Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center RETENTION WITHOUT DRILLS How Corpora Inform Second Language Acquisition By Daniel Wang @us.army.mil

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  • Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center RETENTION WITHOUT DRILLSHow Corpora Inform Second Language AcquisitionBy Daniel Wangdaniel.wang1@us.army.mil

  • Challenges faced by Adult L2s in SLA Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation FactorsChinese as surmountable challenge: Recent corpus research reports 53,623 words, of which there are 10,632 polysemous wordsThe need for a structured and incremental approach to introducing, acquiring and applying vocabulary in a communicative setting

  • Non-Drill Approaches To Ensure RetentionTo Address Challenges Learners Face While Acquiring, Reviewing and Applying Vocabulary, this Presentation Seeks to:Introduce Motivational Dimensions in Adult L2s SLA Process,Introduce Currently Ongoing Research Based on Respected Corpora,Discuss Practical Applications Derived From These Results,Introduce A Curriculum Design That Enables A Natural Progression Through FLO Topics, Discuss How This Combination Enhances Learners Metacognitive Skills As Well As Automaticity, andConclude by Discussing How the Above Methods Address Adult L2s Motivational Dimensions.

  • Challenge One: Intrinsic Motivation From Appraisal to MotivationScherers Five Dimensions of Appraisal:NoveltyPleasantnessGoal relevanceCoping potentialSelf and social image/ compatibility

  • A Tripartite System for Stimulus AppraisalAmygdala

    Orbitofrontal Cortex

    Body Proper

  • Challenge Two: Massive Burden of VocabularyBy extrapolating patterns and structures out of the natural language, corpora research helps ensure goal relevance by shedding light on more natural approaches to curriculum design and classroom practices.Corpora research help learners cope with the enormous bank of Chinese vocabulary by suggesting better learning strategies.

  • Comprehension Process

  • We sure cant ask learners to just go through the dictionary...

  • Meaning of a Chinese characterShould not be viewed as a pinpoint, but as a sphere of possibilities that changes with context and evolves with time.

  • Question: How Then Do We Prioritize Vocabulary for Structured Learner Retention?Solution: Corpora Research

  • Corpora Consulted in this Research ProjectZWLancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese

  • According to Latest Data from the , Each POS Occupies the Following Percent in the Chinese Language

  • POS Frequency of Occurrence and Percentage Represented Derived From ZW

  • When the following formula is usedPercentage Represented----------------------------------- = per-word payoff (i.e. Effectiveness Ratio)Frequency of Occurrence

    The Following Analyses Become Possible:

  • We find that:Pronouns Effectiveness Ratio (per-word payoff) = 6.21% / 1.66% = 3.74Nouns Effectiveness Ratio (per-word payoff) = 31.42 / 48.76 = 0.64By Comparison: A regimen that assigns priority early on to pronouns will be 6.13 times more efficient than a regimen favoring nouns

  • Research Results Show that: When Designing Curriculum, Teaching or Learning, Vocabulary Should be Prioritized by POS

  • Natural Collocation by POS (1)Derived From ZW

  • Natural Collocation by POS (2) Calculations Based On ZW

  • Research Result: Priorities for Introduction and Acquisition(Collocation Freq Intersection with Word Freq)

  • Chart2

    0.0851032086

    0.0810364659

    0.077778259

    0.0601781666

    0.047920186

    0.0477950554

    0.0457255887

    0.0435646805

    0.0247132826

    0.0239673121

    0.0234523517

    0.0233079703

    0.0222491734

    0.020073827

    0.0196839972

    0.0191690369

    0.0159348936

    0.015660569

    0.0143948254

    0.0141782533

    0.013595915

    0.0135526005

    0.012772941

    0.0125515562

    0.0125467435

    0.0105254039

    0.0104820895

    0.0102270157

    % Occurrence in Overall Language Environment

    Pairing Sequences' Frequency of Occurrence (%) in the Chinese Language

    Parts of speechQuantity in the LanguagePercentage Represented (rounded to hundredth place)

    Nouns2675453.36%

    Verbs1262325.18%

    Adjectives515810.29%

    Adverbs19373.86%

    Pronouns2990.60%

    Numerals17083.41%

    Measure Words5911.18%

    Particles2300.46%

    Conjunctions3020.60%

    Preposition2240.45%

    Interjections880.18%

    Onomatopoeia2230.45%

    Suffixes

    50137100.02%

    Source:www.dwhyyjzx.com/cgi-bin/yuliao

    ZW-1

    Parts of speechFrequency of Occurrence (rounded to hundredth place)Percentage Represented (rounded to hundredth place)

    Nouns31.42%48.76%

    Verbs24.72%32.98%

    Adjectives6.80%11.28%

    Adverbs6.73%2.69%

    Pronouns6.21%1.66%

    Numerals2.83%1.45%

    Measure Words2.70%1.15%

    Particles10.60%0.23%

    Conjunctions3.66%0.71%

    Preposition3.85%0.46%

    Interjections0.37%0.21%

    Onomatopoeia0.08%0.38%

    Suffixes0.02%0.02%

    100.00%101.99%

    Source

    By

    ZW-2 (#)

    POS-Aft \ POS-ForeNounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbsPronounsNumeralsMeasure WordsParticlesConjunctionsPrepositionInterjectionsOnomatopoeiaSuffixes

    Nouns1768316161409060732541323282512504260751351933

    Verbs16838995726089501462321488141712816139424252

    Adjectives26543311617294696811375421877035791011

    Adverbs498021252781620182015279518900170310

    Pronouns1249398313828849898084376716211310

    Numerals97119771172845801091321024145262242

    Measure Words1864801635350348435226720250131

    Particles905299314873176131241260282111792661

    Conjunctions2991117932816033419651169724400

    Preposition2178175123010025962310922655394240

    Interjections2512511485594167330500

    Onomatopoeia47211110801840090

    Suffixes155002111000000

    Total Entries207783

    Source

    By

    ZW-2 (%)

    POS-Aft \ POS-ForeNounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbsPronounsNumeralsMeasure WordsParticlesConjunctionsPrepositionInterjectionsOnomatopoeiaSuffixes

    Nouns8.51%7.78%1.97%0.29%1.57%0.64%1.36%6.02%1.25%2.47%0.01%0.00%0.00%

    Verbs8.10%4.79%1.26%4.57%2.22%0.10%0.42%2.01%1.36%0.67%0.01%0.01%0.00%

    Adjectives1.28%1.59%0.30%1.42%0.47%0.05%0.36%1.05%0.34%0.28%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Adverbs2.40%1.02%0.13%0.78%0.88%0.01%0.13%0.25%0.43%0.08%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Pronouns0.60%1.92%0.07%0.14%0.24%0.00%0.04%0.41%0.37%0.78%0.01%0.00%0.00%

    Numerals0.47%0.95%0.06%0.14%0.28%0.05%0.06%0.49%0.07%0.13%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Measure Words0.09%0.23%0.08%0.03%0.24%2.33%0.03%0.13%0.01%0.01%0.00%0.00%0.01%

    Particles4.36%4.78%2.35%0.08%0.63%0.02%0.13%0.14%0.01%0.09%0.00%0.03%0.00%

    Conjunctions1.44%0.57%0.16%0.08%0.16%0.01%0.03%0.06%0.05%0.01%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Preposition1.05%0.84%0.11%0.48%0.29%0.01%0.05%0.11%0.27%0.05%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Interjections0.12%0.12%0.07%0.00%0.03%0.00%0.01%0.04%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Onomatopoeia0.02%0.01%0.01%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Suffixes0.01%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.01%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    207783

    100.00%

    Source

    By

    My Calculations (R-Ratio)

    POS-Aft \ POS-ForeNounsVerbs (inc. Aux. V)AdjectivesAdverbsPronounsNumeralsMeasure WordsParticlesConjunctionsPrepositionInterjectionsOnomatopoeiaSuffixes

    Nouns8.51%7.78%1.97%0.29%1.57%0.64%1.36%6.02%1.25%2.47%0.01%0.00%0.00%

    Verbs (inc. Aux. V)8.10%4.79%1.26%4.57%2.22%0.10%0.42%2.01%1.36%0.67%0.01%0.01%0.00%

    Adjectives1.28%1.59%0.30%1.42%0.47%0.05%0.36%1.05%0.34%0.28%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Adverbs2.40%1.02%0.13%0.78%0.88%0.01%0.13%0.25%0.43%0.08%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Pronouns0.60%1.92%0.07%0.14%0.24%0.00%0.04%0.41%0.37%0.78%0.01%0.00%0.00%

    Numerals0.47%0.95%0.06%0.14%0.28%0.05%0.06%0.49%0.07%0.13%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Measure Words0.09%0.23%0.08%0.03%0.24%2.33%0.03%0.13%0.01%0.01%0.00%0.00%0.01%

    Particles4.36%4.78%2.35%0.08%0.63%0.02%0.13%0.14%0.01%0.09%0.00%0.03%0.00%

    Conjunctions1.44%0.57%0.16%0.08%0.16%0.01%0.03%0.06%0.05%0.01%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Preposition1.05%0.84%0.11%0.48%0.29%0.01%0.05%0.11%0.27%0.05%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Interjections0.12%0.12%0.07%0.00%0.03%0.00%0.01%0.04%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Onomatopoeia0.02%0.01%0.01%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Suffixes0.01%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.01%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%

    Excepting sequences that appear less than 1% of the time in the overall Chinese language, the following percentages are arrayed as follows:

    Sequence% Occurrence in Overall Language EnvironmentIncrease from the next most common pairing sequenceExamples (Collocated withCommon Locations of This StructureCollocation Priority Code% Representation for this priority level

    Noun-Noun8.51%0.41%Subject, Object1st (N-N, N-V, V-N, Part-N)30.41%

    Noun-Verb8.10%0.33%Subject + Verb

    Verb-Noun7.78%1.76%Verb + O

    Part-Noun6.02%1.23%Complement

    Verb-Verb4.79%0.01%; Adverbial Adjunction + Verb Predicate; Verb + Complement2nd (V-V, V-Part, Adv-V, N-Part)18.50%

    Verb-Part4.78%0.21%Complement

    Adv-Verb4.57%0.22%Adverbial Adjunct + Verb

    Noun-Part4.36%1.89%Attributive

    Prep-Noun2.47%0.07%Attributive, Complement, Adverbial Adjunct3rd (Prep-N, N-Adv, Adj-Part, Num-M, Pr-V, Part-V, Adj-N, V-Pr, V-Adj, Pr-N)20.82%

    Noun-Adv2.40%0.05%

    Adj-Part2.35%0.01%Adj + Complement

    Num-Meas2.33%0.11%

    Pr-Verb2.22%0.22%

    Part-Verb2.01%0.04%

    Adj-Noun1.97%0.05%

    Verb-Pr1.92%0.32%

    Verb-Adj1.59%0.03%

    Pr-Noun1.57%0.13%

    Noun-Conj1.44%0.02%4th (N-Conj, Adv-Adj, M-N, Conj-V, N-Adj, Adj-V, Conj-N, Part-Adj, N-Prep, V-Adv)12.48%

    Adv-Adj1.42%0.06%

    Meas-Noun1.36%0.00%

    Conj-Verb1.36%0.08%

    Noun-Adj1.28%0.02%

    Adj-Verb1.26%0.00%

    Conj-Noun1.25%0.20%

    Part-Adj1.05%0.00%

    Noun-Prep