Designing Introductions that Open the Door for Learning

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Designing Introductions that Open the Door for Learning. 2008 PDS MI Presentation. INTRODUCTION. Add instructor info (for example). Helped develop the 1987 SBDI program Trained 2 classes Master Instructors Many SBDI courses Masters Degree in Adult Education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Designing Introductions that Open the Door for Learning2008 PDSMI Presentation

  • Add instructor info (for example)Helped develop the 1987 SBDI programTrained 2 classes Master InstructorsMany SBDI coursesMasters Degree in Adult EducationNumerous curriculum development projects


  • 1st two minutesthink about itHave you ever sat through all or most of a talk without knowing who the speaker was - or what their credentials for speaking to you were? When observing a presentation, have you ever felt confused, especially in the early stages of the talk, about what the topic was, or what its importance was to you?


  • Getting out of the harborBeginning a sea journey is like beginning a presentation because _____________?How is a presenter like the captain of a ship? INTRODUCTION

  • 3 2 1Three things that interested meTwo things Id like to know more aboutOne big idea (to use at home)FORESHADOWINGPage 32

  • What we knowI.O.C.C.E.IntroductionObjectiveContentConclusionEvaluation INTRODUCTIONPage 40

  • What We Know.4 TsTell them what you are going to tell themTell them why its important to themTell themTell them what you told themINTRODUCTIONPage 33

  • 5 Presentation StagesINTRODUCTIONPage 40

  • Todays 6 P ObjectiveSBDIs will embrace the importance of introductions and create a dynamic intro during the PDS which addresses: PurposePeoplePlacePlanPresenterPizzazzINTRODUCTIONPage 33-34

  • What are the Questions????PurposePeoplePlacePresenterPlanPizzazzWhat is my hoped for outcome?Who are the people I am teaching?How can I create a positive learning environment?How will I prepare and present myself?What is my instructional plan?How will I get their attention?INTRODUCTIONPage 33-34

  • PurposeBegin with the End in Mind Steven CoveyWhat do you want your learners to be able to do after your lesson?Is your outcome measurable and obtainable?PURPOSEPage 34

  • Yogi BerraIf you dont know where you are going, you might end up someplace else.I never said most of the things I said.PURPOSEPage 34

  • Tell Them What & WhyExplain exactly what you will be coveringWIIFMPURPOSEPage 42

  • Event Design - Bailey


  • Aristotle: Three parts to a talkInstructor



    = PeoplePEOPLEPage 35

  • Who is your audience?Demographics Age, gender, culture, ethnicity, first language, years on bus, etcDo they have prior accurate knowledge of your topicHot buttonsMotivation to be there

    PEOPLEPage 35

  • Know their languagePEOPLE

  • Building BridgesLearnerLessonPEOPLEPage 35-36

  • Before the OpeningPrepare your workspace where will you be?Test sound, lighting, and AV equipmentPrepare for the learners comfort and perspective - Seating arrangement, etc. Check refreshments and registrationComplete preparations 30 minutes beforeTalk with the learnersPLACEPage 37

  • Classroom DesignWhat does each facilitate?

    Where should you and the media be placed?PLACEPage 35

  • CredibilityRelevant ExperienceRelevant CertificationsSome personal informationInteresting connections to topic, location, or classSomething that just happenedPRESENTERPage 38

  • Two-way ConnectionRelateRespect Care for audienceFocus on empowering the learnersProvide choicesKey words and phrases As you decide, tell, recall, chose, examinePRESENTERPage 38

  • Six Sources of NervousnessAudience sizeAudience importanceFamiliarityDifficulty of subjectExperiencePRESENTERPage 39

  • If there are butterflies in your stomach, how can you get them to fly in formation?WalkBreatheMake facesOver-prepareWritten notesDangle your armsTwist your wrists Mentally rehearseReconnaissanceTake the long viewParadoxical interventionPrayer/Mantra

    PRESENTERPage 39

  • A.M.P. and I.R.A.AMP is unit of ENERGY

    Appearance MovementPersonality

    Terry SmithMake your point STICK


    Dale CarnegiePRESENTER-PLAN

  • Many Instructional PlansIOCCE4 Ts5 presentation stages3-D Outlinetm 2007 PDS Outline Preparation Worksheet & Presentation Planning WorksheetPTSI SBDI Presentation Preparation formPLANPage 40-41

  • 3-D Outlinetm PLANPage 41

  • Four Audiencesnot demographicsPLAN - PEOPLEPage 36

  • Balancing Learning StylesPost an agendaVerbal and visual advanced organizersIntroduce key pointsActive participationUse of storiesHave referencesPLANPage 41

  • Set the HookTied to their past experienceIncludes all learners pick the bait carefullyProvides use, value, or purposeImpact w/o overwhelmingPIZZAZZPage 42

  • Thank you, Eric, for that vivid presentation on meteor showersPIZZAZZ

  • Newspaper ArticlesPIZZAZZ

  • Another openingStarting statementsAnecdotesQuotes or LiteratureEnrollment questionsDissonance Big Yellow Killer_____ is like. Real life scenarioUse a propRemember whenPIZZAZZPage 43

  • Quick intro strategiesTurn to neighborList concerns or questionsABC or acronymJust like mePre-testGamesPIZZAZZPage 44


  • 3 - 2 1Three things that interested meTwo things Id like to know more aboutOne big idea (to use at home)CONCLUSIONPage 32

  • Where weve beenPurposePeoplePlacePresenterPlanPizzazzCONCLUSION

  • SBDI Introduction Worksheet Audience? Age, gender, culture, ethnicity, first language, other jobs, community roles, years on bus.What is your outcome? What specific behavior or skill do you want them to be able to perform?What do they need to learn to get to your lesson in terms of skills? What do they need to change in terms of attitude for them to perform the behavior or skill consistently? What will you do in your introduction for students with different learning styles?Your introduction should be 5-10% of the total time of your presentation. Take the time to create a framework for a successful presentation.


  • more WorksheetHow have you arranged the physical environment of your training space for learning to take place? What will you say about yourself and/or your co-instructor as an introduction?What strategies will you use to overcome your nervousness to share your important message?What hook will you use to create interest in your topic, relate it to their own experience, and explain WIIFM to your learners?How will you get your learners moving during your introduction?Be sure to cover the logistics Exits, smoking, bathrooms, class ground rules, etc.Page 46FORESHADOWING

  • RememberThere are always three speeches, for every one you actually gave: The one you practicedthe one you gaveand the one you wish you gave.Dale Carnegie CONCLUSIONInterest, be it remembered, is contagious. Your hearers are almost sure to catch it if you have a bad case of it yourself.

    The title, Designing Introductions that Open the Door for Learning, underscores the fact that a good introduction really makes learning not just possible, but probable.Let them know that the content for this presentation has been derived from books that have been used for SBDI and MI training over the years:How to Develop Self-Confidence and Influence People by Public Speaking by Dale Carnegie, Making Successful Presentations by Terry Smith,Inspire any Audience by Tony Jeary, and How to Make Presentations that Teach and Transform by Robert Garmston

    These Notes Pages are not meant as a script, but to provide the intended background material for you to put into your own words and share through the lens of your own experience. The Background material in the PDS manual on pages xxx xxx include more detail on some of these topics. This presentation serves two purposes first, it models the lesson development, implementation strategies, and presentation style that we want our SBDIs to use in their presentations and, second, the contents goal is to teach them how to design effective introductions themselves.This presentation is designed to lead SBDIs through a review of information they have received from many sources in SBDI courses, PDS materials and practice teaching, and texts on instruction in order to focus them on creating effective introductions for their presentations, and not to simply jump into their content without setting the stage.The use of the 6 P format is designed to put this material in a new light and the Introduction Worksheet is designed to help them put all the pieces together.The MI who is going to give this presentation should insert information about themselves on this slide that refers to their experience in designing instruction and training instructors. I have simply inserted myself as an exampleThis slide comes up with just the title. The issue here is the importance of the first two minutes. A presenter either wins or loses the audience in these two minutes. The problem is many presenters do not appear to have any urgency about making a good impression by being prepared to win their audiences attention. The two questions for response by the SBDIs get at that problem.Ask he SBDIs to sit back, close their eyes and think about the last few presentations they observed. It might have been at a conference, and in-service event, or at a community function.On the first click a thought bubble will come up with the words:When observing a presentation, have you ever felt confused, especially in the early stages of the talk, about what the topic was, or what its importance was to you?After reading let them think for a moment and then ask them to open their eyes. Ask for a show of hands and then ask SBDIs for an example they have experienced.The second thought bubble says:Have you ever sat through all or most of a talk without knowing who the speaker was - or what their credentials for speaking to you were?After reading let them think for a moment and then ask them to open their eyes. Ask for a show of hands and then ask SBDIs for an example they have experienced.Wrap up by reinforcing the importance of the first two minutes.Point out that the upper right corner of each slide will include a description of where we are in the presentation.

    This slide is designed to get SBDIs thinking about how much goes onto getting to those first two minutes. Just as preparing for a sea voyage requires much planning and preparation, so does a presentation. Just as the beginning (and the end) of a sea journey is likely in the most dangerous shallow, congested waters, so is the beginning of a presentation a dangerous time with little room for error.Give the SBDIs a minute to respond to both of these questions and summarize their thoughts before moving on.

    Ask the SBDIs to turn to page 32 in their PDS manual.

    Explain to them that they will be asked to complete this at the end of the presentation so they might want to jot down ideas as the presentation progresses.Three things in the Introductions presentation that interested them, got their attention, Two things you would like to learn more about, and One thing that they are going to use in their next presentation.

    We are going to start out with some ideas that are familiar to them and help establish familiarity in what we are discussing.Most SBDIs were taught IOCCE during their SBDI course. Obviously the Introduction, Content, and Conclusion or beginning, middle, and end are a part of every presentation. IOCCE reminds us that within the Introduction we must also include our making our Objective clear and beginning to Evaluate our audience. Do they have the skills, knowledge, and attitude to successfully understand and complete the lesson we have planned? Do we need to do any remedial work to get everyone on board?Another old SBDI standby is the 4 Ts. The 4 Ts provide the most basic description of what must happen in a successful presentation, and two of them, Tell them what you are going to tell them and Tell them why it is important to them are apart of the Introduction.Accomplishing these two steps is not simply saying, Were going to talk about wheelchairs today, and youd better know it or you are going to lose your job. That might technically meet the requirement of the first two Ts but in fact an introduction should take 5-10% of the minutes of the total presentation.These old standbys are helping us to begin to understand what we have to build into a successful presentation.The 5 Presentation Stages comes from Robert Garmstons book that we used in the MI courses around 2000. The thing that is interesting about this model is that it includes Before the Opening as a part of the presentation, even though we generally would consider the preparation a part of the presentation.The wisdom of this idea is the understanding that if the handouts, the seating arrangement, the media, the refreshments, and the room temperature are not conducive to learning then learning will not take place.Ask the SBDIs to think for a moment about how hard it is to teach in a setting where you can hear the dispatcher, all the driver and attendants mailboxes and the key board are in the room, and the chairs dont sit square on the floor. before the opening starts to sound pretty important which is why it has been included in this presentation on Introductions.Our objective today is to persuade, cajole, convince, influence, sway, or even manipulate SBDIs to embrace the idea of quality introductions. The measurable objective for this presentation is the introductions that they will develop in the afternoon using the material we have presented here. If those introductions are effective, we did our job.The 6 parts of developing a presentation are all Ps, Purpose, People, Place, Plan, Presenter, and Pizzazz. You dont have to go into a lot of detail on these 6 concepts because that will happen on the next slide.Explain that the page numbers that connect the content on the slide to the PDS manual will be in the bottom right of the screen.The left column is always on this slide and the right column will come in one at a time on the click. As each one comes in the previous one will fade so the learners attention will stay focused.What is my hoped for outcome? Having a clear purpose or outcome in mind before beginning to plan a presentation is vital. Without a plan it isnt possible to decide what to include or not include.Who are the people I am teaching? Knowing you audience is key to planning a successful presentation. If you dont know what makes them tick you cant plan how to get them into, excited about, your topic.How can I create a positive learning environment? What is the space like? Does it make a person comfortable and ready to learn or does it make them wonder how they will survive. This includes physical comfort, media, handouts, and refreshments if possible.How will I prepare and present myself? Make sure that you as the instructor have the expertise to teach this topic. Get informed and look the part. If you look like a professional it will make a big difference in the first 2 minutes.What is my instructional plan? How have I planned my introduction so that it will include all learners in embarking on this educational journey. Have I planned for different learning styles. Have I included hands-on or group activities?How will I get their attention? In todays media-soaked world audiences expect a little pizzazz. What are you going to do that really grabs your audience?Identifying our outcome is the first step. If we dont have a clear purpose we wont be able to design an effective lesson.Steven Covey, author of 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, tells us we need to:Begin with the end in mind.Our outcome really has to be based on the learner. Basing it on our actions or strategies doesnt make any sense because it doesnt really matter what we do if learning takes place. The focusing question then is What will they be able to do after our lesson? What change do we want to take place.Finally the outcome or purpose needs to be measurable and attainable. This is a two part standard.Measurable means that we will be able to count or measure actions that either achieve an established goal or do not. A 40% reduction in student behavior write-ups or a 25% reduction in road calls are clearly measurable. To say that drivers and students will get along better is a nice thought, but to gauge success you need to identify how you will measure it.Obtainable means that the students in your class have the ability to learn the lesson. If the objective is properly completing a student discipline report in English and you have a driver or attendant who cannot write the English language, then the outcome is not obtainable within the scope of that setting. If properly securing a wheelchair is an outcome and a student cannot bend down to the floor, the outcome is not obtainable. It is vital to know your audience so you will know if your lessons goals are obtainable.Perhaps less of an intellectual than Steven Covey, Yogi Berra had similar thoughts about the importance of knowing where you are going.But Yogi also wasnt sure if he said the things he said, so his advice can only be taken so far.Once your outcome is planned, your attention shifts to the learner. For your learner to be a willing participant, you have to explain your anticipated outcomes, how you plan to get there, and why it is important to them.WIIFM Whats in it for me? Is the key question for adult learners. While 3rd graders might sit still for multiplication tables because the teacher tells them, You will need to know this when you grow up. Adults are not nearly so compliant. Adults need to know why it is important to them and how it connects with what they already know and do. Adults need connection to their life experience and interest.It is pretty easy for a presenter to have a purpose we have purposes all the time. The task that you have to accomplish during the introduction is to make your purpose their purpose. So, purpose naturally leads to a consideration of people or audience.Baileys Event Design model highlights the importance of knowing the audience and planning your outcomes. Bailey list those two as the first steps in planning a presentation. Only after that does she move to content and instructional strategy.Carnegie reminded us that Aristotle identified that there were three parts to any talk, the instructor, the presentation, and the Audience, or the people. Without our people our presentation is like a tree falling in the forest and no one hears it. Just as there would be no school buses without school children (as appealing as that may sound at first blush), there are no presentations without an audience.We need to know our audiences demographics, individually as well as a whole. How do the individual characteristics of the class form a whole? You need to understand the individuals and plan for them at the same time you develop a plan that works for all those individuals.Prior, accurate knowledge is a key concept. Attendants might know how to tie down a wheelchair because they used to work in medical transport, but her knowledge might not be accurate. Dont just take, Oh I know how to do that. as confirmation of accurate knowledge.You need to know the hot buttons in the audience. Something awful or something great, might have just happened either way it can be a distraction. Are the drivers working without a contract? That can sure change the atmosphere. Are there tensions between different religious groups or cultures within the organization. If you hit a hot button unwittingly, the learning may come to a screeching halt.Most of our classes are filled with people who have to be there just like today. SBDIs have to be here to maintain their certification. Our challenge is to turn the focus from the mandatory nature of the event and tie the content to some larger purpose often childrens safety.Read the cartoon aloud slowly enough so people can follow along with the frames.If you know your audience, you will know what language and concepts are going to catch and maintain their attention.When this slide first comes up there will be a rolling sea between the learner and the lesson. This represents any challenges that will prevent a learner from benefiting from the lesson you have planned. Whether that challenge is personal stress, literacy, insufficient prior training, physical limitations, or attitude, you must deal with it during your introduction.Find out these important issues:Are they ready to learn? Do changes in knowledge and/or motivation have to take place for learning to happen?Do they have the skills needed for your lesson?If there is are any barriers, this represents a Readiness Gap. You can build activities into your introduction that help you assess your learners readiness such as:Pre-testsQ & AActivities that demonstrate masteryBe sure that any pre-instructional assessment is low-key with no pressure. The next click will put the bridge in place to represent the bridge you have built through your introduction activities that now allows the learner to be successful.At this point we have addressed the Purpose, or outcomes, the People we are going to teach, or the audience, and it is time to turn our attention to the Place, or setting, that the instruction is going to take place in.If you have access to the location that you will be presenting in, take advantage of that time to plan your instructional setting. Where is the media going to be, where will your materials be so that you can access them easily but inconspicuously, do you have the markers you need for the flipchart, etc.?Check out all you media Murphys Law can interrupt at any time. Make sure you are familiar with the equipment and have a backup plan if something crashes.Check out the room from the perspective of the learners. Can you see the presenter and media from every seat? Is the volume loud enough? Are the seats comfortable? Is the seating plan appropriate for the instructional style and activities you will be using.Be ready on time. Nothing is more unprofessional than to be still fiddling with equipment when the presentation is supposed to have started.If you have started with plenty of time to spare, you will be set up and ready to go in time so that you can begin your assessment of the audience through casual conversation as you wait for everyone to arrive and the class to start.This diagram from Terry Smiths book, Making Successful Presentations, demonstrates different seating arrangements. The main idea to point out here is how each arrangement places the students in relation to the presenter and each other. Also important is the freedom of the instructor to mingle among the learners. For instance in the round setup, learners can interact with each other at their tables and see the front of the room without moving at all. The U-Shape provides access to the front of the room and all learners and the Facilitating does the same but without the barriers of tables so there is a higher level of intimacy. In the Chevron and Theatre they can see the front, but cannot interact with other learners and the Herringbone requires learners to turn around to speak with others at their table and attend to the front of the room. Be sure to discuss how the placement of your media impacts its effectiveness.These diagrams show plenty of room between tables, but many school transportation settings are considerable more cramped so the instructor is really barricaded in the front of the room. This prevents the instructor from monitoring those students activities and progress.

    Now that we have added Place to our list of Introduction topics addressed, the next is perhaps the most important, the Presenter. Even if you are in a familiar setting, everyone in the audience may not know you, may not know why you are qualified to be standing in front of them demanding two or four, or thirty hours of their life.There is a fine line between bragging and establishing credibility. If possible stress your humble roots, I started out as a bus driver/attendant/mechanic. Let them know what other experience you have and dont just spew acronyms, Im an SBDI and MI and 19-A. make up your own example or use this one, After I had been driving bus for seven years my supervisor asked me if I would be interested in training new drivers. I started out taking them out on the road and then I learned about becoming certified to teach in the classroom. I applied for School Bus Driver Instructor, or SBDI, training and took a one week course to learn how to teach school bus drivers and attendants. The course was really hard and we had lots of homework, but it was really worth it. Teaching drivers and attendants procedures to transport kids safely has really become an important part of my life.Only share relevant certifications and do not try to overwhelm them with your expertise, just establish it.As you are comfortable, share some personal information about career, family, hobbies, or other organizations that you are involved with. If you just had a nasty divorce, you dont need to mention that.If you are new to the setting, mention something that connects you to the place or someone who works or worked there. Mention something that happened to you that day to show them you can be amused, ticked off, or surprised you are a real human being.On the second click a banner with the phrase, They dont care how much you know until they know how much you care will appear. Personality, Knowledge, and Commitment those are the keys.The relationship between you and your learners has to be real and reciprocal. If you give the impression that this is a top down relationship where they have nothing to offer, as the Ghostbusters symbol suggests, they will not participate.Relate, respect, and care for your learners. This is what we have been building on throughout this presentation.Seek to empower the learners. By connecting what you are teaching to their prior knowledge and experience, you let them know that what they bring to the classroom is as important as what you bring. Provide them choices. The old saying, There is more than one way to skin a cat (which sounds disgusting if you think about it too much) really is true. A pretrip should include certain items, but drivers and attendants can decide how to split the duties and how to proceed with the inspection. If there is a group activity in class, provide a little flexibility and choice in how different groups proceed.Use words that imply their active participation in the learning process. Our real goal is for activity to happen in their brain and by using these suggestive words, they are likely to consider thinking as a job expectation.So we have talked about establishing credibility and connecting with the audience, how about persuading ourselves of our credibility and expertise. How do we overcome our own sense of fear. A New York Times survey found that 41% of the respondents listed fear of public speaking as their number one fear, while 19% listed death. This list identifies some of the reasons that nervousness erupts as we prepare to make a presentation. Both a very large and a very small audience can make different people nervous depending on whether direct personal interaction or the large setting are scary.The audience importance really makes a difference. Many SBDIs remarked over the past three years how nervous they got about presenting at their PDS even thought they present comfortably every day in their own setting. Having your boss in the room can have the same effect.Familiarity sometimes they know too much can be a problem, especially for the new SBDI. Youre just a driver/attendant/mechanic. Ive been doing this longer than you have. If you are so great, how come I saw you slide through a stop sign this morning. It pays to have a saintly background.If the subject is difficult and new to you, it is reasonable to be nervous in presenting it for the first time. The best defense is great preparation. Also be willing to say, I dont know but Ill find out and get back to you. Honesty goes a long way towards establishing credibility and relationships.Of course your experience is going to affect your nervousness, but even experienced presenters get nervous. Nervousness can simply be a sign that doing a good job of imparting your safety message is important to you and thats a good thing. Many professional athletes, performers, and speakers go through intense nervousness every time they perform.

    Robert Garmston offers the suggestion of getting your butterflies to fly in formation. This acknowledges that nervousness is a fact of life for presenters and suggests that making controlling the nervousness the goal is more doable that n eliminating the nervousness. The second click will bring in the list on the right side.Reconnaissance of the facility allows you to plan how it will be set up and to develop a mental image of yourself presenting with confidence.Taking a walk, deep breathing, stretching your face by making silly faces, dangling and shaking your arms, and twisting your wrists all use movement to get you to loosen up. Over-preparing and mentally rehearsing can give you confidence that you are prepared for whatever comes up during the presentation. If you go in hoping that nobody is going to ask that question, it will be difficult for you to relax.Take the long view, How important will this presentation be five years from now?Try to imagine the worst thing that could happen let your craziest fears be doubled. Imagine them throwing things at you or the building catching on fire. You might actually find yourself chuckling at what you can imagine and then you can feel confident that it really cant be that bad.Many presenters find that saying a prayer or repeat a personal mantra before they go to the front of the room helps them to relax and focus.Talk to experienced instructors for suggestions about what they have found to work. The key is to find out what works for you. During our SBDI training we stressed over and over again, You are media. Your appearance and behavior is a visual representation that greatly impacts the success of your presentation.Terry Smith created the AMP acronym to remind presenters about what is important in how they present themselves. Your personal appearance, your non-nervous movement, and your personality may have more to do with the success of your talk than anything else. Beware of nervous movement. There is nothing more irritating than a presenter who walks the same path back and forth throughout an entire presentation.One research study identified that what affects our communication is not so much what we say as how we say it. This doesnt mean the words dont matter, but it does mean that the others can defeat our message. The importance to the message is:Our words7%The tone of our voice23%Our body language70%Dale Carnegies IRA acronym stresses the impression we make on our audience and then turns us from thinking about ourselves as the presenter towards our instructional plan. We must repeat the main point, our clear outcome, throughout the presentation and we must forge associations that link our topic with the learners experience and interest.

    There are many instructional plans, and all of them provide a framework for what can be a successful presentation. We have already looked at IOCCE, the 4 Ts, and the 5 Presentation Stages. Well take a quick look at the 3-D Outlinetm and just remind you that the 2007 PDS included a Outline Preparation Worksheet and Presentation Planning Worksheet, and the PTSI SBDI Curriculum includes an SBDI Presentation Preparation Form. The introduction provides a foreshadowing, a microcosm, of the entire presentation and so it must be understood within its place within a holistic planning model.This 3-D model from Tony Jeary demonstrates a few things for us about introductions. First it outlines the goal of the introduction as Purpose, Process, and Payoff WIIFM that fits comfortably into the ideas we have been discussing. Secondly, it suggests that 10 minutes of a 60 minute talk are devoted to the introduction, suggesting not just a topical introduction but an activity or icebreaker as well.The bottom-line is, time spent on introductions is well worth the investment. When you listen to motivational speakers who are paid big bucks to lend their credibility to conferences and in-service events, you will find that their introductory remarks might take as much as 25% of their time but by the time they hit their real topic, people are eating out of their hand.Throughout every demographic group, no matter how you slice it, these four learning styles are represented. You cant simply say, _____ people learn like this. While different authors have created a variety of ways to describe these different styles, the models all address the same differences. This Professors, Scientists, Friends, and Inventors model is the one Garmston outlines. The following are descriptions of the needs of each group and what instructional strategies are likely to be most effective for each.Scientists Concepts, ideas, data, opportunity to examine and process, judge and inquire, structure. These individuals want to know How do these concepts fit together? Is there a pattern? They want to examine the process, make judgments, and dig deeper. Involve them in formulating ideas.Professors Facts, lecture, citation, examples, demonstrations, practice w/feedback, overt organization. They want to know, What is the source of that quote? Where did you get that information? In todays world, these folks will be going home and getting on the internet to check out your story. Engage them with the facts.Friends Emotional hooks, personal stories, sharing, relating topic through hands-on and group activities. Friends are more likely to ask for more time in small group discussion, Were not done yet, can we have more time to talk.? They learn best in the give and take of the interpersonal.Inventors creative self-expression, individual and group exploration, see known and create new. Inventors are quickly bored with whats known and want to move beyond, Given these facts and data, what should we do next? These people might lead you on a lot of tangents, but they also might come up with some great ideas.Often instructors unconsciously choose the instructional style that fits best with their learning style. This is normal because it is natural to assume that others perceive the world as we do. But we cannot ignore the fact that each learner is unique. Because each of these groups has different needs we need to create an introduction that grabs the interest of all the groups and subsequently a lesson that continues to engage them.

    Planning a presentation for all four learning styles just takes some forethought. These are some of the techniques you can use to engage all your learners at the beginning of your presentation.Post an agenda. Remembering back to our learning styles, posting the agenda and clear explanation of where you are headed is important to professors and scientists. They want to know what is happening and how it is going to happen. Knowing this gives them a feeling of control and they are ready to learn. Use visual and verbal advanced organizers. Be sure to announce transitions. The first topic we are going to address today is properly completing a DVIR (holding up a pile of completed DVIRs). I have invited out head mechanic to join us so we can understand what happens with these forms after you fill them out.Introduce key points. Friends and professors want to know what they have to look forward to. It is just as important to introduce key points in your introduction as it is to include them in your introduction.Have active participation. Friends and inventors require active participation, but for different reasons. Friends are seeking the person-to-person involvement that is a part of activities and inventors want a chance to grapple with the ideas and concepts that is possible in a group activity.Use stories. Stories also appeal to friends and inventors. Friends want the facts to be set in a real-world person-based setting and the inventors want to know how other people grappled with the facts and solved the problem.Have references. The professors in your group are going to wonder, Where did he get that information? How big a study was that? Is that current data or are there new trends? Be sure you have the references to back up your information.The Pizzazz is often what is missing when a presentation is planned solely around content. Its the difference between a gourmet meal and a feeding tube. Both include nourishment, but people arent going to sign up for the feeding tube.The HOOK needs to tie to, to make sense in light of, their past experience. Adults want a logical connection between what is being offered and what they have previously learned or experienced.Human interest hooks that tie into the common human experience work better than ones which need a special understanding to appreciate. If your bait only appeals to a few and you probably picked it because it appeals to you then results might be spotty. Sports stories might work great with fans but not with those who dont follow.Our Purpose or outcome has to also serve a purpose for them. The new Zonar devices will only be accepted if the drivers and attendants believe it will make their life better. The new student discipline initiative will only work if they believe that the principals are really going to take it seriously this time. You have to create value FOR THE STUDENT in your introduction. Its value to you means little to them.Dont overwhelm them, especially new hires. With a story so grisly that they cant let the hook go. They might spend the rest of the lesson thinking about how awful your example was. You got their attention all right, the problem is their attention gets stuck on the hook and cant move on to the lesson.

    This cartoon is a humorous example of an introduction that does not leave the learners ready to buckle down to the topic at hand. They are too overwhelmed.A gory photo of a bus crash can do the same.A newspaper article can be a good hook that identifies the hook as real but doesnt overwhelm the audience. Students reported that the driver was putting down a beverage and lost her attention to the road thats a good intro to talking about on bus procedures.All of the authors that we have read in SBDI and MI classes have a list of types of hooks that you can use to get your audiences attention to your topic. These are a selection.Startling Statements. NHTSA, thats the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (Always explain acronyms that your class might not know.) reports that 87% of all children in car seats in the United States are improperly secured. That might be a good lead for a presentation on car seat installation. Anecdotes. Tell a story. The friends and inventors will love you, but dont say it is a true story unless you have the facts for the Professors. Quotes from speeches or literature can be very effective. If the quote is from a person that is respected by your class then the effect is greater. The internet can be a great place to get quotes. You can search by person or by topic.Enrollment Questions. How many of the bus drivers and attendants in this room have concerns about student discipline? The act of raising their hands has enrolled them, in their sub-conscious, in a group of people who want some solutions.Dissonance. A few minutes of the news report, Big Yellow Killer is sure to get their juices flowing because of their pride in providing safe transportation.___________ is like. School buses are like a torture chamber on wheels, might get their attention for a lesson on bullying. Ask them to fill in the blank with your topic, Defensive driving is like ____________. and take the conversation from there.Propose a real life scenario. Imagine that that you are driving on a four-lane highway on your regular route and one of your students suddenly shouts, then loses consciousness and falls to the bus floor convulsing. What would you do?Use a prop. Have some faulty bus parts and ask what would have happened if they had been missed on an inspection. Have two objects that show the difference in mass between a school bus and a train.Remember when. Remind people of an event that sticks in their minds like 9/11 or JFKs assassination and draw a connection to your topic.Building an activity into your introduction gets the learners involved in the subject, puts them on notice that their active involvement is expected, and gives you a chance to learn a little bit more about the group. Having them involved in an activity near the beginning of a presentation also gives you a chance to mingle with your learners and calm down any nervousness you might be experiencing.Turn to your neighbor. This can be an effective strategy to get everyone talking, not just the person who always responds to questions. Turn to your neighbor and describe a close call you have had in the past week. Then ask the neighbors to share with the group people are always more comfortable relaying something someone else said.Ask for questions or concerns. Find out whats on peoples minds. Record their concerns on a flip chart and identify which specific concerns you will be covering today and let them know how you will make sure the other concerns are addressed.ABC or acronym. Have the group create an acronym for the topic at hand or see how many letters of the alphabet they can do. Pretrips could become, Promise Real Effort To Reaching Individual Performance Success. Or, How many letters of the alphabet can you match with a pretrip item? It doesnt have to be great, the point is to get them involved.Just like me. As you introduce yourself or another person in the class, ask the class to say Just like me if the statement is true for them also. I started out as a bus driver they respond, etc.Pretest. Give a pretest that doesnt put people on the spot. You can do it as a group or you can give people a minute or two to complete the assignment and then review it as a group. This lets you know how knowledgeable your class is and also lets them know that its OK not to have the right answer.Games can get students involved right away also. This years two refreshers start with a crossword and a word search respectively.

    The wisdom that Edgar Dale had back in the beginning of the 20th Century was that active involvement in learning leads to better learning. The 10% to 90% remembering was a point that we heard early in our SBDI training. Reading, hearing, and seeing are all passive activities, whereas saying, writing, and doing all are active. That is why we built in multiple points in this presentation where the SBDIs needed to interact with the content and respond to their neighbors and to the class.Active learning needs to be a part both of introductions and the rest of the lessons.The types of activities on the pyramid are hard to read, so they are listed below:Read Hear View Images Watch Movies Attend Exhibition Watch a Demonstration Participate in Hands-on-Workshops Design Collaborative Lessons Simulate Model or Experience a Lesson Design/Perform a Presentation Do the Real ThingExpress your appreciation for the SBDIs work and involvement in the presentation. Tell them you are now going to turn to their activity for this afternoon.

    Ask the SBDIs to turn to page 32 in their PDS manual and write down:Three things in the Introductions presentation that interested them, got their attention, Two things you would like to learn more about, and One thing that they are going to use in their next presentation.Have them share with their neighbor and ask for a few Big Thing responses.We laid out the outcomes that we planned for. We wont find out until this afternoon if we will really accomplished our objective or not. Use these questions to elicit comments from the SBDIs that will initially test their mastery of the material.Does a purpose or outcome have to be measurable? Why? If you cant measure it you cant determine if you have accomplished it.What do you need to know about the the people I am teaching? Why?Knowing their literacy, experience, culture, etc. will allow you to plan your instruction effectively.What qualities are essential to a good learning environment?Media proportionate to room size, comfortable space for sitting, reading, and writing, good lighting, no distractions, and good coffee.What two things does my audience need to know about me?My expertise on the subject and the fact that I am a caring, concerned individual. What does my introduction need to accomplish within my larger instructional plan?The introduction needs to assess the audiences ability to access what you have planned, let them know what and how the lesson will proceed, and get them interested in hearing what you have to say.What are some ways to get your audiences attention?Startling statements, quotes, questions, props, activities, etc.One more click will bring up the Now lets get to work! banner that will lead into the discussion of the afternoon assignment.

    Have them turn in their PDS Manual to page 45 where the Introduction Worksheet is located. There are a few copies there and it is on the CD so they dont have to worry about not ending up with a clean copy. As you continue to click on these two pages the previous number will dim as the new one comes forward.VERY briefly, walk your way through the categories. After lunch as the SBDI planning period begins, you will go through the list in more detail.Explain that when they return from lunch you will have list with the groups and topics for their Introduction activity.Keep going.There is a picture here of a young Dale Carnegie enjoying lunch at Dale Carnegie Day in 1938 in his hometown of Warrensburg, Missouri, also the home of the National Conference on School Transportation held every 5 years at the Central Missouri State University.In encouraging presenters to keep working at it he said:There are always three speeches, for every one you actually gave: The one you practicedthe one you gaveand the one you wish you gave.The first click will bring the second quote which really identifies the most important quality in a speaker:Interest, be it remembered, is contagious. Your hearers are almost sure to catch it if you have a bad case of it yourself.The personal commitment to safety that our SBDIs across the state have made allows them to be effective in a way that polish and poise might not they speak from their hearts.The last click offers your thanks to them and your anticipation for the presentations in the afternoon. Thanks for your attention and participation. Im looking forward to hearing some great introductions this afternoon Its time for lunch!


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