Democratic Systems. There are three Presidential Parliamentary Presidential- parliamentary

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  • Democratic Systems

  • There are threePresidential



  • PresidentialPresident is sole effective head of governmentReal decision-making powersShares power with a separately elected legislature

  • ParliamentaryMost widely used form in the world.The head of the country is called the government and consists of the leader and ministers of the executive.Often has a ceremonial head of state as well.

  • How it worksFirst, the people elect the national legislature.The legislature elects the leader and approves the cabinet.The leader and cabinet must appear before the legislature on a regular basis and defend their decisions/policies.The legislature can vote the government out of power.often called a vote of no confidence

  • Single Party Majoritarian GovernmentOne party wins absolute majority of seats in the national legislature and forms the government.Votes are more along lines of party than in U.S.Very efficient system.

  • Majority Coalition GovernmentTwo or more parties agree to share cabinet posts to form a voting majorityNo clear majorityAdvantagessmaller parties get a saynegotiations and compromiseDisadvantages the more parties in the coalition, the less chance of compromiseinefficiency and ineffectivenessmore influence for a smaller segment of societyinstability

  • Minority GovernmentNo majority party and no groups are able to form a coalitionHow does work get done?parliamentary alliance: some parties agree not to share cabinet posts, but will vote togetherpolicies passed on vote-by-vote alliancessome parties agree to abstain from certain votes usually dissolves before end of term

  • Presidential-parliamentary systemContains both a president and a prime ministerAlso called a dual-executive systemIntended to speed up the process, maximize the efficiency, and stabilize the executive.Voters also elect legislatureof course, this can lead to gridlock

  • Ways to elect a presidentDirectlyPeople vote directly for the candidateIf a candidate gets a majority in the first round, that person winsIf no majority in the first round, a runoff between 2-3 candidates in a second roundElectoral collegePeople elect president indirectlyWinner-takes-all in a state (even if no majority)Most electoral votes wins

  • Ways to elect a legislaturesingle-member district / plurality methodcountry is divided into multiple districtsone representative per districtcandidate with most votes winsproportional representationa party list is createda number of reps from that list are placed in the government ~equal to the percentage of popular votes the party received

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