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  • UNIVERSITATEA TRANSILVANIA DIN BRAOVFACULTATEA DE TIINA I INGINERIA MATERIALELOR

    Catedra de Ingineria Materialelor i Sudrii

    CERCETRI PRIVIND MBUNTIREA CALITII I PERFORMANELOR UNOR REPERE DIN MATERIALE

    PLASTICE AVANSATE CU APLICAII N CONSTRUCIA DE AUTOVEHICULE

    RESEARCH ON IMPROVING THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF ADVANCED PLASTIC PARTS WITH

    APPLICATIONS IN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING

    -Rezumatul tezei de doctorat--Summary of the PhD Thesis-

    Ing. DAN IULIAN FLORICEL

    Conductor tiinific:Prof. Dr. Ing. Cornel Eugen ERBAN

    Doctorand: Ing. Dan Iulian FLORICEL

    Braov2010

  • MINISTERUL EDUCAIEI CERCETRII, TINERETULUI I SPORTULUI

    UNIVERSITATEA TRANSILVANIA DIN BRAOV

    BRAOV, B-dul EROILOR, Nr. 29, 500036

    Tel. 0268413000, Fax +40-0268410525

    D-nei / lui

    COMPONENAComisiei de doctorat

    Numit prin Ordinul Rectorului Universitii Transilvania din Braov,Nr. 4157 din 23.07.2010

    PREEDINTEProf. Univ. Dr. Ing. Mircea Horia IEREANDECAN Facultatea de tiina i Ingineria MaterialelorUniversitatea Transilvania din Braov

    CONDUCTOR TIINIFICProf. Univ. Dr. Ing. Cornel Eugen ERBANUniversitatea Transilvania din Braov

    REFERENI TIINIFICIProf. Univ. Dr. Ing. Rami SABANUniversitatea Politehnic din Bucureti

    Prof. Univ. Dr. Ing. Adrian DIMAUniversitatea Tehnic Gheorghe Asachi din Iai

    Prof. Univ. Dr. Ing. Nicolae TRIFUniversitatea Transilvania din Braov

    Data, ora i locul susinerii publice a tezei de doctorat: 30 septembrie 2010, ora 1600, Colina Universitii, corp I,

    sala I I(unu) 6.

    EVENTUALELE APRECIERI I OBSERVAII ASUPRA LUCRRII V RUGM S LETRANSMITEI N TIMP UTIL PE ADRESA UNIVERSITII TRANSILVANIA DIN BRAOV

    SAU PE ADRESA DE E-MAIL:[email protected]

  • Rezumat tez Dan Iulian Floricel

    1

    CUPRINS

    Cap.1. OBIECTIVELE TEZEI... 3/5Cap.2 STADIUL ACTUAL AL UTILIZRII MATERIALELOR POLIMERICE

    AVANSATE CU VIZIBILITATE N INDUSTRIA DE AUTOVEHICULE 6/72.1 Utilizarea materialelor plastice n construcia de autovehicule... 6/72.2 Fundamentarea utilizrii materialelor plastice i compozite 8/72.3 Aplicaii ale materialelor plastice pentru repere auto 9/8

    2.3.1 Aeratoare, conducte de aspiraie 10/-2.3.2 Panouri exterioare i interioare .. 12/-2.3.3 Barele de protecie 16/-2.3.4 Sisteme optice blocuri de lumini, ferestre auto 17/-2.3.5 Sisteme de siguran : airbag, centura de siguran i sistemul

    pedalier. 20/-2.3.6 Scaune i banchete.. 21/-2.3.7 Protecie i ornamente roi.. 21/-

    2.4 Materiale plastice uzuale n construcia de repere pentru autovehicule 22/82.5 Concluzii.. 26/-

    Cap.3 TEHNOLOGII DE FORMARE TERMIC A MATERIALELOR TERMOPLASTICE. 27/10

    3.1 Formarea prin presare... 27/103.2 Formarea prin turnare.. 30/113.3 Termoformarea... 31/113.4 Formarea prin injecie 33/12

    3.4.1 Procesul de injecie.. 33/123.4.2 Factori de calitate a produselor injectate . 38/123.4.3 Instalaia de injecie.. 40/133.4.4 Parametri procesului de injecie. 45/133.4.5 Uzura matrielor de injecie.. 47/143.4.6 Defectele pieselor injectate i coreciile acestora 48/14

    3.5 Consideraii teoretice la transferul termic, n procesul de injecie.. 51/153.5.1 Transferul de cldur 52/163.5.2 Mecanismele transferului de cldur ... 52/-3.5.3 Transferul de cldur - mrimi caracteristice... 53/163.5.4 Transfer de cldur prin conductivitate. 54/-3.5.5 Ecuaia diferenial a distribuiei temperaturilor ntr-un mediu

    imobil. 55/-3.5.6 Transfer de cldura prin conductivitate n regim staionar. 58/-3.5.7 Transferul de cldura convectiv.. 60/173.5.8 Ecuaia diferenial a transferului termic convectiv. 62/-3.5.9 Dinamica fluidelor reale 67/-3.5.10 Ecuaiile de micare ale fluidelor n regim turbulent. 70/-

    3.6 Concluzii.. 71/17Cap.4 CONTRIBUII LA PROIECTAREA REPERELOR DIN MATERIALE PLASTICE...

    73/19

    4.1 Elaborarea designului pieselor din materiale plastice.. 73/19

  • Rezumat tez Dan Iulian Floricel

    2

    4.2 Condiii de proiectare ale materialelor termoplastice 75/194.3 Deformarea reperelor 85/204.4 Performane i condiii constructive 87/204.5 Proiectarea CAD a reperului realizat prin injecie cu matria

    experimental...97/22

    4.6 Concluzii.. 103/26Cap. 5 CONTRIBUII LA PROIECTAREA MATRIEI DE INJECIE. 105/25

    5.1 Realizarea prototipului virtual al matriei. 105/255.2 Realizarea modelelor 3D ale semi-matrielor. 107/265.3 Verificarea modelului numeric al matriei experimentale. 110/285.4 Analiza rezultatelor i discuii... 113/295.5 Concluzii.. 115/30

    Cap.6 EXPERIMENTRI I REZULTATE. 116/306.1 Prezentarea soluiilor experimentale de rcire pentru matriele de

    injecie ..116/30

    6.2 Analiza numeric a curgerii fluidului de rcire pentru cele doua soluii constructive experimentale 119/33

    6.3 Determinare numeric a dinamicii fluidului de rcire 122/356.4 Evaluarea eficienei transferului de cldur a sistemelor de rcire 124/376.5 Construcia matriei experimentale.. 130/406.6 Efectuarea injeciilor experimentale 135/426.7 Rezultate experimentale 138/436.8 Concluzii . 144/-

    Cap.7 CONCLUZII FINALE, CONTRIBUII PERSONALE, DEZVOLTRI VIITOARE I POSIBILITI DE VALORIFICARE A REZULTATELOR. 147/46

    Bibliografie. 151/50Anexa 1. Producia global estimat de autovehicule n perioada 2009. 157/-Anexa 2. Abrevierile celor mai uzuale materiale plastice... 159/-Anexa 3. Desen de ansamblu matri 161/-Anexa 4. Desen de execuie semi-matri fix. 162/-Anexa 5. Desen de execuie semi-matria mobil... 163/-Anexa 6. Desen de execuie capac semi-matri mobil 164/-Anexa 7. Desen de execuie reper injectat... 165/-

  • Rezumat tez Dan Iulian Floricel

    3

    CONTENTS

    Cap.1.THESIS OBJECTIVES... 3/5Cap.2 PRESENT STAGE OF KNOWLEDGE OF USE OF ADVANCED

    POLYMERIC MATERIALS IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY. 6/72.1 Using plastics in automotive constructions.... 6/72.2 Backgorund of plastics and composites use.. 8/72.3 Applications of plastic parts in cars constructions. 9/8

    2.3.1 Air intake manifolds, air ducts. 10/-2.3.2 Ineterior and exterior panels .. 12/-2.3.3 Bumpers. 16/-2.3.4 Lights systems, glazing 17/-2.3.5 Safety systems: airbag, safety belts and

    pedals... 20/-2.3.6 Seating... 21/-2.3.7 Wheels and wheel trim.... 21/-

    2.4 Common plastics in the construction for motor vehicles 22/82.5 Conclusions.. 26/-

    Cap.3 THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS THERMOFORMING PROCESSES. 27/10

    3.1 Compression molding 27/103.2 Molding... 30/113.3 Thermoforming...... 31/113.4 Injection molding. 33/12

    3.4.1 Injection process... 33/123.4.2 Injected products quality factors .... 38/123.4.3 Injection machine.. 40/133.4.4 The injection process parameters.. 45/133.4.5 Injection mold wear... 47/143.4.6 Injected parts errors and their corrections 48/14

    3.5 Theoretical background on injection process heat transfer.... 51/153.5.1 Heat transfer.. 52/163.5.2 Heat transfer mechanisms. ... 52/-3.5.3 Heat transfer characteristics... 53/163.5.4 Heat transfer by conductivity.. 54/-3.5.5 Differential equations of temperature distribution on a moveless

    environment. 55/-3.5.6 Stationary heat transfer conductivity.. 58/-3.5.7 Convective heat transfer.. 60/173.5.8 Differential convective heat transfer equation.. 62/-3.5.9 Real fluids dynamics. 67/-3.5.10 Equations of motion of fluid in the turbulent state. 70/-

    3.6Conclusions.. 71/17Cap.4 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PLASTIC PARTS DESIGN ... 73/19

    4.1 Designing with plastic parts.. 73/19

  • Rezumat tez Dan Iulian Floricel

    4

    4.2 Design requirments of thermoplastics. 75/194.3 Parts distortions.. 85/204.4 Performances and structural conditions. 87/204.5 CAD design of the injection molded part, with the experimental mold . 97/224.6 Conclusions.... 103/26

    Cap. 5 CONTRIBUTIONS TO INJECTION MOLD DESIGN. 105/255.1 Molds virtual prototyping.. 105/255.2 3D models building of the halve-moldes. 107/265.3 Verification of the numerical model of the experimental mold... 110/285.4 Analysis results and discussions... 113/295.5 Conclusions.. 115/30

    Cap.6 EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS. 116/306.1 Presentation of experimental cooling solutions for injection molds... 116/306.2 Numerical analysis of cooling fluid flow, for the second experimental

    constructive solution... 119/336.3 Numerical determination of cooling fluid dynamics.. 122/356.Evaluation of heat transfer efficiency of cooling systems 124/376.5 Experimental mold construction.. 130/406.6 Making experimental injections 135/426.7 Experimental results.. 138/436.8 Conclusions. 144/-

    Cap.7 FINAL CONCLUSIONS, ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTIONS AND FUTURES EMPOWERING OF RESULTS. 147/46

    Bibliography. 151/50Annex 1. Estimated global prodution of motor vehicles during 2009.. 157/-Annex 2. Most common abbreviations of plastics... 159/-Annex 3. Mold assembly drawing. 161/-Annex . Fixed halve-mold drawing. 162/-Annex 5. Mobile halve-mold drawing... 163/-Annex 6. Mobile halve-mold cover drawing. 164/-Annex 7. Injected part drawing...... 165/-

  • Rezumat tez Dan Iulian Floricel

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    Cap.1 OBIECTIVELE TEZEI

    Utilizarea de materiale plastice n construcia de autovehicule a cunoscut o mare dezvoltare n ultimele doua decenii, aducnd o serie larg de beneficii n optimizarea unei palete largi de componente precum i dezvoltarea de noi produse.

    n calitate de autor al acestei lucrri de doctorat, n perioada elaborrii ei amefectuat un stagiu de pregtire de doi ani n Germania, la o companie de proiectare a componentelor din mase plastice pentru industria contractoare de autovehicule rutiere. Prin participarea activ la cercetarea i dezvoltarea de componente din mase plastice, am fcut o serie de observaii, de natur practic, ce deschid posibiliti de mbuntire a calitii i performanelor, acelor componente ale autovehiculelor, realizate din mase plastice prin formare termic n matrie. Astfel, n urma unor observaii obiective