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Dante Alighieri and his greatest work Divine Comedy

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Dante Alighieri and his greatest work Divine Comedy. Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). Born in Florence Held progressively more powerful positions in Florence Banished in 1302 Worked on Commedia during banishment. Dante During Banishment. Floated all over Europe Influenced by: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Dante Alighieri and his greatest work Divine Comedy

  • Dante Alighieri and his greatest work Divine Comedy

  • Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)Born in FlorenceHeld progressively more powerful positions in FlorenceBanished in 1302Worked on Commedia during banishment

  • Dante During Banishment Floated all over EuropeInfluenced by: French poetryItalian vernacularOne of the most learnedEspecially in art of classical GreekFinished Comedy in Ravenna; died 1321

  • Divine ComedyOriginally Commedia (Comedy)Divine added in 16th CenturyNot funny by any meansTraveler begins low (Hell) and ends in Paradise.A literal journey but incredibly symbolic

  • Divine ComedyLiteral level:Journey through the lands of the deadSymbolicSpiritual pilgrimage of Christian soul from sin (Hell), purification (Purgatory), salvation (Paradise).

  • Divine Comedy3 partsInferno (Hell, guided by Virgil)PurgatorioParadiso (Heaven, guided by Beatrice)Inferno Inferno the most widely read sectionA journey through Hell Entrance least harsh Center mostConstructed as a huge funnel with nine descending circular ledgesSinners classified according to the nature of their sins.They got what they wantedThose who recognize and repudiate their sins are given a change to purify themselves in Purgatorio, the second of three segments in the poem. Dante feels Hell is a necessary, painful first step of any mans spiritual journey.

  • InfernoThe sinners in the nine rings of hell are guilty of one of three types of sin:Incontinence: losing control of natural appetites and desires (sex)Brutishness: attraction to things which repulse the healthy soul (violence)Malice / Vice: abuse of reason, a human's most god-like quality

  • InfernoPunishments:Adulterous lovers united foreverSuicides body separated from soulViolent immersed in boiling bloodGluttons wallow in own excrementDane Cook forced to hear his own jokesInnermost layerJudas, Brutus, Cassius

  • Canto XXII Violent against people and property

  • Canto XVIII Panderers and seducers

  • Canto XXVI Fraudulent advisors (Odysseus)

  • Canto XXXIII Traitors

  • Canto RegionSinPeoplePunishmentCanto 12Circle 7Violent Against neighbors & fellow men; murderers, war makersAlexander the GreatAttila the HunSubmerged in hot blood, Guarded by centaurs, who shoot any soul which attempts to riseCanto 26-27subcircle 8Fraudulent advisers Ulysses/ OdysseusConcealed in flamesCanto 34Round 3 Traitors to lords and benefactors; those who set out to destroy the rightful GodJudas, Brutus, CassiusAt the center of the Earth, completely submerged in ice. The three ultimate traitors are held in Lucifer's three mouths. Lucifer's three wings send forth freezing blasts of impotence, ignorance and hatred.

  • The CorruptSalvador DaliWatercolor 1961

  • Set-up of ComedySacred numerology3, 9, 10 100 cantos (square of perfect 10)Each division has 33 cantos9 (3x3) circles or spheres in each realmWritten in tercets (3 line stanzas)Italian rhyme scheme terze rima (third rhyme)Aba, bcb, cdc

  • HomeworkRead reading 2.20 From Dantes Divine ComedyDont skip the introTake Cornell Notes on reading see handout, but take notes in notebook.Possible quiz, definite discussion tomorrow.

    **Dante Born in 1265 in the independent, city-state of Florence Becoming one of the leading cities of Europe Florence, throughout his life, was the stage for cruel, and often bloody, politics. A struggle for power. Dante held progressively more political power in Florence. In 1302 he was unjustly accused of grafting, tried in absentia, fined a large sum, and banished for two years. He refused to pay the fine, and the banishment was permanent. The punishment would have been being burned alive; Dante never saw his beloved home again. Worked on Comedy after this banishment, floated around Europe, finally finished before his death in Ravenna in 1321. Influenced early by French Provencal poetry and Italian vernacular Also devoted to a girl, Beatrice After Beatrice death, Dante embarked on a study of philosophy and literature Became one of the most learned men in Europe, specifically in the art of any classical Greek available before the Renaissance.

    *The ComedyThe Comedy is intended to be a picture of the world we live in; the journey into the afterlife is also the struggle in theis life of every person who confronts evil, conquers it, and rises above it. He uses images Italians would be familiar Breaking a gambler's lucky streak Shipyards at Venice Fireflies on a summer evening Windmills Also uses a mix of real people, mythological, and popular figures of modern day Virgil (his guide) Odysseus Cassius, Brutus, Judas Dante comments on earthly life through the descriptions of the punishments in Hell. Symbols of the sins when they are truly understood and realized in imaginative fullness. "They got what they wanted" Adulters are united forever Suicides will be seperated from body and soul even after the last judgement Popes who desecrated their office for money are all crammed, upside down and head to foot, into a single hole Grafters continue their life of concelament and trickery. Sensual sinners are the least guilty, sexual least of all Violent are next Worst sinners those who pervert the divine plan of creation by misusing the specifically human power of reason. Set up of poemGoverned by the numbers 3, 9, 10 100 cantos (square of the perfect # 10) Each of the 3 divisions has 33 cantos 9 (3x3) circles or spheres in each of the three realms. Poem written in tercets - 3 line stanzas Italian rhyme sceme is terze rima - third ryhme Aba, bcb, cdc Dante's journey through Hell goes from Good Friday to Easter Sunday *Condemned to the very center of hell for committing the ultimate sin (treachery against God) is Satan, who has three faces, one red, one black, and one a pale yellow, each having a mouth that chews on a prominent traitor. Satan himself is represented as a giant, terrifying beast, weeping tears from his six eyes, which mix with the traitors' blood sickeningly. He is waist deep in ice, and beats his six wings as if trying to escape, but the icy wind that emanates only further ensures his imprisonment (as well as that of the others in the ring). The sinners in the mouths of Satan are Brutus and Cassius in the left and right mouths, respectively, who were involved in the assassination of Julius Caesar (an act which, to Dante, represented the destruction of a unified Italy), and Judas Iscariot (the namesake of this zone) in the central, most vicious mouth, who betrayed Jesus. Judas is being administered the most horrifying torture of the three traitors, his head in the mouth of Lucifer, and his back being forever skinned by the claws of Lucifer. (Canto XXXIV) What is seen here is a perverted trinity. Satan is impotent, ignorant, and evil while God can be attributed as the opposite: all powerful, all knowing, and good. *Outer ring, housing the violent against people and property, who are immersed in Phlegethon, a river of boiling blood, to a level commensurate with their sins. The Centaurs, commanded by Chiron, patrol the ring. The centaur Nessus guides the poets along Phlegethon and across a ford in the river. (Canto XII) *Bolgia 1: Panderers one who exploits the weaknesses of others and seducers walk in separate lines in opposite directions, whipped by demons. In the group of panderers the poets notice Venedico Caccianemico, and in the group of seducers Virgil points out Jason.(Canto XVIII) *Bolgia 8: Fraudulent advisors are encased in individual flames. Dante includes Ulysses and Diomedes together here for their role in the Trojan War. Ulysses tells the tale of his fatal final voyage, where he left his home and family to sail to the end of the Earth. He equated life as a pursuit of knowledge that humanity can attain through effort, and in his search God sank his ship outside of Mount Purgatory. This symbolizes the inability of the individual to carve out one's own salvation. Instead, one must be totally subservient to the will of God and realize the inability of one to be a God unto oneself. Guido da Montefeltro recounts how his advice to Pope Boniface VIII resulted in his damnation, despite Boniface's promise of absolution. (Cantos XXVI and XXVII) *Ninth Circle. Traitors, distinguished from the "merely" fraudulent in that their acts involve betraying one in a special relationship to the betrayer, are frozen in a lake of ice known as Cocytus. Each group of traitors is encased in ice to a different depth, ranging from *Odysseus last voyage (That Dante makes up) is to sail beyond what is believed to be the end of earth. When he falls off, he dies. This, my friends, is hubris.