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Dante Alagheri’s The Divine Comedy World Literature

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  • Slide 1
  • Dante Alagheris The Divine Comedy World Literature
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  • The Divine Comedy Comedy Not humorous/slapstick/laugh-out-loud A form of writing that begins in fear and ends happily. Main character attains a happy ending a healing vision of God and receives a divine message to deliver.
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  • The Divine Comedy The Inferno Hell The Purgatorio Purgatory The Paradisio Paradise
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  • The Divine Comedy Translations Robert Pinsky (1994) Dorothy Sayers (1949-62) Terza rima John Ciardi (1954-70) Rhymed 1 st and 3 rd lines only H.R. Huse Literal prose translation Allen Mandlebaum Poetic prose John D. Sinclair Paragraph form
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  • The Divine Comedy Parable Political realities Corruption vs. honesty Moral realities The freedom that comes from accepting just laws vs. the self-slavery of lawlessness Mystical realities The individuals self-absorption vs. his trusting surrender to the divine
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  • The Divine Comedy Dante said he wanted the poem to: Liberate people still living in the world from a state of misery and lead them to a state of happiness. Praise Beatrice and the saving graces he received through her.
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  • The Divine Comedy Dante: The subject of the work, then, in its literal sense is the state of souls after death and this is without qualification, since the whole progress of the work hinges on and about this subject. Whereas if the work is taken allegorically, the subject is this: man becoming liable to the justice which rewards and punishes, inasmuch as by the exercise of his freedom of choice he merits good or ill. letter to Can Grande
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  • On Dante: Ruskin He is the central man of all the world, as representing in perfect balance the imaginative, moral and intellectual qualities all at their highest. Carlyle Called it Dantes unfathomable love song. Emerson The textbook for teaching the young the art of writing well. Trotsky Urged Marxist companions to study their Dante.
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  • Background Guelphs Anti-imperial/democratic attitude Desired constitutional government Represented indigenous peoples Pro-pope (looked to him for support) White Wanted to minimize all outside interference Black Wanted to enhance their papal connections Ghibellines Pro-imperial Represented aristocracy Opposed papal territorial power Expelled from Florence in 1289
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  • The Divine Comedy Significance of the number Three Reflects the mysterious reality of the Godhead Each of the three parts contains 33 cantos Basic unit of verse is the terzine 33 syllables 3 lines Beatrice associated with the number 9
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  • Dante The Inferno World Literature
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  • The Inferno: Canto I Introduction to the entire Divine Comedy Dark Woods Good Friday, 1300 April 8, 1300 Catholic churchs first Holy Year Jubilee period stressing spiritual repentance and renewal. Dante is 35 years old
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  • The Inferno: Canto I Dante The poet who is also the Christian sinner Virgil The poet who is also human wisdom (the best a man can become without divine grace)
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  • The Inferno: Canto I Poet feels alienated from the world Poet feels fear (paura) First 60 lines: reflect the theme of mans estrangement from God Emphasize mans dependence on the Divine Last 76 lines: Emphasize the human power to discover his true self
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  • The Inferno: Canto I 3 beasts 3 types of sin that will cast a soul into one of the three divisions of Hell Leopard (lonza): lust (bodily pleasure) Lion (leone): violence Wolf (lupa): cupidity (desire for power/wealth)
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  • The Inferno: Canto I 3-part Journey I.105-119 Hell eternal place of despair Purgatory place where souls are in a temporary, purifying fire Paradise (Heaven) dwelling place of the everlastingly blessed
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  • The Inferno: Canto II Dante invokes the Muses (II.7) Allied with the arts as well as with religion. Questions his worthiness to go on this quest. Two others who had visited the other worlds while in the flesh. Aeneas & Paul Dante believed the Catholic church and the Roman Empire were divinely willed partners in the worlds salvation.
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  • Inferno: Canto II Three ladies Virgin (Mary) Mercy Prevenient grace (first impulse in a sinner to repent) Lucia Grace Operant grace (allows sinner to desire good and do it) Beatrice Wisdom Perficient grace (causes the penitent sinner to persist in the doing of good)
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  • Inferno: Canto III Hells Gate: Entrance to Hell Proper ABANDON ALL HOPE YE WHO ENTER HERE. Two sets of people at the entrance Morally neutral Continuously running around a plain just inside the gate. Lived without praise or blame (thus, never truly lived) Fallen angels who were neither for good or evil, only for themselves. Hated by both God and His enemies They would defile heaven They dont fit into Hells scheme (would give the wicked some element of glory) Souls just arrived who gather to wait to be ferried across a river to their proper placements in Hell.
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  • The Structure of Dantes Hell Vestibule of Hell: The Uncommitted Circle 1: Limbo Circle 2: The Lustful Circle 3: The Gluttons Circle 4: The Avaricious and the Prodigal Circle 5: The Wrathful and the Sullen Circle 6: Heretics Circle 7: The Violent Circle 8: The Fraudulent Circle 9: The Treacherous
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  • Outer Circle VESTIBULE Outer Rim of Hell GROUP I Passionless people who lived without place or blame Neither for good or evil Hateful to both God and his enemies (wont fit into either Heaven or Hell) GROUP II Newly deceased who lived without reverence to God and who died unrepentant. Punishment (Group I) Endless running around a plain just inside the gate Tormented by hornets, wasps, worms Significant people: Fallen angels Celestine V Ponitus Pilate
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  • Circle 1 LIMBO Outskirts of Hell Proper Neutral, lifeless place Souls of unbaptized infants Virtuous pagans or honorable men who lived before Christ Punishment:None Suspended (sospesi) between the states of condemnation and salvation. Significant people: Virgil, the guide Homer Aristotle Saladin Euclid
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  • Circle 2 Minos: Judge of Hell Each sinner confesses to him Uses his tail to indicate the position of Hell the sinner is to occupy Warns Dante not to go any further
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  • Circle 2 The Carnal Sinners LUSTFUL, SENSUAL Punishment: Exist in an eternal storm, blown about by the winds of a hurricane Reflects sexual sin and punishes it Significant people: Helen of Troy Achilles Cleopatra Paris Tristan Francesca and Paolo Murdered lovers
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  • Circle 3 The Carnal Sinners: The GLUTTONOUS Sensual gratification Ate and drank unrepentantly to excess Punishment: Plagued with filthy rain, sleet, snow Wallow in mud and filth Cerberus, 3-headed dog, guard and punishment Claws the sinners Howls, making the souls howl Significant people: Ciacco
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  • Circle 4 The Carnal Sinners: The AVARICIOUS (HOARDERS) The PRODIGAL (SPENDERS) Punishment: Deadlocked in a battle of opposites Push heavy stones in opposite direction why do you hold? why do you spend? Plutus (Greek god of wealth) demon-guard Significant people:
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  • Circle 5 The River STYX WRATHFUL SULLEN Punishment: Wrathful Float in Styx Snarl and rend themselves Sullen Submerged in Styx Plutus (Greek god of wealth) demon-guard Significant people: Filippo
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  • Dante and Virgil Leave the circles of outer Hell cross the Styx Ferried by Phlegyas Reach gate of inner Hell City of Dis Fallen angels hover above gates Within gates are punished sins VIOLENCE FRAUD
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  • Dante and Virgil Met by furies Messenger of grace opens gates for them Enter gates of lower Hell
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  • Circle 6 HERETICS Deniers of immortality Punishment: Flaming tombs Significant people: Cavalcanti Father of Dantes friend Epicurus Emperor Frederick II The Cardinal Farinata degli Uberti Ghibilline leader
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  • Dante and Virgil pause Virgil explains the classification of the upcoming sins 3 remaining circles to visit 7 th (Violence) Injury to ones neighbor or property murder Injury to ones self or property suicide Injury done to Gods sovereignty blasphemy Injury to Gods child, nature homosexual behavior Injury to Gods grandchild, human industry usury
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  • Circle 7 (outer round) VIOLENT Those who harmed others (MURDER) Punishment: Submerged in boiling river of blood Centaurs shoot arrows at any who come up for relief Chiron is leader Significant people: Alexander the Great Attila the Hun Ezzelino
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  • Circle 7 (middle round) VIOLENT Those who harmed self (SUICIDE) Self-destructive Punishment: Gloomy wood Damned are trees Harpies nest in trees Those self-destructive: Chased by devil dogs and torn to pieces Significant people: Pier della Vigne
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  • Circle 7 (outer round) VIOLENT Those who were guilty of BLASPHEMY Punishment: Scorching desert Flakes of flame falling Lie down Significant people: Capaneus
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  • Description of Giant Old Man of Crete Head: gold Split by fissure Endless tears flow down to frozen lake of Hell Breast & Arms: silver Torso: brass Waist down: iron Right foot: terra cotta Rests most weight upon
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  • Circle 7 (outer round) VIOLENT Those who were guilty of SODOMY Punishment: Scorching desert Flakes of flame falling Continuously running Significant people: Brunetto Latini
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  • Circle 7 (outer round) VIOLENT Those who were guilty of USURERY Lending money at any price Punishment: Scorching desert Flakes of flame falling Sit, bent over Eyes fixed on money pouches around their necks Significant people: Jacopo Rusticucci Guido Guerra Teggahiaio Aldobrandi
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  • Geryon lowers Dante and Virgil to the next circle
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  • Circle 8 (Malebolge): Pouch 1 FRAUD PANDERERS Sell people for sexual favors pimps SEDUCERS Gain sexual favors for self Punishment: Whipped by horned demons Significant people: Venedico Jason
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  • Circle 8 (Malebolge): Pouch 2 FRAUD FLATTERERS Punishment: Immersed in excrement Significant people: Thais
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  • Circle 8 (Malebolge): Pouch 3 FRAUD SIMONIACS Those who corrupt the things of God Punishment: Immersed headfirst in holes Feet are burning Significant people: Pope Nicholas III Other popes
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  • Circle 8 (Malebolge): Pouch 4 FRAUD SOOTHSAYERS MAGICIANS AUGERS Those who tried to make the mind of God subject to their will. Punishment: Heads on backwards Significant people: Manto
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  • Circle 8 (Malebolge): Pouch 5 FRAUD GRAFTERS Political corruption Punishment: Boiling pitch Deceiving demons (Malebranche) poke anyone who tries to rise with pitchforks Significant people: Senator of Lucca Ciampolo of Navarre
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  • Circle 8 (Malebolge): Pouch 6 FRAUD HYPOCRITES Punishment: Leaden cloaks Walk around narrow track Significant people: Caiaphas Annas monks
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  • Circle 8 (Malebolge): Pouch 7 FRAUD THIEVES Punishment: Fiery serpents Wrapped around souls Hands bound behind them Bite souls who then burst into flames Significant people: Vanni Fucci Agnello Buoso Puccio Francesco de Cavalcanti
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  • Circle 8 (Malebolge): Pouch 8 FRAUD EVIL ADVISERS Steal counsel of God for low purposes Punishment: Enflamed souls Significant people: Ulysses Diomedes Guido da Montefeltro
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  • Circle 8 (Malebolge): Pouch 9 FRAUD DIVIDERS Tear apart what God has meant to be united SOWERS OF DISCORD Religious discord Political discord Family Discord Punishment: Mutilated Wounds are healed after making the full circult Wounds reopened by devil with sword Significant people: Muhammad Mosca Bertran de Born
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  • Circle 8 (Malebolge): Pouch 10 FRAUD FALSIFIERS ALCHEMISTS IMPERSONATORS COUNTERFEITERS LIARS Punishment: Madness Ills of mind and body Significant people: Gainni Schicchi Capocchio Master Adam Potiphers wife Sinon
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  • Giant, Antaeus, lowers Dante and Virgil into the pit Cocytus frozen
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  • Circle 9: Caina TRAITORS To KIN Punishment: Encased in ice up to neck Heads bent down Significant people: Camicion de Pazzi Two brothers
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  • Circle 9: Antenora TRAITORS To CITY Punishment: Encased in ice up to neck Heads turned upward Significant people: Bocca Sassol Ugolino Archbishop Ruggieri
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  • Circle 9: Tolomea TRAITORS To GUESTS Punishment: Frozen in ice On backs, heads up Tears freeze in eye sockets Significant people: Friar Alberigo Branca DOria
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  • Circle 9: Judecca TRAITORS To BENEFACTORS Punishment: Completely sealed under ice Satan fixed in the middle, waist deep in ice, continuously chews up three with his mouths Significant people: Judas Brutus Cassius