Development of a Laboratory Scale Test - FAA Fire Safety of a Laboratory-Scale Test for ... COCl2 phosgene…

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  • Louise C. Speitel/ Timothy MarkerFire Safety Branch

    FAA William J. Hughes Technical CenterAtlantic City International Airport, NJ 08405 USA

    Louise.Speitel@faa.gov

    Development of a Laboratory-Scale Test for Evaluating the Decomposition Products Generated

    Inside an Intact Fuselage During a Simulated Postcrash Fuel Fire

    The Fifth Triennial International Fire & Cabin Safety Research Conference

    Atlantic City, New JerseyOctober 29- November 1, 2007

  • 2

    Outline

    Purpose

    Background

    Laboratory Scale Test Rig for Evaluation of Buildup of:

    Toxic Gases

    Flammable Gases

    Insulation Systems Tested

    Gas Sampling Methodology

    Gases Measured

    Methods of Analysis

    Results

    Coclusions

  • 3

    Purpose

    Develop a laboratory-scale test to evaluate the thermal decomposition products that accumulate inside an intact transport category fuselage during exposure to a simulated external fuel fire.

    Perform this test on:

    Two thermal acoustical insulation configurations.

    A prototype structural composite material (without thermal acoustic insulation.

    Measure buildup of gases within test enclosure.

    Toxic gases

    Flammable gases

    Compare test results for the 3 material systems.

    Subsequent tests will be conducted on a fire-hardened Full-Scale Burntrough Test Rig to provide a scaling factor for gas concentration data.

  • 4

    BackgroundFull-Scale Fuselage Burnthrough Test Rig

  • 5

    Background

    B-707 Burnthrough Test of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Insulation Assembly

    Aluminum Skin

    Insulation Assembly

    lofted PAN

    met PVF film+

  • 6

    HCN, CO and CO2 Measured During Full-Scale Test With Polyacrylonitrile Insulation

    1.5 inch Curlon FB-300SA with AN-18R Tedlar film with polyester reinforcement

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    HC

    N (p

    pm)

    CO

    , CO

    2 (Percent)

    0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 4800

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    HCN Near FireHCN Forward

    CO Near FireCO Forward

    CO2 Near FireCO2 Forward

    Time (Seconds)

    Fractional Effective Dose (Incapacitation) at 5 minutes = 0.1

  • 7

    Insulation Burnthrough Test Apparatus

    Flame Temperature = 1900 F

    Heat Flux = 16.0 Btu/ft2sec

    This configuration yielded results that correlated with previous full scale tests that used identical materials

    Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 25.856(b)

  • 8

    Insulation Burnthrough Test Sample Holder

  • 9

    Test Apparatus for Evaluating the Toxicity of Insulation Materials

  • 10

    Box Enclosure Mounting System

    Sample Size: 40- by 40 inch

    Box Enclosure

    Steel Gasket- Inch

    Bolt

    Insulation Sample

    Aluminum Skin

  • 11

    Material Systems Tested

    Nextel ceramic barrier

    lofted fiberglass

    met PVF film

    lofted PAN

    met PVF film

    Ceramic Barrier/ FG/Met PVF Film Test

    PAN/Met PVF Film Test

    Advanced Composite Material Test

    Alum Skin

    Alum Skin

    ACM Skin

    +

    +

  • 12

    Gases Measured by FTIR

    Toxic Gases Flammable GasesC6H5NH2 aniline C2H2 acetylene

    C6H5OH phenol C2H4 ethylene

    CO2 carbon dioxide C6H6 benzene

    carbon dioxide

    water

    C6H6 benzene C2H6 ethane

    CH2CHCHO acrolein C3H8 propane

    CH4 methane C6H5NH2 aniline

    CO carbon monoxide C6H5OH phenol

    COCl2 phosgene CH2CHCHO acrolein

    COF2 carbonyl fluoride CH4 methane

    COS carbonyl sulfide

    HBr hydrogen bromide Other GasesHCl hydrogen chloride CO2

    HCN Hydrogen cyanide H2O

    HF Hydrofluoric acid N2O nitrous oxide

    NH3 ammonia

    NO nitrogen oxide

    NO2 nitrogen dioxide

    SO2 sulfur dioxide

  • 13

    FTIR and THC Sampling System

    N2 Purge

    Thermostat Controlled

    FlowMeter

    Copper cooling/condensationcoil

    NeedleValve

    THC NDIR

    Filter

    FlowMeter

    HeatedLine

    PumpHead

    2%Propane

    CO1000 ppm

    4-Way ValveHeated

    SampleLines

    LiquidNitrogen

    SelectionValve

    Sample Cell

    Filter

    Flow MeterPressure/ VacuumGauge

    NeedleValve

    BackPressureRegulator

    FlowMeter

    HeatedLine

    PurgeGas

    FTIR

    Nitrogen

    WaterTrap

    ToExhaustHood

    Filters

    Ethylene

    Oven

  • 14

    FTIR Spectometer

    Optical path of sample cell 4-metersCell volume 160mlCell Temperature 170COptics ZnSe with germanium

    coatingDetector Liquid Nitrogen cooled

    Mercury Cadmium TellurideAll interface Optics Gold coatedMode ExtractiveResolution 0.5 cm-1Sample rate 16 scans averaged every 9

    secondsFTIR Software Midac Autoquant Pro

  • 15

    Calibration Spectra and Selected Regions for FTIR Analysis

    CO

    CO2

    H2O

    Hydrocarbons

    COF2COS

    C3H8

    HBr, HCl, HFHCN

    NH3

    Aniline, Acrolein, Benzene, Phenol

    N2O, NO and NO2

    COCl2

    SO2

  • 16

    CO and CO2 and Water Spectra and Regions

    CO

    CO2

    H2O

  • 17

    CO, CO2 and COS Spectra and RegionsExpanded View

    CO

    CO2

    COS

  • 18

    H20, C2H4, C2H2, C2H6, CH4, and C3H8Spectra and Regions

    H2O

    C2H4

    C2H2

    C2H6

    CH4

    C3H8

  • 19

    H20, COF2, COS, and HCNSpectra and Regions

    COF2

    COS

    HCN

    H2O

  • 20

    H20 and HCN: Expanded View

    H2O

    HCN

  • 21

    N2O, NO, NO2 and NH3Spectra and Regions

    H2O

    CO

    CO2

    NO2

    N2O

    NO

    NH3

  • 22

    H20 and NO: Expanded View

    H2O

    NO

  • 23

    H20, Aniline, Acrolein, Benzene, and PhenolSpectra and Regions

    H2O

    Aniline

    Acrolein

    Benzene

    Phenol

  • 24

    H20, HCl, SO2 and COCl2Spectra and Regions

    H2O

    HCl

    COCl2

    SO2

  • 25

    H20, COS, HBr, HCl and HF Spectra and Regions

    HCl

    HBr

    HF

    COS

    H2O

  • 26

    Material Systems Tested

    Ceramic Barrier/ FG/Met PVF Film Test

    PAN/Met PVF Film Test

    Advanced Composite Material Test

    Alum Skin

    Alum Skin

    ACM Skin

    Nextel ceramic barrier

    lofted fiberglass

    met PVF film

    lofted PAN

    met PVF film

    +

    +

  • 27

    Spectra at 5 Minutes

    SO2

  • 28

    Concentration Histories for Open-Box Test Obtained by FTIR Analysis

    051213 ACM-- Box Test 6-- Open Box

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    0 10 20 30 40 50

    Time (seconds)

    Oth

    er G

    ases

    (pp

    m)

    0

    10,000

    20,000

    30,000

    40,000

    50,000

    60,000

    70,000

    80,000

    90,000

    H2O

    and CO

    2 (ppm)

    C2H2 C2H4 C2H6 C3H8 C6H5NH2 C6H5OH C6H6 CH2CHCHO CH4 CO COCl2 COF2 COS HBr HClHCN HF N20 NH3 NO NO2 SO2 CO2 water

  • 29

    Concentration Histories for Open-Box Test Obtained by Gas Analyzers

    051213 Box Test 6- Open Box

    0

    0.02

    0.04

    0.06

    0.08

    0.1

    0.12

    0.14

    0.16

    0.18

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35Time (seconds)

    Oth

    er G

    ases

    (Pe

    rcen

    t)

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    18

    CO

    2 and O2 D

    epletion (Percent)

    COTHC as Propane CO2O2 Depletion

  • 30

    Concentration Histories of FG/Ceramic Barrier Insulation System Box Test Obtained by FTIR Analysis

    051212 Box Test 2-- FG/Ceramic Barrier/Metalized PVF

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    400

    450

    500

    0 60 120 180 240 300Time (seconds)

    Oth

    er G

    ases

    (pp

    m)

    0

    5,000

    10,000

    15,000

    20,000

    25,000

    CO

    , CO

    2 and H2O

    (ppm)

    C2H2 C2H4 C2H6 C3H8 C6H5NH2 C6H5OH C6H6 CH2CHCHO CH4 COCl2 COF2 COS HBr HClHCN HF N20 NH3 NO NO2 SO2 CO CO2 water

  • 31

    Concentration Histories of PAN Insulation System Box Test Obtained by FTIR Analysis

    051213 Box Test 5-- PAN/ Metalized PVF

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    400

    450

    500

    0 60 120 180 240 300

    Time (seconds)

    Oth

    er G

    ases

    (pp

    m)

    0

    5,000

    10,000

    15,000

    20,000

    25,000

    CO

    , CO

    2 and H2O

    (ppm)

    C2H2 C2H4 C2H6 C3H8 C6H5NH2 C6H5OH C6H6 CH2CHCHO CH4 COCl2 COF2 COS HBr HClHCN HF N20 NH3 NO NO2 SO2 CO CO2 water

  • 32

    Concentration Histories of PAN Insulation System Box Test Obtained by Gas Analyzers

    051213 Box Test 5- PAN/Metalized PVF

    0

    1

    2

    3

    0 60 120 180 240 300Time (seconds)

    CO

    , CO

    2 an

    d O

    2 D

    eple

    tion

    (Per

    cent

    )

    0

    0.02

    0.04

    0.06

    0.08

    0.1

    0.12

    Total Hydrocarbons as Propane

    (Percent)

    CO CO2 O2 depletion THC as Propane

  • 33

    Concentration Histories of ACM in an Open FrameObtained by FTIR Analysis

    051207 ACM-- Open Frame

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480

    Time (seconds)

    Oth

    er G

    ases

    (pp

    m)

    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    3,000

    H2O

    and CO

    2 (ppm)

    C2H2 C2H4 C2H6 C3H8 C6H5NH2 C6H5OH C6H6 CH2CHCHO CH4 CO COCl2 COF2 COS HBr HClHCN HF N20 NH3 NO NO2 SO2 CO2 water

  • 34

    Concentration Histories of ACM Box Test Obtained by FTIR Analysis

    051208 ACM-- Box Test 1

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    0 60 120 180 240 300T ime (seconds)

    Oth

    er G

    ases

    (pp

    m)

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    3500

    4000

    H2O

    and CO

    2 (ppm)

    C 2H 2 C 2H 4 C 2H 6 C 3H 8 C 6H 5NH 2 C 6H 5OH C 6H 6 C H 2C H C H O C H 4 C O C OC l2 C OF2 C OS H B r H C lH C N H F N 20 N H 3 N O N O2 SO2 C O2 w ater

  • 35

    Concentration Histories of ACM Box Test Obtained by Gas Analyzers

    051208 Box Test 1- ACM

    0.00

    0.05

    0.10

    0.15

    0.20

    0 60 120 180 240 300Time (Seconds)

    CO

    , CO

    2 , O

    2 D

    eple

    tion

    and

    THC

    as

    Prop

    ane

    (Per

    cent

    )

    CO

    CO2

    Oxygen Depletion

    THC as Propane

  • 36

    Comparison of Box Test Results at 5 Minutes

    0

    5,000

    10,000

    15,000

    20,000

    25,000

    CO CO2 H20 THC asPropane

    Gases at 5 Minutes into Test

    Con

    cent

    ratio

    n (p

    pm)

    FG/Ceramic Barrier/Metalized PVF

    PAN/Metallized PVF

    ACM

  • 37

    Comparison of Box Test Results at 5 Minutes

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    400

    450

    500C6

    H5NH

    2 C6

    H5OH

    C6

    H6

    CH2C

    HCHO

    CO

    Cl2

    COF2

    CO

    S HB

    r HC

    lHC

    N HF

    N20

    NH3

    NO

    NO

    2 SO

    2

    Gases at 5 Minutes into Test

    Con

    cent

    ratio

    n (p

    pm)

    FG/CeramicBarrier/Metalized PVF

    PAN/Metallized PVF

    ACM

  • 38

    Full Scale Tests

    Upcoming full-scale tests will provide a scaling factor.

    Scaling factor will be applied to future box tests to predict full scale gas concentration histories.

  • 39

    Conclusion

    A prototype multi-ply structural composite material produced minimal toxic and flammable gases during a 5-minute fire exposure.

    The aluminum skin/insulation configurations generated much higher gas concentrations .

    7 plies of the 13-ply composite panel were damaged by the fire

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