAluminum SkinInsulation Assemblylofted PANmet PVF film+6HCN, CO and CO2 Measured During Full-Scale Test With Polyacrylonitrile Insulation1.5 inch Curlon FB-300SA with AN-18R Tedlar film with polyester reinforcement010203040 5060708090HCN (ppm)CO, CO2 (Percent)0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 48000.10.20.30.40.50.6HCN Near FireHCN ForwardCO Near FireCO ForwardCO2 Near FireCO2 ForwardTime (Seconds)Fractional Effective Dose (Incapacitation) at 5 minutes = 0.17Insulation Burnthrough Test Apparatus Flame Temperature = 1900 FHeat Flux = 16.0 Btu/ft2sec This configuration yielded results that correlated with previous full scale tests that used identical materials Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 25.856(b)8Insulation Burnthrough Test Sample Holder 9Test Apparatus for Evaluating the Toxicity of Insulation Materials 10Box Enclosure Mounting SystemSample Size: 40- by 40 inchBox EnclosureSteel Gasket- Inch BoltInsulation SampleAluminum Skin11Material Systems Tested Nextel ceramic barrierlofted fiberglassmet PVF filmlofted PANmet PVF filmCeramic Barrier/ FG/Met PVF Film TestPAN/Met PVF Film TestAdvanced Composite Material TestAlum SkinAlum SkinACM Skin++12Gases Measured by FTIRToxic Gases Flammable GasesC6H5NH2 aniline C2H2 acetyleneC6H5OH phenol C2H4 ethyleneCO2 carbon dioxide C6H6 benzenecarbon dioxidewaterC6H6 benzene C2H6 ethaneCH2CHCHO acrolein C3H8 propaneCH4 methane C6H5NH2 anilineCO carbon monoxide C6H5OH phenolCOCl2 phosgene CH2CHCHO acroleinCOF2 carbonyl fluoride CH4 methaneCOS carbonyl sulfideHBr hydrogen bromide Other GasesHCl hydrogen chloride CO2HCN Hydrogen cyanide H2OHF Hydrofluoric acid N2O nitrous oxideNH3 ammoniaNO nitrogen oxideNO2 nitrogen dioxideSO2 sulfur dioxide13FTIR and THC Sampling SystemN2 PurgeThermostat ControlledFlowMeterCopper cooling/condensationcoilNeedleValveTHC NDIRFilterFlowMeterHeatedLinePumpHead2%PropaneCO1000 ppm4-Way ValveHeatedSampleLinesLiquidNitrogenSelectionValveSample CellFilterFlow MeterPressure/ VacuumGaugeNeedleValveBackPressureRegulatorFlowMeterHeatedLinePurgeGasFTIRNitrogenWaterTrapToExhaustHoodFiltersEthyleneOven14FTIR SpectometerOptical path of sample cell 4-metersCell volume 160mlCell Temperature 170COptics ZnSe with germanium coatingDetector Liquid Nitrogen cooled Mercury Cadmium TellurideAll interface Optics Gold coatedMode ExtractiveResolution 0.5 cm-1Sample rate 16 scans averaged every 9 secondsFTIR Software Midac Autoquant Pro15Calibration Spectra and Selected Regions for FTIR Analysis COCO2H2OHydrocarbonsCOF2COSC3H8HBr, HCl, HFHCNNH3Aniline, Acrolein, Benzene, PhenolN2O, NO and NO2COCl2SO216CO and CO2 and Water Spectra and RegionsCOCO2H2O17CO, CO2 and COS Spectra and RegionsExpanded ViewCOCO2COS18H20, C2H4, C2H2, C2H6, CH4, and C3H8Spectra and RegionsH2OC2H4C2H2C2H6CH4C3H819H20, COF2, COS, and HCNSpectra and RegionsCOF2COSHCNH2O20H20 and HCN: Expanded ViewH2OHCN21N2O, NO, NO2 and NH3Spectra and RegionsH2OCOCO2NO2N2ONONH322H20 and NO: Expanded ViewH2ONO23H20, Aniline, Acrolein, Benzene, and PhenolSpectra and RegionsH2OAnilineAcroleinBenzenePhenol24H20, HCl, SO2 and COCl2Spectra and RegionsH2OHClCOCl2SO225H20, COS, HBr, HCl and HF Spectra and Regions HClHBrHFCOSH2O26Material Systems Tested Ceramic Barrier/ FG/Met PVF Film TestPAN/Met PVF Film TestAdvanced Composite Material TestAlum SkinAlum SkinACM SkinNextel ceramic barrierlofted fiberglassmet PVF filmlofted PANmet PVF film++27Spectra at 5 MinutesSO228Concentration Histories for Open-Box Test Obtained by FTIR Analysis051213 ACM-- Box Test 6-- Open Box0501001502002500 10 20 30 40 50Time (seconds)Other Gases (ppm)010,00020,00030,00040,00050,00060,00070,00080,00090,000H2O and CO2 (ppm)C2H2 C2H4 C2H6 C3H8 C6H5NH2 C6H5OH C6H6 CH2CHCHO CH4 CO COCl2 COF2 COS HBr HClHCN HF N20 NH3 NO NO2 SO2 CO2 water 29Concentration Histories for Open-Box Test Obtained by Gas Analyzers051213 Box Test 6- Open Box00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.180 5 10 15 20 25 30 35Time (seconds)Other Gases (Percent)024681012141618CO2 and O2 Depletion (Percent)COTHC as Propane CO2O2 Depletion 30Concentration Histories of FG/Ceramic Barrier Insulation System Box Test Obtained by FTIR Analysis051212 Box Test 2-- FG/Ceramic Barrier/Metalized PVF0501001502002503003504004505000 60 120 180 240 300Time (seconds)Other Gases (ppm)05,00010,00015,00020,00025,000CO, CO2 and H2O (ppm)C2H2 C2H4 C2H6 C3H8 C6H5NH2 C6H5OH C6H6 CH2CHCHO CH4 COCl2 COF2 COS HBr HClHCN HF N20 NH3 NO NO2 SO2 CO CO2 water 31Concentration Histories of PAN Insulation System Box Test Obtained by FTIR Analysis051213 Box Test 5-- PAN/ Metalized PVF0501001502002503003504004505000 60 120 180 240 300Time (seconds)Other Gases (ppm)05,00010,00015,00020,00025,000CO, CO2 and H2O (ppm)C2H2 C2H4 C2H6 C3H8 C6H5NH2 C6H5OH C6H6 CH2CHCHO CH4 COCl2 COF2 COS HBr HClHCN HF N20 NH3 NO NO2 SO2 CO CO2 water 32Concentration Histories of PAN Insulation System Box Test Obtained by Gas Analyzers051213 Box Test 5- PAN/Metalized PVF01230 60 120 180 240 300Time (seconds)CO, CO2 and O2 Depletion(Percent)00.020.040.060.080.10.12Total Hydrocarbons as Propane (Percent)CO CO2 O2 depletion THC as Propane 33Concentration Histories of ACM in an Open FrameObtained by FTIR Analysis051207 ACM-- Open Frame0246810120 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480Time (seconds)Other Gases (ppm)05001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000H2O and CO2 (ppm)C2H2 C2H4 C2H6 C3H8 C6H5NH2 C6H5OH C6H6 CH2CHCHO CH4 CO COCl2 COF2 COS HBr HClHCN HF N20 NH3 NO NO2 SO2 CO2 water 34Concentration Histories of ACM Box Test Obtained by FTIR Analysis051208 ACM-- Box Test 1010203040506070800 60 120 180 240 300T ime (seconds)Other Gases (ppm)05001000150020002500300035004000H2O and CO2 (ppm)C 2H 2 C 2H 4 C 2H 6 C 3H 8 C 6H 5NH 2 C 6H 5OH C 6H 6 C H 2C H C H O C H 4 C O C OC l2 C OF2 C OS H B r H C lH C N H F N 20 N H 3 N O N O2 SO2 C O2 w ater 35Concentration Histories of ACM Box Test Obtained by Gas Analyzers051208 Box Test 1- ACM0.000.050.100.150.200 60 120 180 240 300Time (Seconds)CO, CO2 , O2 Depletion and THC as Propane (Percent)COCO2Oxygen Depletion THC as Propane36Comparison of Box Test Results at 5 Minutes05,00010,00015,00020,00025,000CO CO2 H20 THC asPropaneGases at 5 Minutes into TestConcentration (ppm)FG/Ceramic Barrier/Metalized PVFPAN/Metallized PVFACM37Comparison of Box Test Results at 5 Minutes050100150200250300350400450500C6H5NH2 C6H5OH C6H6 CH2CHCHO COCl2 COF2 COS HBr HClHCN HF N20 NH3 NO NO2 SO2 Gases at 5 Minutes into TestConcentration (ppm)FG/CeramicBarrier/Metalized PVFPAN/Metallized PVFACM38Full Scale Tests Upcoming full-scale tests will provide a scaling factor. Scaling factor will be applied to future box tests to predict full scale gas concentration histories.39Conclusion A prototype multi-ply structural composite material produced minimal toxic and flammable gases during a 5-minute fire exposure. The aluminum skin/insulation configurations generated much higher gas concentrations . 7 plies of the 13-ply composite panel were damaged by the fire

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