Dawn of the Empires

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Dawn of the Empires. Mesopotamia. The Akkadians- 2360-2230 B.C.E. Led by Sargon Conquered Sumerian City-States. The Babylonians Hammurabi creates Babylonian empire, C. 1770 B.C.E-1500.; most famous for? Hittites- 1400-1200 B.C.E. Indo-Europeans Brought two-wheeled chariot and iron. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Dawn of the Empires

Dawn of the EmpiresThe Akkadians- 2360-2230 B.C.E.Led by SargonConquered Sumerian City-States

Mesopotamia

The BabyloniansHammurabi creates Babylonian empire, C. 1770 B.C.E-1500.; most famous for? Hittites- 1400-1200 B.C.E.Indo-EuropeansBrought two-wheeled chariot and iron

The Assyrians-1200-650 B.C.E. warlike culture, known for ruthlessness- mass deportationHow did they create their empire?superior military organization (professional troops)Land grants were given in exchange for military service. At its largest, the military comprised a half-million troops,- TechnologyIron weapons and superior engineeringAssurbanipal- has library constructed at Nineveh- great source of historical knowledgeMesopotamia cont.

Conquered Nubia to the South (gold), later driven outHyksosNew Kingdom expands Egypt into MesopotamiaPharaohs- Akhenaten, Hatshepsut, Ramses IINubians conquer Egypt, empire declinesEgypt

History of JudaismWritten in the TaNakhIncludes the Torah the first five books of the BibleMakes up the Old Testament of the Christian BibleStill very much like the original

Important eventsAdam and Eve (temptation)Noah and the floodAbraham and IsaacMoses and the Exodus (Ten Commandments)Kings of JudeaSaul, David, and Solomon Historically accurate

Important conceptsMonotheistic Covenant (promise/agreement) with God Chosen PeoplePromised Land- called Canaan present-day Israel and PalestineConcept of a Messiah View of God Caring, but demands obedience; rewards and punishesMany miracles; God dialogues with humansJews represent an ethnic community and a religionSmall number of followers but large role in historyexperience of women in Israelite societyWomen could not initiate divorce could be punished by death for having extramarital relationsWomen could not inherit Women were expected to rear the children and work in agriculture, herding, or outside the family for wages.

DiasporaScattering of people Jews spread throughout the world, but maintained tight-knit communities

Cyrus II (558-529 B.C.E.)Satrapies (provinces)Kept some local rulers; respected conquered culturesCambyses II (529-522 B.C.E.)Tried to extend empire too farMaybe crazy

The Persians (Achaemenids)

Darius I (522-486 B.C.E.)Like Cyrus IILocal administratorsStandardized laws, money and taxesWhy were the Persians successful rulers? willing to adapt to local circumstances, to learn from those with experience, and to utilize the skills of non-Persians- continued Mesopotamian traditionsCentralized or decentralized?

Persians cont.Religion in PersiaZoroastrianismGood V. EvilYou will be rewarded or punished after deathMonotheistic Not official religion

Persian Empire under DariusThe Phoenicians

What does this map reveal about the Phoenicians?The PhoeniciansOccupied string of cities along the eastern Mediterranean coast. What was the purpose?Find valuable resources(raw materials)Resting place for merchant fleetsMaintain a trade monopoly

The PhoeniciansWhat were they famous for?Made glass from sand & purple dye from a tiny sea snail.Invented the alphabet that ours is based on (spread to Greeks and then Romans)

The Greeks (Hellenistic Culture)BeginningsMinoans (2500-1400 B.C.E.)- Island of CreteTraders, not fighters economically well-connected

Mycenaeans- Trojan WarLike Minoans, civilization based on trade

Geography? tons of cultural diffusionWhy city-states? What does geography have to do with it?Built around hillsBottom- housesMiddle- Agora (market)Top- Acropolis (i.e. The Parthenon)Greek City-States

The Olympic Games (776 BCE)Held to honor Zeus (100 oxen)Trade and wars stopped during games Only men who spoke Greek were allowed to participate -later included Greek coloniesIndividual events rather than team Women were not allowedBragging rights; political alliances

monarchy: [single ruler'] A government in which a king or queen exercises central power (chosen by birth; hereditary) aristocracy: ['best-rule'] noble land- holding families (hereditary distinction) oligarchy: ['few-rule'] small group of business elites like, merchants, farmers and artisans (wealth distinction) Theocracy- rule by a religion (not common in Greece)

Review of GovernmentsWhy Athens?Naval technologyEconomy coins; lydiansOrigins of democracyTyrants to AristocratsAthens

Only male citizens could voteAssemblies chosen by lottery (allotment) wealth?Expected to participate Dont be an idiotesDiscussion; majority ruleGenerals and financial officials were electedLarge slave population in Athens- only 1/3 of adults could voteSolon (630 B.C.E.)- council of 400Greek DemocracyTwo kingsLarge slave populationLeads to militaristic cultureStrongest army in GreeceBanned the use of coins tomaintain equality among itscitizens Sparta

Athens aid Ionian rebellionsPersians attack GreeceCity-States (Athens, Sparta et al.) ally themselvesDefeat Persian and new king (Xerxes I)- 479 B.C.E.Thermopylae Hoplites and PhalanxMarathon The Persian Wars

Golden Age under Pericles (Classical Period) 495- 429 B.C.E.Historians- Herodotus (father of history); ThucydidesPhilosophers- Socrates (date?), Plato, Aristotle Drama- Sophocles, Oedipus RexAthenian Culture

the unexamined life is not worth living.- Socrates

Socrates- put on trial

Plato- Philosopher-Kings

Aristotle- Science and govt.Second-class citizensCould not vote or hold officeCould not own propertyNot educatedSocrates, Plato, and Aristotle argued that men were superior to women (Misogyny?)Spartans gave women property rights and education, but no political rightsWomen

Between Athens (and allies) and Sparta (and allies)Athens- too much power (empire?)Sparta wins

The Peloponnesian War(ends, 404 B.C.E.)

Peloponnesian WarMacedonia, in northern Greece, conquers city-statesLeader, Phillip II diesSon, Alexander, takes overConquers most of known world; biggest empire in history to that timeSpreads Greek culture- most significant result of Al the GreatAlexander the Great

Empire of Alexander the GreatThe Hellenistic Age was a period that followed the conquests of Alexanderlasting from about 323 to 30 B.C.E. During the Hellenistic Age, Greek culture acted as the dominant influence northeastern Africa and western AsiaThe Hellenistic Age boasted new forms of science, art, and scholarship. The city of Alexandria in Egypt epitomized the Hellenistic Age through its art and architecture, its great library, and its cosmopolitan culture. Long after Greeks ceased to exert any direct political control on those areas, their culture remained a powerful influence.Explain what is meant by the Hellenistic Age