Design of Modular Scania

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    in cooperation with

    Anton SvenssonAnna Gharibi

    Department of Mechanical Engineering

    Blekinge Institute of Technology

    Karlskrona

    Sweden

    2011

    Master of Science Thesis in Mechanical Engineering

    Design of Modular ScaniaLowEntry Instep

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    II

    Acknowledgements

    This Masters thesishas been a great and valuable experience. The project has givenus the opportunity to work with experienced people from various departments within

    Scania. We would like to thank the special vehicles department for their continuoussupport throughout the project.

    We wish to acknowledge our supervisors at the Scania special vehicles department,Andreas Bystrm and Hkan Schildt for their continuous support and encouragementduring the thesis work. A special thanks to Andreas Bystrm for his willingness tohelp and guidance thru the thesis work.

    Anton would also like to thank Mats Walter together with the Mechanical

    engineering department at Blekinge Institute of Technology for their support and theeducational contribution required being able to conduct this thesis work.

    Anna Gharibi

    Anton Svensson

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    III

    Table of Contents

    Abstract .......................................................................................... I

    Acknowledgements ....................................................................... II

    Notation ..................................................................................... IXX

    1 Introduction ............................................................................ 11.1 Project background .................................................................................... 11.2 Objectives .................................................................................................. 1

    1.2.1Clarifying objectives .................................................................................. 11.3 Method ....................................................................................................... 21.4 Delimitations .............................................................................................. 3

    1.5 Background of Scania ................................................................................ 4

    Pre-Studies

    2 Theory ...................................................................................... 62.1 Scania cab program .................................................................................... 62.2 Low Entry .................................................................................................. 7

    2.2.1Overview of the LowEntry ........................................................................ 8

    2.3 LowEntry background ................................................................................ 92.4 Product analysis ........................................................................................102.4.1Function ....................................................................................................102.4.3Scania modular instep ...............................................................................112.4.4LowEntry instep ........................................................................................122.4.5Manufacturing and costs ...........................................................................17

    2.5 Ergonomic guidelines ...............................................................................182.6 Standards ...................................................................................................18

    2.6.1Single instep ..............................................................................................18

    3 Exterior design elements ...................................................... 203.1 Exterior element break down ....................................................................213.2 Scania modular instep VS. LowEntry instep ............................................23

    4 Competitor analysis .............................................................. 244.1 Volvo .........................................................................................................24

    4.1.1FE low-entry cab (LEC) ............................................................................244.2 Dennis Eagle .............................................................................................25

    4.2.1Olympus ....................................................................................................254.3 MAN .........................................................................................................26

    4.3.1TGA low-entry ..........................................................................................26

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    IV

    4.4 Mercedes-Benz ......................................................................................... 264.4.1Econic II ................................................................................................... 26

    4.5 Renault ..................................................................................................... 284.5.1Access ...................................................................................................... 284.5.2Puncher..................................................................................................... 28

    4.6 BMC ......................................................................................................... 294.6.1BMC Professional 628 low-entry cab truck ............................................. 294.7 Summary .................................................................................................. 30

    4.7.1Kneeling function ..................................................................................... 304.7.2Bus chassis ............................................................................................... 314.7.3Folding doors ........................................................................................... 314.7.4Single instep ............................................................................................. 314.7.5Flat floors ................................................................................................. 314.7.6Floor height from the ground ................................................................... 314.7.7Lower step from the ground ..................................................................... 314.7.8Upper step to the floor: ............................................................................ 31

    5 User Analysis ......................................................................... 325.1 User scenarios .......................................................................................... 32

    5.1.1Fredrik the refuse collector ...................................................................... 325.1.2Mark the storage distributer ..................................................................... 34

    5.2 Conclusions .............................................................................................. 35

    6 Setting requirements ............................................................. 366.1 Requirements ........................................................................................... 36

    6.2 Quality Function Deployment .................................................................. 37

    Concept Design

    7 Concept generation ............................................................... 407.1 Step concepts ............................................................................................ 41

    7.1.1Concept 1 Positive wave....................................................................... 417.1.2Concept 2 Negative wave..................................................................... 41

    7.1.3Concept 3 Wedge.................................................................................. 427.1.4Concept 4 Inverted wedge.................................................................... 427.1.5Concept 5 Double step.......................................................................... 427.1.6Concept 6 Double wave........................................................................ 427.1.7Concept X Mix..................................................................................... 42

    7.2 Step concept test analysis ......................................................................... 447.2.1Single instep test ...................................................................................... 447.2.2Step test conclusions ................................................................................ 44

    7.3 Step well concepts .................................................................................... 467.3.1Delimitation ............................................................................................. 46

    7.3.2Concept 1 Remake................................................................................ 46

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    7.3.3Concept 2 Instep add-on ........................................................................467.3.4Concept 3 Edge covers..........................................................................46

    7.4 The morphological chart ...........................................................................487.5 Concept selection ............................