Dace- Pneumonia Final Ppt

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  • PNEUMONIAPREPARED BY:Flezle Dace S. DiaoJayson B. Villarojo

  • Pneumonia is an inflammatory process in lung parenchyma usually associated with a marked increase in interstitial and alveolar fluid. Advances in antibiotic therapy have led to the perception that pneumonia is no longer a major health problem in the United States. Among all nosocomial infections, pneumonia is the second most common, but has the highest mortality.INTRODUCTION OFPNEUMONIA

  • Five main causes of pneumonia:1. Bacteria a. Streptococcus pneumonia b. Staphylococcus aureus c. Hemophilus influenza d. Klebsiela pneumonia CAUSATIVEAGENT

  • 2. Viruses 3. Mycoplasma 4. Other infectious agents, such as fungi 5. Various chemicalsCAUSATIVEAGENT

  • The incubation period ranges from one to three days INCUBATIONPERIOD

  • 1. Droplet infection- Droplets from the mouth and nose of an infected person via the nasopharynx carry the infectious disease2.Indirect contact-Contaminated objects may possibly carry the infectious diseaseMODE OFTRANSMISSION

  • Pneumonia is sometimes classified according to where and how the client is exposed to the disease:1. Community-acquired pneumonia- is a pneumonia acquired in the course of ones daily life- at work, at school or at the gym.- Streptococcus pneumonia is the most common bacterial cause.CLASSIFICATION OFPNEUMONIA

  • 2.Nosocomial pneumonia- is a pneumonia that develops while the client is in the hospital. Such pneumonia reflects the kind of nursing care given to the client.3. Aspiration pneumonia- occurs when a foreign matter is inhaled (aspirated) into the lungs, most commonly when a gastric content enters the lungs after vomiting.CLASSIFICATION OFPNEUMONIA

  • 4. Pneumonia caused by opportunistic organisms- This type of pneumonia strikes people with compromised immune system.CLASSIFICATION OFPNEUMONIA

  • 1. Bronchopneumonia (Lobular or Catarrhal pneumonia)-This is the most common type of pneumonia. -Infection usually starts from the bronchus and the bronchioles and spreads to the alveoli of the periphery.-The lobules are inflamed and consolidated.ANATOMICAL CLASSIFICATION

  • -This pneumonia is caused by pneumococcus, Klebsiela pneumonia and Hemophilus influenza.-The onset of this type of pneumonia is slow and the fever is lower.-The period of communicability remains unknownANATOMICAL CLASSIFICATION

  • 2.Lobar pneumonia (Croupous pneumonia)-This is a consodilation of the entire lobe.-As the disease progresses, the prune juice color of the sputum maybe replaced by thinner or yellowish color.ANATOMICAL CLASSIFICATION

  • 3.Primary atypical pneumonia (Virus pneumonia)-It is solidification of the lungs that comes in patches.-Cough is often delayed in appearing and greenish to whitish secretions are often raised on coughing on the 3rd and 5th day.ANATOMICAL CLASSIFICATION

  • 1. Primary pneumonia- is produced as direct result of inhalation or aspiration of pathogen or noxious substances. It includes some cases of pneumococcal pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia and pneumonia caused by tubercle bacilli.GENERAL CLASSIFICATION

  • 2. Secondary pneumonia- develops as a complication to disease. There are 3 types of secondary pneumonia:A. Primary pulmonary infection, which is usually viral, predisposed to superinfection with an unrelated organism.B. Secondary bacterial infection may follow damage from an initial noxious-chemical insult to the lungs, or following aspiration of gastric content.GENERAL CLASSIFICATION


    c.Hematogenous spread of bacterial pathogens from a distant focus may result in secondary pneumonia.


  • ChillsFeverChest painParoxysmal coughRusty sputumPain on the abdomenHerpes may appear on lipsBody malaiseLabored respirationPulse is rapid and boundingDiaphoresisConvulsion and vomiting in children


  • Diagnostic procedures1. Chest X-ray- used to detect and help evaluate the severity of lung infection2. Sputum Analysis- The color of the mucus (sputum) sample coughed up from the lungs can reveal the severity of the disease. MEDICALMANAGEMENT

  • 3. Blood/serologic exam- The following blood tests may be performed: A. White blood cell count (WBC). B. Blood cultures MEDICALMANAGEMENT

  • Modalities of treatment1. Antimicrobial therapya. Streptococcus- macrolides 7-10 daysb. Klebsiela- aminoglycosides and cephalosporin2. Supportive measures- humidified oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, absolute bed restMEDICALMANAGEMENT

  • 3. Bronchodilators- aminophylline maybe some benefit4.Expectorants5.Pain relieversMEDICALMANAGEMENT

  • AssessmentNursing assessment is critical in detecting pneumonia. A fever chills, or night sweats in a patient who also has respiratory symptoms should alert the nurse to the possibility of bacterial pneumonia.


  • PlanningThe major goals for the patient may include improved airway patency, rest to conserve energy, maintenance of proper fluid volume, maintenance of adequate nutrition, an understanding of the treatment protocol and preventive measures, and absence of complications.


  • Nursing Diagnosis1. Ineffective airway clearance2. Activity intolerance3. Sleep pattern disturbance4. Altered tissue perfusion5. Altered nutrition: Less than the body requirement




  • Evaluation


  • Novales, Dionesia. Handbook of Common Communicable and Infectious Diseases. Quezon City: C & E Publishing Inc. 2008Longworth, David. Handbook of Infectious Disease. Springhouse, Pennsylvania: Springhouse Corporation. 2001Cuevas, Frances Pricilla, et. Al., Public Health Nursing in the Philippines. Publications Committee, National League of the Philippine Government Nurses, Inc.2007.


  • Porth,C.M.(2005). Pathophysiology: Concept of Altered Health States, Lippincott Williams and WilkinsKarch, A.M.(2012). Nursing Drug Guide. Lippincott Williams and WilkinsBlack, J.M & Hawks, J.H.(2009). Medical-Surgical Nursing: Clinical Management foe Positive Outcomes. Singapore: Elsevier Pte Ltd.