Dawn of Civilization

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Group 4 Raphael Cabigao Froilan de Jesus Kathriene Garcia Liane Montaril Marc Rivera Angelo Torres

Mesopotamia & Egypt:3100 BC

In about 3200 BC, the two earliest civilizations develop in the region where Asia joins Northeast Africa. Great rivers are a crucial part of the story. The Sumerians settle in what is now Southern Iraq, between the mouths of the Euphrates & the Tigris. Egypt develops in the long narrow strip of the Nile River.

Mesopotamia is the humid, verdant area of north-east Argentina, comprising the provinces of Misiones, Entre Ros and Corrientes. The landscape is dominated by the Paran and the Uruguay Rivers. The long parallel courses of the two rivers and the verdant areas between them drove comparisons to the region in modern-day Iraq called Mesopotamia, from which the Argentine region draws its name. The area has some of the most popular tourist attractions in Argentina, mainly the Iguaz Falls, the Iguaz National Park and the Jesuit monasteries in Misiones. The Iber Wetlands in Corrientes are an extensive area of flooded forest similar to Brazil's Pantanal.

1. Traders could easily travel to the cities & other peoplecould share their culture ( Culture Diffusion).

2. They migrated- trying to found new city states, usingtransportation, which was a really important luxury. 3. People in Mesopotamia went on rides, but they were

nothing like what we take today! Vehicles were something very important in Mesopotamia, they helped for trading which was one of the ways they used to discover new places like moving on They wanted to discover more places to sell.

hoofed mammals having slender legs and a flat coat with a narrow mane along the back of the neck. >Chariots. It is also used for travelling but it was more used at wars. Chariots are pulled by equids. > Another means of travel are boats. 3 main types of boat: 1. CLINKER-built sailboats stitched together with hair, featuring bitumen waterproofing. 2. SKIN BOATS- constructed from animal skins and reeds. 3. WOODEN-OARED SHIPS, sometimes pulled upstream by people and animals walking along the nearby banks.


Clinker boat


Skin boat

1. Policy formulation -A tourism policy is a reference point against which planning considerations should be related.

2. Tourism Planning -Refers to the methods policy makers adopt toachieve tourism development objectives.

3. Implementation of plans -Refers to how to actualize the plan, i.e. what is theaction plan.

Rivers offer two main advantages to a developing civilization. They provide water to irrigate the fields, and they offer the easiest method of transport for a society without paved roads. Rivers will play an equally important role in two other early civilizations (Indus & Northern China).

Ishtar GateThe Ishtar Gate was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon. It was constructed in about 575 BC by order of King Nebuchadnezzar II on the north side of the city.

Ishtar Gatey Dedicated to the Babylonian goddess Ishtar, the Gate

was constructed of blue glazed tiles with alternating rows of bas-relief sirrush (dragons) and aurochs. y Statues of the deities were paraded through the gate and down the Processional Way each year during New Year. y The gate was a double-gate.

Model of the main procession street (Aj-iburshapu) towards Ishtar Gate

Model of the gate, the double-structure is clearly recognisable

Aurochs and dragons from Photo of the remains from the gate in the Istanbul the 1930's of the excavation Archaeology Museums site in Babylon

One of the dragons from the gate

Lions and flowers decorated Building inscription of King the processional street Nebuchadnezzar II

The replica Ishtar Gate in Babylon in 2004

ZigguratZiggurats (Akkadian ziqqurat, D-stem of zaq ru "to build on a raised area") were massive monuments built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels.

Zigguraty Notable ziggurats include the Great Ziggurat of Ur, near

Narasiriyah, Iraq; the Ziggurat of Aqar Quf near Baghdad, Iraq; Chogha Zanbil in Kh zest n, Iran; Sialk near Kashan, Iran. y Ziggurats were built by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites, Akkadians, and Assyrians for local religions. y Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex which included other buildings. The precursors of the ziggurat were raised platforms that date from the Ubaid period during the fourth millennium BC. y Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, the ziggurat was a pyramidal structure with a flat top.

Interpretation & Significancey According to Herodotus, at the top of each ziggurat was a shrine,

although none of these shrines has survived. One practical function of the ziggurats was a high place on which the priests could escape rising water that annually inundated lowlands and occasionally flooded for hundreds of miles, as for example the 1967 flood. Another practical function of the ziggurat was for security. Since the shrine was accessible only by way of three stairways, a small number of guards could prevent non-priests from spying on the rituals at the shrine on top of the ziggurat, such as cooking of sacrificial food and burning of carcasses of sacrificial animals. Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex that included a courtyard, storage rooms, bathrooms, and living quarters, around which a city was built.

References:Terms & definition: y http://www.nileguide.com y www.google.com y www.wikipedia.com Images: y www.google.com y www.wikipedia.com