Department of Anatomy,Histology & EmbryologyDepartment ... 1 Extremitas capitata, 2 Extremitas caudata,

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  • Systematic Anatomy

    Department of Anatomy,Histology & EmbryologyDepartment of Anatomy,Histology & Embryology Shanghai Medical College,Fudan University

    Dr.Hongqi Zhang (张红旗)

    Email: Office: Building 9,Room308, 54237151-9308 Mobile:13761809799



  • Composition of reproductive t f b thsystem of both sexs

    Internal genital organs Gonads Genital ducts Accessory glands External genital organsExternal genital organs

    Male genital organ Female genital organ

  • Composition of reproductive system

    Internal genital organs  G d t ti


     Gonads-testis  Genital ducts: Epididymis UreterEpididymis Deferent ductus Ejaculatory duct

    Bladder Seminal vesicle Urethra  Accessory glands  P t t



    Bulbourethral gland

     Prostate  Seminal vesicle  Bulbourethral glane Penis Ductus deferens


     Bulbourethral glane External genital organs

    Scrotum and penis Testis

  • A i f l h d Th d d th

    The position and shape of the testis A pair of oval-shaped organs.They are suspended on the

    scrotum by the supermatic cord.Each testis have two extremities;two surfaces and two borders The function ofextremities;two surfaces and two borders.The function of testis is to produces sperm and secret androgens.

    Two extremity Sup.extremity

    Two surfaces

    Two extremity Inf.extremity Lat.surface Sup.extremityEpidydimisTwo surfaces

    T b d


    Ant.border Post.

    borderTwo borders Post.border






  • The structures of the testis Testis sends numerous fibrous septules into the gland,

    dividing it into 100~200 testicular lobules that contain 2~ 4 contorted seminiferous tubules → traight seminiferous tubules →rete testis

  • Shape of the testisShape of the testis




    Inf extremity





  • Testicle of a cat:

    1 Extremitas capitata,

    2 Extremitas caudata,

    3 Margo epididymalis,

    4 Margo liber,

    5 Mesorchium5 Mesorchium,

    6 Epididymis,

    7 tetibular a.& v.tet bu a a &

    8 Ductus deferens

  • The descend of testis Testes follow the "path of descent" from high in the posterior fetal abdomen to the inguinal ring and beyond to the inguinal canal and into the scrotum. In most cases (97% full-term, 70% preterm), both testes have descended by ( p ) y birth. In most other cases, only one testis fails to descend (cryptorchidism) and that will probably express itself within a year.

    Undescended Testes (Cryptorchidism) ( yp ) - a testis that did not descend all the

    way into the scrotum

  • Between the seventh week and birth the testes descend into the scrotum due to shortening of theBetween the seventh week and birth, the testes descend into the scrotum due to shortening of the gubernaculum. The testes pass through the inguinal canal in the anterior abdominal wall. After the 8th week, a peritoneal evagination, the processus vaginalis, forms just anterior to the gubernaculum. It forms the inguinal canal by pushing out sock-like extensions of the transversalis fascia, the internal oblique muscle and external oblique muscle The inguinal canal extends from the base ofinternal oblique muscle and external oblique muscle, The inguinal canal extends from the base of the inverted transversalis fascia (the deep ring) to the base of the everted external oblique muscle (the superficial ring). After the processus vaginalis has evaginated into the scrotum, the gubernaculum shortens and pulls the gonads through the canal. The gonads always remain within the plane of the subserous fascia associated with the posterior wall of the processus vaginalis Bythe plane of the subserous fascia associated with the posterior wall of the processus vaginalis. By the end of the pregnancy the testes have completely entered the scrotal sac. The gubernaculum is reduced to a ligamentous band attaching the inferior pole of the testis to the scrotal floor. Within the first year after birth the superior part of the processus vaginalis is usually obliterated leaving a distal remnant sac the tunica vaginalis which lies anterior to the testis Its lumen is normally collapsedremnant sac, the tunica vaginalis, which lies anterior to the testis. Its lumen is normally collapsed but sometimes it may fill with serous secretions forming a testicular hydrocele[1].

  • THE NORMAL MIGRATION OF THE TESTICLE: The testes developTHE NORMAL MIGRATION OF THE TESTICLE: The testes develop in the abdominal cavity in early fetal life. By 14 to 17 weeks of intrauterine life they migrate to an opening in the body wall known as the inguinal canal After 28 weeks they pass through the canal and bythe inguinal canal. After 28 weeks they pass through the canal and by 35 to 40 weeks reach the scrotum.

    U d d d t t U d d dUndescended testes . Undescended testes are a common problem. At birth 3.5% of boys will have an undescended testes. Approximately 30% will have both testesApproximately 30% will have both testes involved. A large proportion of these testes will have descended by 3 months after birth with just 1% of boys still having anwith just 1% of boys still having an undescended testes by 1 year of age. Premature infants have a much higher chance of having an undescended testes.chance of having an undescended testes. Testicular descent is a complex process and not yet fully understood. It is known that the process depends on adequate hormone p p q levels as well as mechanical and neurological factors.

  • Diagram of an adult human testicle:

    A.) Blood vessels;

    B ) H d f ididB.) Head of epididymus;

    C.) Efferent ductiles;

    D.) Seminiferous tubules; ) ;

    E.) Parietal lamina of tunica vaginalis;

    F.) Visceral lamina of tunica vaginalis;

    G.) Cavity of tunica vaginalis;

    H.) Tunica albuginea;

    I ) L b l f t tiI.) Lobule of testis;

    J.) Tail of epididymus;

    K.) Body of epididymus; ) y p y ;

    L.) Mediastinum;

    M.) Vas deferens.

  • Genital ducts EpididymisEpididymis Deferencs ductus Djaculatory ducts urethra

  • Genital ducts- epididymisp y

    Shape:oval shapedShape:oval shaped,

    Head of epididymis

    Body of epididymisBody of epididymis

    Tail of epididymis


    Located on sup.extremity

    & post border of testis& post. border of testis


    Th it f l tiThe site of accumulation

    & storage of sperm

    Efferent ductules connect between testis and epididymis.

  • Genital ducts- ductus deferens  Muscular tube that transports sperm form epididymis to ejaculatory duct,about 50cm in length. four divisions

    1-Testicular part- extends from the tail of epididymis to the

    i f i

    3 4

    sup. extremity of testis 2 - Spermatic part- - from sup. extremity of testis to the supextremity of testis to the sup. inguinal ring,----- where the 3 – vasectomy is performed


    y p 3 -Inguinal part- extends from sup. to deep inguinal rings 4 P l i t th4 - Pelvic part - crosses the ureter to reach the base of bladder terminal part dilates --


    bladder, terminal part dilates, -- ampulla ductus deferentis


  • V tVasectomy

  • Important concept-Spermatic cord  Position Extends from the sup. extremity of testis to deep inguinal ring  Contents: Ductus deferens;Testicular artery;Pampiniform plexus;  N & l h ti l 3 l f t i th ti Nerves & lymphatic vessels; 3 layers of tunic enwrap the spermatic

    cord.there are internal spermatic fascia;cremaster; Ext. spermatic fascia

    Spermatic cord

    Ductus deferens Genitofemoral n.

    Ext.spermati c fascia

    Pampiniform plexus


    Testibular a.

    Cremaster Pariatal layer Epididymis

    Pampiniform plexus


    Skin Vesceral layer


    Scrotum wall Dartos coat


    The covering of testis and spermatic cord

  • Genital ducts- ejaculatory duct

    Formed by union of distal portion ductus deferens &portion ductus deferens & excretory duct of seminal vesiclevesicle

    Passes through the upper part of prostate and opens p p p into the prostatic part of urethra

    Ejaculatory duct

    Posterior surface of bladder Lat.view of bladder and prostate

  • Accessory glands

    Seminal vesicle (paired) Prostate (five lobes) Bulbourethral gland (paired)Bulbourethral gland (paired)

  • Accessory glands- seminal vesicle

    Paired sacculated,coiled l dglands

    Secrete part of seminal fluidfluid

    Located on post. surface of bladder lateral to ampullabladder,lateral to ampulla ductus deferens

    Ejaculatory duct is formedEjaculatory duct is formed by union of distal portion ductus deferense and excretory duct of seminal vesicle Seminal vesicles

  • Post.view of bladder

    Urinary bladder Ureter

    Ductus deferensDuctus deferens