Deliverable 2.1 SWOT analysis report of the refined 2.1 SWOT ANALYSIS REPORT OF THE REFINED CONCEPT/BASELINE COLLABORATIVE PROJECT; GRANT AGREEMENT NO 609019 WORK PACKAGE: 2 VERSION:

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  • This project has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 609019

    Deliverable 2.1 SWOT analysis report of the

    refined concept/baseline

    SINFONIA

    Smart INitiative of cities Fully cOmmitted to iNvest In Advanced

    large-scaled energy

    CONTRACT NUMBER 609019 INSTRUMENT COLLABORATIVE PROJECT

    START DATE 2014-06-01 DURATION 60 MONTHS

    COLLABORATIVE PROJECT; GRANT AGREEMENT NO 609019

    WORK PACKAGE: 2 VERSION: FINAL VERSION DATE: 30/05/2015

  • DELIVERABLE 2.1 SWOT ANALYSIS REPORT OF THE REFINED CONCEPT/BASELINE

    COLLABORATIVE PROJECT; GRANT AGREEMENT NO 609019

    WORK PACKAGE: 2 VERSION: FINAL VERSION DATE: 30/05/2015

    1 SINFONIA; Smart INitiative of cities Fully cOmmitted to iNvest In Advanced large-scaled energy has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration.

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    The main purpose of this work is to provide a background through the advice and support for the first

    phase of the SINFONIA integrated project implementation. This first step is crucial for the successful

    deployment of the SINFONIA smart city project.

    The European Union set several targets to address the unprecedented energy, climate, economic and

    social challenges in 2020, 2030 and 2050. For example, by 2020, the European Union aims at a decrease

    in greenhouse gas emissions of 20% from 1990 levels. The energy demand covered by renewable

    energy sources is expected to be 20%. A 20% drop in primary energy consumption is to be

    accomplished by upgrading energy efficiency as well (EC, 2013A).

    The primary energy use in Europe accounts for around 1800 [Mtoe/a] (Pezzutto et al., 2014). European

    cities account for approximately 70% of the primary energy consumption and this portion is expected

    to rise up to 75% by 2030 (EIFER, 2015).

    In this framework several concepts for the development of European Union cities are under discussion

    and test. One of the most supported by the European Commission is the Smart Cities and

    Communities that focuses particularly on the creation of sustainable and efficient urban areas by

    addressing urban challenges (e.g. optimization of resources use). The smart cities holistic approach

    concerns mainly energy, environment and information and communication technology

    (Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato, 2014). A distinct sub-domain of the smart city concept can be

    identified for the energy topic: the smart energy city.

    The main target of the SINFONIA project is the transformation of existing urban areas into smart energy

    districts. This transformation process develops in a very complex framework in which multiple actors

    are involved at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

    This work defines two objectives in order to support the process:

    1) To define its framework components through the clarification of the terms smart city and

    smart energy cities and their structures;

    2) To analyse the transformation process and its structure through the strengths, weaknesses

    opportunities and threats (SWOT) methodology in order to provide a decision support system

    for cities to list and rationalize potential obstacles to implementation and opportunities to be

    caught.

  • DELIVERABLE 2.1 SWOT ANALYSIS REPORT OF THE REFINED CONCEPT/BASELINE

    COLLABORATIVE PROJECT; GRANT AGREEMENT NO 609019

    WORK PACKAGE: 2 VERSION: FINAL VERSION DATE: 30/05/2015

    2 SINFONIA; Smart INitiative of cities Fully cOmmitted to iNvest In Advanced large-scaled energy has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration.

    1) SMART (ENERGY) CITY DEFINITION

    A conceptual framework is designed in order to define a smart city and smart energy city. The

    conceptual framework is developed mainly through an extensive literature review. Scientific literature

    sources are investigated through a keyword analysis used to extract relevant data from selected

    sources (Onwuegbuzie et al., 2012).

    The literature on smart cities is investigated in three main areas: (i) academic, (ii) industrial, and (iii)

    governmental literature (Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato, 2014). The investigation suggests various

    tendencies in each area due to different interpretation of the term smart and different interests

    behind its use.

    Based on the aforementioned research techniques, we propose a conceptual framework for smart

    cities, which identifies various subsector of the smart city concept (see Figure 1).

    The three rings show, respectively, the objectives (yellow ring), the domains (blue ring) and the

    stakeholders (green ring) of smart cities, while the boxes (in purple) refer to main principles of smart

    cities creation.

    Based on a framework we propose a definition of the smart city: a smart city is a sustainable and

    efficient city with a high quality of life, aiming to address urban challenges (mobility improvement,

    optimization in the use of resources, improvement of health and safety issues, social development

    progress, economic growth support, and participatory governance) by the application of information

    and communication technology in its infrastructure and services, collaboration between key

    stakeholders (citizens, universities, government and industry), integration of its domains (environment,

    mobility, governance, community, industry and services), and investment in social capital

    (Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato, 2014).

  • DELIVERABLE 2.1 SWOT ANALYSIS REPORT OF THE REFINED CONCEPT/BASELINE

    COLLABORATIVE PROJECT; GRANT AGREEMENT NO 609019

    WORK PACKAGE: 2 VERSION: FINAL VERSION DATE: 30/05/2015

    3 SINFONIA; Smart INitiative of cities Fully cOmmitted to iNvest In Advanced large-scaled energy has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration.

    FIGURE 1 - A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO DEFINE SMART CITIES (MOSANNENAZDEH & VETTORATO, 2014)

    Smart energy city (SEC) is a sub-domain of smart city aiming to maximize sustainability, self-sufficiency

    and resilience of energy systems through an extensive integrated, participatory and innovative

    approach. Thanks to the rational use of information and communication technology, these objectives

    are reached while ensuring affordability, adequateness and competitiveness of energy services in the

    framework of a low carbon and integrated development. See Figure 2:

    FIGURE 2 - A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO DEFINE SMART ENERGY CITIES

  • DELIVERABLE 2.1 SWOT ANALYSIS REPORT OF THE REFINED CONCEPT/BASELINE

    COLLABORATIVE PROJECT; GRANT AGREEMENT NO 609019

    WORK PACKAGE: 2 VERSION: FINAL VERSION DATE: 30/05/2015

    4 SINFONIA; Smart INitiative of cities Fully cOmmitted to iNvest In Advanced large-scaled energy has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration.

    For further information, see the ANNEX (chapter 1: DEFINITION OF SMART CITY).

    2) SWOT ANALYSIS

    Second and core task of the present work consists in the elaboration of a SWOT (strengths,

    weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis, suitable for the concept proof and baseline revision

    with regard to the SINFONIA project. The SWOT analysis is divided into two parts: one named SMART

    CITIES BASELINE SWOT, focusing on the lessons learnt from the past experiences of smart city project

    implementation; and SINFONIA SWOT, focusing on specific implementation activities foreseen the

    project.

    The reason why the two SWOT analysis are led separately is the need to learn from previous

    experiences (i.e. already completed and ongoing smart city projects). Such analysis provides valuable

    information regarding the modality for the implementation of smart city activities. In particular, the

    most valuable insights are the potential difficulties (barriers: weaknesses or threats) as well as factors

    enabling the successful implementation of the smart city project.

    Overall, the SMART CITIES BASELINE SWOT provides a comprehensive list of barriers (weaknesses and

    threats) and drivers (strengths and opportunities), regarding smart city project activities already

    accomplished. It also provides the most relevant and important barriers and drivers in terms of their

    impact level. The impact level was evaluated quantitatively in cooperation with the experts already

    involved in the implementation of the smart city projects. Their input were collected through a

    questionnaire and direct interviews. The questionnaires and their outcome were used to carry out the

    present research and can be found in chapter 7 (QUESTIONNAIRE AND GLOSSARY) in the final part of

    the report. For further details, see the ANNEX (subchapter 2.1: SMART CITIES BASELINE SWOT

    METHODOLOGY).

    For the purposes of the SWOT analysis, strengths were considered as advantages in the

    implementation of a smart city project. Weaknesses are the elements hindering the implementation,

    while opportunities are factors that can be caught during the implementation of a smart city activity.

    Finally, threats are defined as external factors, which might put at risk a smart city project (Pahl and

    Richter, 2009), (M