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Demography - gmch.gov.in lectures/Community Medicine... · PDF fileDemography. Dr. Meenal Thakare, , ... Demographic cycle. Each nation passes through 5 stages of demographic cycle

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Text of Demography - gmch.gov.in lectures/Community Medicine... · PDF fileDemography. Dr. Meenal...

  • Demography

    Dr.MeenalThakare,Assist.Professor,CommunityMedicine

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  • DEMOGRAPHY

    Scientificstudyofhumanpopulation

    CommunityMedicineisvitallyconcernedwith

    population

    Populationsize

    (GROWTHorDECLINE)

    Populationcomposition

    (AGE,SEX,OCCUPATION,

    SOCIOECONOMICSTATUSetc.)

    Populationdistribution

    inspace

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  • Demographysymbol

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  • Demographicprocesses:

    Fertility

    Mortality

    Marriage

    Migration

    Socialmobility

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  • SourcesofdemographicstatisticsinIndia

    Populationcensuses

    Nationalsamplesurveys

    Registrationofvitalevents

    adhocdemographicstudies

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  • Census2011inprocess7

  • Demographiccycle

    Eachnationpassesthrough5stagesofdemographiccycle1.Highstationary

    highbirthratehighdeathrate

    populationremainsstationaryIndiatill1920

    2.Earlyexpanding

    deathratedeclinebirthrateremainsunchanged

    manycountriesinsouthAsiaandAfrica3.Lateexpanding

    deathratedeclinesfurther

    birthratetendstofallbirthsexceeddeaths

    populationcontinuestogrowIndiahasenteredinthisphase

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  • 4.Lowstationary

    lowbirthrate

    lowdeathrate

    populationstationary

    indusrializedcountries

    e.g.Austria,Sweden,Denmark,Belgium

    5.Decline

    populationdeclines

    birthrateislowerthandeathrate

    e.g.someEastEuropeancountrieslikeGermany

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  • Worldpopulationtrends

    Everincreasing

    1billionin1800years

    2billionafter130years1930

    3billion1960

    4billion1974

    5billion1987

    6billion1999

    Expectedtoreach8billionin2025.

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  • Themostpopulouscountriesoftheworld

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  • Birthanddeathrates

    DecliningbirthratesChangesingovernmentattitudetowardsgrowth spreadofeducation increasedavailabilityofcontraception familyplanningprograms changeinmarriagepatternsDecliningdeathrate improvementinmaternalandchildhealthservices successfulimmunization diarrhoealandrespiratorydiseasecontrolprograms reductionininfantandchildmortality

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  • Improvementinmaternalandchildhealthservices

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  • Growthrate

    Crudedeathrateissubtractedfromcrudebirthrate,thenet

    residualisthecurrentannualgrowthrate,exclusiveofmigration

    Growthratesaresubjecttomomentum

    Affectedbyagedistribution,marriagecustoms,numerouscultural

    andeconomicfactors

    Notuniformintheworld

    Approximately95%ofgrowthisoccurringindevelopingcountries

    Expectedno.birthsperwoman 1.7inindustrializedcountries

    2.7indeveloping

    countries

    4.4inleastdeveloped14

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  • DEMOGRAPHICTRENDSININDIA

    Demographicindicators1.Populationstatistics

    populationsize,sexration,density,dependencyratio

    2.Vitalstatistics

    birthrate,deathrate,naturalgrowthrate,lifeexpectancyatbirth,mortality

    andfertilityrates

    Landarea2.4%Supports16.8%ofworldpopulation1921

    yearofBIGDIVIDE

    1901

    238millions1961

    439millions

    1991

    846million 11th

    May2000crossed1billionmark

    projectedtoreach1.53billionsby2050whenIndiawillbethe mostpopulouscountryintheworldsurpassingChina

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  • AgeandsexcompositionInagegroup014yearsmalepopulationismoreInagegroupabove60yearsfemalepopulationismore014yearsagegrouppopulationismoreinruralareasthaninurban

    Populationbelow14yearsisshowingdeclinewhereasElderlypopulationisincreasing.

    AgepyramidsAspecifictypeofgraphshowingtheageandsexwise

    distributionofpopulationofthecountry.Indevelopingcountries

    broadbased

    taperingtope.g.IndiaDevelopedcountries

    bulgeatthemiddlee.g.Switzerland.

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  • Sexratio no.offemalesperthousandmales playsavitalroleinpopulationstudies. femaledeficitsyndromehassocialimplications. strongmalechildpreference genderinequalities. sexratioinIndiaadversetowomen decliningoverdecad4es

    Dependencyratio personsabove65yearsandchildrenbelow15yearsare

    economicallydependentonproductiveagegroup. devided

    youngagedependencyratio

    oldagedependencyratio

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  • Indiandemography 22

  • 014yearschildren+above65yearspopulationTotaldependencyratio=

    x100

    populationof1664years

    demographicbonus

    periodwhendependencyratioina populationdeclinesbecauseofdeclineinfertilityasapartof

    countrydevelopment. demographicburden

    increaseintotaldependencyratioduring

    anyperiodoftime,mostlycausedbyincreasedoldagedependency ratio.

    Densityofpopulation ratiobetweentotalpopulationandsurfacearea. no.ofpersonslivingpersquarekilometer increasinginIndiacontinuously.

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  • Urbanization no.ofpersonresidinginurbanlocalities. towns(placeswithmunicipalcorporations,municipalarea

    committee,notifiedareacommittee,towncommitteeor cantonmentboard);alsoallplaceshaving5000ormore

    inhabitants,adensityofnotlessthan1000personspersquare mileor390persquarekilometer,pronouncedurban

    characteristicsandatleast3/4th

    ofadultmalespopulation employedinpursuitsotherthanagriculture.

    percentageofpopulationresidinginurbanareashasincreased dramatically

    megacities

    thosewithpopulation10millionsormore

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  • Familysize totalno.ofchildrenawomanhasborneatapointintime completedfamilysize

    totalno.ofchildrenawomanhasborne

    duringherreproductiveage1545years. totalfertilityrate

    approximatemagnitudeofcompletedfamily

    size. dependson

    durationofmarriage

    educationofcouple

    no.oflivebirthsandlivingchildren

    preferenceofmalechildren

    desiredfamilysize.

    Familyplanningprogramme

    2childfamilynormNRR

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  • Literacyandeducation educationiscrucialelementofeconomicandsocial

    developmentLiteracyisgenerallyassociatedwith

    modernization

    urbanization

    industrialization

    communicationand

    commerce

    literate

    theoneabove7yearsofageandcanreadandwritewithunderstandinginanylanguage

    thereismajorimprovementinliteracystatusinIndia. governmentofIndiahasmadeeducationcompulsoryuptothe

    ageof14yearsinthecountry.

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  • Lifeexpectancy

    averageno.ofyearswhichapersonofthatagemayexpecttolive,

    accordingtothemortalitypatternprevalentinthatcountry.

    oneofthebestindicatorsofcountryslevelofdevelopmentandof

    overallhealthstatusofitspopulation.

    continuedtoincreaseglobally

    mostcountriesexhibitsexdifferentialsinmortalityfavouring

    women

    femaleslivelongerthanmales

    inIndiaitisalmostequal.

    Japanleadsinlifeexpectancy.

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  • Fertility

    actualbearingofchildren

    reproductiveageroughly1545years

    30yearsperiod

    awomanmarriesat15andlivingtillage45yearswithher

    husbandisexposedtotheriskofpregnancyfor30yearsmaygive

    birthto15children,butitisrarelyachieved.

    fertilitydependonseveralfactors.

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  • 1.

    Ageatmarriage earlymarriageislongestablishedcustominIndia Childmarriagerestraintact1978

    legalageformarriage18years

    forgirlsand21yearsforboys.2.Durationofmarriedlife birthsaremoreinfirstfewyearsoflife Familyplanningeffortsshouldbeconcentratedinthisperiod.3.Spacingofchildren Whenallbirthsarepostponedbyoneyear,ineachagegroup,

    therewillbeadeclineintotalfertility.4.education Inverseassociationbetweenfertilityandeducation Educationprovidesknowledge,increasedexposureto

    informationandmedia,buildsskillforgainfulemployment, increasedfemaleparticipationindecisionmaking

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  • 5.Economicstatus bearsinverserelationshipwithfertility economicdevelopmentisthebestcontraceptive6.Casteandreligion MuslimshavehigherfertilitythanHindus totalfertilityrateamongChristiansisminimum.7.Nutrition well

    fedsocietieshavelowfertility

    8.Familyplanning keyfactorindecliningfertility9.others no.ofphysical,biological,socialandculturalfactorsplayrole

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    FamilyplanningWHOdefinitionAwayofthinkingandlivingthatisadoptedvoluntarily,upon

    thebasisofknowledge,attitudesandresponsibledecisionsby individualsandcouples,inordertopromotethehealthand

    welfareofthefamilygroupandthuscontributeeffectivelyto thesocialdevelopmentofthecountry

    Objectives: toavoidunwantedbirthsTobringaboutwantedbirthsToregulateintervalsbetweenpregnancies tocontroltimeatwhichbirthoccursinrelationtoageofthe

    parents todetermineno.ofchildreninfamily

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    Basichumanright allcouplesandindividualshavethebasichumanrighttodecide

    freelyandresponsiblytheno.andspacingofthechildrenandto havetheinformation,educationandmeanstodoso.

    Scopeoffamilyplanningservices:1.Properspacingandlimitationofbirths2.Adviceonsterility3.Educationonparenthood4.Sexeducation5.Screeningforpathologicalconditionsrelatedtoreproductive

    systeme.g.cervicalcancer6.Geneticcounseling7.Premaritalconsultationandexamination8.Pregnancytests9.Marriagecounseling10.Preparationofcouplesforarrivaloffirstchild

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    11.Providingservicesforunmarriedmothers12.Teachinghomeeconomicsandnutrition13.Providingadoptionservices

    Healthaspectsoffamilyplanning:WomenshealthMaternalmortality,morbidityofwomenofchildbearingage,

    nutritionalstatus,weightchanges,hemoglobinlevels, preventablecomplicationsofpregnancyandabortion

    Foetal

    healthFoetal

    mortality,abnormaldevelopment

    InfantandchildhealthNeonatalinfantandpreschoolmortality,healthoftheinfantat

    birth,vuln