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This project has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 609019

Deliverable 2.1 SWOT analysis report of the

refined concept/baseline

SINFONIA

Smart INitiative of cities Fully cOmmitted to iNvest In Advanced

large-scaled energy

CONTRACT NUMBER 609019 INSTRUMENT COLLABORATIVE PROJECT

START DATE 2014-06-01 DURATION 60 MONTHS

COLLABORATIVE PROJECT; GRANT AGREEMENT NO 609019

WORK PACKAGE: 2 VERSION: FINAL VERSION DATE: 30/05/2015

DELIVERABLE 2.1 SWOT ANALYSIS REPORT OF THE REFINED CONCEPT/BASELINE

COLLABORATIVE PROJECT; GRANT AGREEMENT NO 609019

WORK PACKAGE: 2 VERSION: FINAL VERSION DATE: 30/05/2015

1 SINFONIA; Smart INitiative of cities Fully cOmmitted to iNvest In Advanced large-scaled energy has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The main purpose of this work is to provide a background through the advice and support for the first

phase of the SINFONIA integrated project implementation. This first step is crucial for the successful

deployment of the SINFONIA smart city project.

The European Union set several targets to address the unprecedented energy, climate, economic and

social challenges in 2020, 2030 and 2050. For example, by 2020, the European Union aims at a decrease

in greenhouse gas emissions of 20% from 1990 levels. The energy demand covered by renewable

energy sources is expected to be 20%. A 20% drop in primary energy consumption is to be

accomplished by upgrading energy efficiency as well (EC, 2013A).

The primary energy use in Europe accounts for around 1800 [Mtoe/a] (Pezzutto et al., 2014). European

cities account for approximately 70% of the primary energy consumption and this portion is expected

to rise up to 75% by 2030 (EIFER, 2015).

In this framework several concepts for the development of European Union cities are under discussion

and test. One of the most supported by the European Commission is the Smart Cities and

Communities that focuses particularly on the creation of sustainable and efficient urban areas by

addressing urban challenges (e.g. optimization of resources use). The smart cities holistic approach

concerns mainly energy, environment and information and communication technology

(Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato, 2014). A distinct sub-domain of the smart city concept can be

identified for the energy topic: the smart energy city.

The main target of the SINFONIA project is the transformation of existing urban areas into smart energy

districts. This transformation process develops in a very complex framework in which multiple actors

are involved at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

This work defines two objectives in order to support the process:

1) To define its framework components through the clarification of the terms smart city and

smart energy cities and their structures;

2) To analyse the transformation process and its structure through the strengths, weaknesses

opportunities and threats (SWOT) methodology in order to provide a decision support system

for cities to list and rationalize potential obstacles to implementation and opportunities to be

caught.

DELIVERABLE 2.1 SWOT ANALYSIS REPORT OF THE REFINED CONCEPT/BASELINE

COLLABORATIVE PROJECT; GRANT AGREEMENT NO 609019

WORK PACKAGE: 2 VERSION: FINAL VERSION DATE: 30/05/2015

2 SINFONIA; Smart INitiative of cities Fully cOmmitted to iNvest In Advanced large-scaled energy has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration.

1) SMART (ENERGY) CITY DEFINITION

A conceptual framework is designed in order to define a smart city and smart energy city. The

conceptual framework is developed mainly through an extensive literature review. Scientific literature

sources are investigated through a keyword analysis used to extract relevant data from selected

sources (Onwuegbuzie et al., 2012).

The literature on smart cities is investigated in three main areas: (i) academic, (ii) industrial, and (iii)

governmental literature (Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato, 2014). The investigation suggests various

tendencies in each area due to different interpretation of the term smart and different interests

behind its use.

Based on the aforementioned research techniques, we propose a conceptual framework for smart

cities, which identifies various subsector of the smart city concept (see Figure 1).

The three rings show, respectively, the objectives (yellow ring), the domains (blue ring) and the

stakeholders (green ring) of smart cities, while the boxes (in purple) refer to main principles of smart

cities creation.

Based on a framework we propose a definition of the smart city: a smart city is a sustainable and

efficient city with a high quality of life, aiming to address urban challenges (mobility improvement,

optimization in the use of resources, improvement of health and safety issues, social development

progress, economic growth support, and participatory governance) by the application of information

and communication technology in its infrastructure and services, collaboration between key

stakeholders (citizens, universities, government and industry), integration of its domains (environment,

mobility, governance, community, industry and services), and investment in social capital

(Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato, 2014).

DELIVERABLE 2.1 SWOT ANALYSIS REPORT OF THE REFINED CONCEPT/BASELINE

COLLABORATIVE PROJECT; GRANT AGREEMENT NO 609019

WORK PACKAGE: 2 VERSION: FINAL VERSION DATE: 30/05/2015

3 SINFONIA; Smart INitiative of cities Fully cOmmitted to iNvest In Advanced large-scaled energy has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration.

FIGURE 1 - A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO DEFINE SMART CITIES (MOSANNENAZDEH & VETTORATO, 2014)

Smart energy city (SEC) is a sub-domain of smart city aiming to maximize sustainability, self-sufficiency

and resilience of energy systems through an extensive integrated, participatory and innovative

approach. Thanks to the rational use of information and communication technology, these objectives

are reached while ensuring affordability, adequateness and competitiveness of energy services in the

framework of a low carbon and integrated development. See Figure 2:

FIGURE 2 - A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO DEFINE SMART ENERGY CITIES

DELIVERABLE 2.1 SWOT ANALYSIS REPORT OF THE REFINED CONCEPT/BASELINE

COLLABORATIVE PROJECT; GRANT AGREEMENT NO 609019

WORK PACKAGE: 2 VERSION: FINAL VERSION DATE: 30/05/2015

4 SINFONIA; Smart INitiative of cities Fully cOmmitted to iNvest In Advanced large-scaled energy has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration.

For further information, see the ANNEX (chapter 1: DEFINITION OF SMART CITY).

2) SWOT ANALYSIS

Second and core task of the present work consists in the elaboration of a SWOT (strengths,

weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis, suitable for the concept proof and baseline revision

with regard to the SINFONIA project. The SWOT analysis is divided into two parts: one named SMART

CITIES BASELINE SWOT, focusing on the lessons learnt from the past experiences of smart city project

implementation; and SINFONIA SWOT, focusing on specific implementation activities foreseen the

project.

The reason why the two SWOT analysis are led separately is the need to learn from previous

experiences (i.e. already completed and ongoing smart city projects). Such analysis provides valuable

information regarding the modality for the implementation of smart city activities. In particular, the

most valuable insights are the potential difficulties (barriers: weaknesses or threats) as well as factors

enabling the successful implementation of the smart city project.

Overall, the SMART CITIES BASELINE SWOT provides a comprehensive list of barriers (weaknesses and

threats) and drivers (strengths and opportunities), regarding smart city project activities already

accomplished. It also provides the most relevant and important barriers and drivers in terms of their

impact level. The impact level was evaluated quantitatively in cooperation with the experts already

involved in the implementation of the smart city projects. Their input were collected through a

questionnaire and direct interviews. The questionnaires and their outcome were used to carry out the

present research and can be found in chapter 7 (QUESTIONNAIRE AND GLOSSARY) in the final part of

the report. For further details, see the ANNEX (subchapter 2.1: SMART CITIES BASELINE SWOT

METHODOLOGY).

For the purposes of the SWOT analysis, strengths were considered as advantages in the

implementation of a smart city project. Weaknesses are the elements hindering the implementation,

while opportunities are factors that can be caught during the implem