Describe the impact of ICT on workflow, working practices and management and security of information

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Describe the impact of ICT on workflow, working practices and management and security of information Slide 2 Access shared information Transmit information electronically Communicate around a computer network Reduced need for movement and duplication of documents Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs) are heavily used Allows access and communication of information without the need for paper Slide 3 E-mail: fast communication, arrange and even hold meetings on line Networked software: databases and electronic diaries allows accessing of centrally stored information Technology has led to de-layering of organisations Too many levels of mgt have previously hampered communications Slide 4 Input: E-mail allows information to be received instantly from internal/external sources Internet enables required information to be collected speedily Process: Software enables effective and efficient processing of information, increasing productivity Output: E-mail, e-diary, Internet and presentation packages enable effective transmission of information Slide 5 Reduced need for movement of people Fast communication around the organisation Reduced need to accommodate people in specific areas Fewer layers of management Reduced amount of lost/misplaced documents Less time wasted Reduced costs Slide 6 Advances in ICT over recent years have resulted in flexible working practices becoming more common Hot-desking Home working Teleworking Video-conferencing/audio-conferencing - which allow remote meetings in a cost effective manner Slide 7 Over the last 2030 years, organisations have moved from having one mainframe computer to process data for a few of their activities (such as payroll or accounts) to having company-wide, often country- or worldwide, networks of computers affecting and controlling every aspect of their business. Slide 8 The vast quantities of data and information that are held by these networks must be organised and protected in other words, this data must be managed. It is about setting up systems, procedures and controls relating to the way data is input, stored and retrieved, who it is accessed by, how it is kept up-to-date and how it is kept secure Slide 9 Centralised Systems: Central dept. dealing with computer services Responsibility for data mgt. Including purchase and maintenance of hardware and software, setting up systems Training, using policies, codes of practice and support systems A potential disadvantage is that one size doesnt fit all some sections of the organisation might have particular needs Slide 10 Advantages: Standardisation of computer hardware and software Standard systems and procedures Control of what is being used and how Build-up expertise and specialisation Overview of organisational data requirements and performance Slide 11 Keeping up to date with developments is essential and having specialists makes this easier, rather than relying on enthusiastic amateurs Having the right input and storage devices this will depend on the type of data being entered, the volume of data and how often it needs to be backed up Having adequate processor speed, hard drive and memory capacity will ensure the system is optimised Slide 12 Storage and retrieval devices include: External hard drives DVDs CD-ROMs large amounts, easily stored Zip drives large amounts, fast retrieval Pen drives portable, easy to use Slide 13 Input devices: Voice data entry speak into microphone, interprets and displays on screen Scanners & Optical Character Recognition scan documents and images Hand-held devices portable, information can be downloaded to the main computer later Touch screen touch areas of screen rather than type Mouse, light pen, smart card, bar code reader Slide 14 Utility programmes helps to search for lost files, check for viruses, check IDs and passwords Performance mgt monitor, analyse and report the performance of software Communications software control the flow of data to and from remote sites Applications software mainly use Integrated packages (Microsoft Office) Slide 15 Customised software specially written for the organisation Database mgt system centralised database resource for the whole organisation Allows a common database with many tables to be linked together Accessed by everyone Slide 16 Data is not stored several times in separate files Data is consistent More information is available to all users Greater security different levels of access can be granted so only certain people can access some information Reduces time spent inputting data data held in one file only Slide 17 Security theft, damage and destruction Integrity correctness of data and involves the prevention of inaccurate data entry Privacy held securely so that only those who need access to the data can access it Confidentiality those who do have access respect the data and do not discuss it with others who do not have a right to know Slide 18 Organisations have a responsibility to identify and quantify the risks that their data is exposed to and to put countermeasures in place policies and procedures that reduce or remove the identified risks Slide 19 Ensure windows are closed and office s are locked when the building is empty Alarm the buildings Use cameras and surveillance equipment Restrict visitor access Keep visitors away from computer areas Train staff on how to move equipment Provide trolleys for transporting items Slide 20 Keep fire doors closed to prevent the spread of fire Have fir fighting equipment and train staff how to use it Install a sprinkler system to help put fires out Lag pipes to reduce the risk of burst pipes Take out adequate insurance if the worst happens you can recover from it Slide 21 If the servers, hard drives and laptops are stolen then the data goes with them Viruses can make files and PCs unusable SO Store the original software securely the software can be reinstalled on another system if necessary Back up all files regularly Slide 22 This means controlling or restricting access to those people who are authorised to use the data Access rights can be set at different levels relative to the position held in the organisation See notes on privacy and confidentiality Slide 23 Organisations are also responsible for ensuring the security and confidentiality of data held in paper based information. Slide 24 Files are returned to the filing cabinet after use Filing cabinets are locked and the keys stored somewhere safe Papers are not left at the photocopier All papers are collected from printers promptly Papers are not left on desks unattended Papers are shredded or disposed of properly Slide 25 BEAR IN MIND THAT THE IMPACT CAN BE EITHER POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE Speed: at which data can be input, processed, transferred and retrieved Accessibility: appropriate access for authorised users and restricted access for others Security and integrity: if unauthorised users can corrupt data, effectiveness and competitiveness can be reduced Slide 26 Responsiveness: if information is out of date then so are decisions made. Firms must respond quickly Customer satisfaction: may affect customer records, response times Staff morale and motivation: affected by quality of data mgt. Frustrating and stressful Quality of information: appropriate quality and quantity. Accurate and up-to-date Slide 27 BEAR IN MIND THAT THE CONSEQUENCES CAN BE EITHER POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE Cost: duplication of data and user effort use up time and resources which costs money Reduced effectiveness: poor information leads to quality of decisions being affected and reduces effectiveness Slide 28 Reputation: poor responsiveness to customers and poor decision making can affect reputation Legal action: must conform to legal requirements. Poor data mgt could lead to legal action Loss of customers: impact badly on level of customer service Slide 29 Collected fairly and lawfully Held for only the specified and lawful purpose described in the register Used only for the purposes described Adequate, relevant and not excessive Accurate and up-to-date Held for no longer than necessary Protected by proper security Slide 30 Ensures exclusive ownership is maintained No unauthorised copying of materials takes place Effects books, films, music, computer programs To copy work you must get permission to do so May also have to pay a fee Copyright symbol - May also show copyright owner Slide 31 Prevent unauthorised access to computer systems or materials Deter criminals seeking to use computers in committing offences eg. Making unauthorised changes to data with criminal intent Unauthorised access with the intent to commit or help further offences


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