Design Principles for Motivating Learning with Digital Badges

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<ul><li><p>7/30/2019 Design Principles for Motivating Learning with Digital Badges</p><p> 1/3</p><p>Design Principles for Motivating Learning</p><p>with Digital Badges</p><p>Home</p><p>View Comments</p><p>Author: Katerina Schenke</p><p>Posted: 6/5/2013 - 10:28pm</p><p>Topics: HASTAC Scholars,Connected</p><p>Learning</p><p>Tags: #dmlbadges #openbadges</p><p>#digitalbadges</p><p>Similar Content</p><p>Digital Badge Design Principles for</p><p>Recognizing Learning</p><p>The Transcendent Potential of</p><p>Digital Badges and Paradigm Shifts</p><p>in Education</p><p>Initial Consequences of the DML</p><p>2012 Badges for Lifelong Learning</p><p>Competition</p><p>Some Things About Assessment that</p><p>Technology is Changing</p><p>Open Badges and the Future of</p><p>Assessment</p><p>This post is cross-posted atRemediating Assessment</p><p>Katerina Schenke, Cathy Tran, &amp; Daniel Hickey</p><p>This post introduces the emerging design principles formotivating</p><p>learning with digital badges. This is the third of four posts that will</p><p>introduce the Design Principles Documentation Projects emerging</p><p>design principles around recognizing, assessing, motivating and studyinglearning.</p><p>Motivation is described as the initiation or sustainment of engagement of</p><p>a particular task. Badges are thought to motivate students to complete</p><p>tasks, learner more deeply, and make good decisions about what to learn</p><p>next. Badges may also motivate communities to work together towards</p><p>shared learning outcomes.</p><p>While a systematic study of the motivational impacts of badging has yet to</p><p>be conducted, we can make educated guesses as to what the effects of</p><p>badges might be. Using our background in the field of motivation, we</p><p>documented the badging practices of the DML awardees that appear</p><p>likely to impact student motivation. This means that any practice we</p><p>believed could affect students initiating or persisting in a task was</p><p>documented as a motivational practice. It is important to note that we</p><p>consider not only the motivation related to learning o utcomes associated</p><p>with badges but also to learners buy-in of the badge system.</p><p>Badge Design Principles for Motivating Learning</p><p>After we id entified the pra ctices in each o f the p rojects, we clustered the m</p><p>into more general principles. Below are the principles weve derived.</p><p>Because the practices were mostly inferred rather than explicitly</p><p>articulated by the projects, we have not attempted to determine which</p><p>practices were most prevalent. As such, these principles are ordered for</p><p>coherence rather than prevalence.</p><p>Providing privileges: The privileges provided to learners for their badge</p><p>collection are important to dissect because different types of privileges</p><p>and their contingencies affect motivation. For example, learners can get a</p><p>prize for acquiring a badge, be provided new activities, be awarded a role</p><p>as a peer mentor, and even be given access to internships. Making note</p><p>of what kinds of privileges are granted as a result of receiving badges can</p><p>orient learners to the next task that they choose. For example, if the</p><p>privilege granted for earning a badge is not associated with something</p><p>the learner values, he or she is unlikely to engage or persist in the activity</p><p>associated with earning that badge.</p><p>Recognizing identities: Some projects use badges to recognize learners</p><p>identities in some way. For example, badges can recognize a learners</p><p>role within the badging system such as recognizing their specialization in</p><p>journali sm, engine ering, or pee r mentori ng. Badge s can also re cognize</p><p>learners identities by being incorporated into badge projects that</p><p>themselves target specific groups.</p><p>Engaging with communities:Some learners are able to earn badges for</p><p>About Katerina Schenke</p><p>Katerina Schenke is a</p><p>doctoral student at the</p><p>University of California,</p><p>Irvine specializing in</p><p>Learning, Cognition, and Development.</p><p>Her...</p><p>Read more</p><p>Popular tags</p><p>artbadgescfpcollaboration</p><p>conferencedigital</p><p>humanitiesdigital media and learningcompetition DMLbadgeseducationgamesHASTACHASTAC Scholarshistoryhumanities learningMozillapedagogysocialmediatechnologytwitter</p><p>Home About Members Organizations Subscribe Help Login Contact</p><p>Join HASTAC</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 Design Principles for Motivating Learning with Digital Badges</p><p> 2/3</p><p>their involvement in their communities both at the physical and digital</p><p>level. Badges that are awarded for involvement in the local physical</p><p>community typically award learners for interacting with members in their</p><p>community. Projects also recognize learners involvement in digital</p><p>communities by granting badges to learners who interact with people</p><p>online. Engagement in the community can be seen to promote students</p><p>motivation to continue on activities because learners are relating to</p><p>others.</p><p>Display badges to the public:Thanks to Mozillas Open Badges</p><p>Infrastructure, badge earners in most projects can decide if and when to</p><p>publicly display badges they are currently working on or have earned.</p><p>Some projects give earners the option of displaying badges themselves,</p><p>while other projects automatically display badges for learners. We know</p><p>from the motivation literature that providing choice makes learners feel</p><p>more autonomous (in control), and that different levels of choice have</p><p>implications for motivation. However, displaying badges to the public may</p><p>induce competition among badge earners, which may or may not be</p><p>adaptive. Competition is likely to more adaptive when earners feel a</p><p>sense of autonomy.</p><p>Outside value of badges: Some projects integrate practices to give</p><p>badges value outside of the badge system. These include having badges</p><p>count as academic or course credit, showing badges to outside agencies,</p><p>and/or documenting the link between the badges and real life</p><p>applications of knowledge. If badges are perceived as being useful</p><p>outside of the system, learners might be more inclined to take up the</p><p>badge system and continue with it.</p><p>Setting goals: Badges allow for learners to set goals and visualize the</p><p>previous goals that theyve accomplished. Badge systems can use goal</p><p>setting in many different ways. For example, user-created badges where</p><p>learners have to plan what kind of badge they earn and how they earn it is</p><p>one way to encourage goal setting. Other projects display the progressive</p><p>goal trajectory through which learners follow, and some even allow the</p><p>users to determine that trajectory.</p><p>Collaboration: Though several projects allow for collaborative efforts,</p><p>some make a concerted effort to encourage this through awarding group</p><p>badges for group accomplishments as well as personal badges for having</p><p>a role in a group collaboration. By awarding badges at the group level,</p><p>learner motivation to collaborate and complete tasks is thought to allow</p><p>learners to relate more to others and perceive the task in a different way</p><p>than without the element of collaboration.</p><p>Competition: Scarcity of badges and use of a point system are two ways</p><p>that we have seen projects contribute to competition among badge</p><p>earners. We know from the motivation literature that some types of</p><p>learners strive in competitive environments and others do not.</p><p>Evolving requirements for badges: Few projects execute this practice of</p><p>changing the requirements to get a particular badge. Requiring learners</p><p>to complete different tasks for the same badge could pique their interest</p><p>continuing to use the badge system.</p><p>Recognizing different outcomes: This principle gets at a central goal of</p><p>our project. The type of learning that a badge recognizes and the way that</p><p>recognition is managed has profound implications for motivation. The</p><p>principles for recognizing learning across projects are summarized in this</p><p>previous post. The recognition practices fall into two broad categories that</p><p>are defined by the prior research literature. Some badges are awarded for</p><p>meeting some criterion (performance-based), while other badges are</p><p>awarded for engaging in some activity (effort-based). The prior research</p><p>suggests that these two types of badges are likely to have very different</p><p>consequences for motivation. Additionally, these distinctions are likely to</p><p>interact with other project features in complicated ways. For example,</p><p>public display of badges described above is likely to have different</p><p>consequences for performance-based than for effort-based badges.</p><p>Additionally, many pro jects inclu de ba dges that are intended to recogn ize</p><p>more social and participatory forms of learning. Motivation researchers</p><p>are just beginning to explore this type of learning. It seems likely that</p><p>recognition of social learning will operate very differently in effort-based</p><p>versus performance-based contexts. We are working hard to sort out</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 Design Principles for Motivating Learning with Digital Badges</p><p> 3/3</p><p>these complicated relationships across different badge functions. An</p><p>important initial insight is that the type and nature of recognition is often</p><p>determined by the broader context of the project, meaning that badge</p><p>designers may not have any say over the learning that their badges need</p><p>to recognize.</p><p>Utilizing different types of assessments: Like the previous principle,</p><p>this principle highlights how other project factors will impact motivation. A</p><p>previous post detailing the assessment principles across projects is</p><p>located here. While some assessment decisions are constrained by</p><p>recognition decisions, most projects have a lot of latitude in how they</p><p>assess learning. This is good because the type of assessment has</p><p>significant consequences for motivation. For example, having an expert</p><p>versus a computer conducting the assessment communicates different</p><p>expectations to the learner. Knowing that your peers are assessing you is</p><p>very different than knowing a computer is assessing you. While the</p><p>majority of the projects use peer assessment, a handful also use expert</p><p>judgment and self-assessment. Many projects comb ine d ifferent types of</p><p>assessments.</p><p>Feedback and Next Steps</p><p>We would love to hear back from project team members and other</p><p>interested parties regarding these principles. As we state, these practices</p><p>were most inferred based on our knowledge of the motivation research</p><p>literature. People whose theories of motivation are different than ours are</p><p>certain to come up with different practices and principles. We have tried to</p><p>use language and ideas that resonate with the people who are designing</p><p>and using badge systems. We welcome any and all suggestions.</p><p>It is beyond the scope of our project to study the motivational</p><p>consequences of badging practices in specific projects. We hope that</p><p>these principles will help initiate and organize efforts from projects, and</p><p>then help us share those research designs and finding across projects</p><p>and with the broader public. The next p...</p></li></ul>


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