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http://rse.sagepub.com Remedial and Special Education DOI: 10.1177/07419325070280030701 2007; 28; 182 Remedial and Special Education Kimberly Moudry Quilty Spectrum Disorders Teaching Paraprofessionals How to Write and Implement Social Stories for Students With Autism http://rse.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/28/3/182 The online version of this article can be found at: Published by: Hammill Institute on Disabilities and http://www.sagepublications.com can be found at: Remedial and Special Education Additional services and information for http://rse.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Email Alerts: http://rse.sagepub.com/subscriptions Subscriptions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Permissions: by georgela taranu on April 17, 2009 http://rse.sagepub.com Downloaded from

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Remedial and Special Education

DOI: 10.1177/07419325070280030701 2007; 28; 182 Remedial and Special Education

Kimberly Moudry Quilty Spectrum Disorders

Teaching Paraprofessionals How to Write and Implement Social Stories for Students With Autism

http://rse.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/28/3/182 The online version of this article can be found at:

Published by: Hammill Institute on Disabilities

and

http://www.sagepublications.com

can be found at:Remedial and Special Education Additional services and information for

http://rse.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Email Alerts:

http://rse.sagepub.com/subscriptions Subscriptions:

http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.navReprints:

http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.navPermissions:

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Volume 28, Number 3, May/June 2007, Pages 182–189

Teaching Paraprofessionals How to Writeand Implement Social Stories forStudents With Autism Spectrum DisordersK I M B E R L Y M O U D R Y Q U I L T Y

A B S T R A C T

A multiple-baseline design across subjects was used todetermine if paraprofessionals could be effectively taught to writeand implement Social StoriesTM that shared accurate social infor-mation and had a positive impact on the targeted behaviors ofstudents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Three paraprofes-sional–student pairs participated in the study. The data revealedthat paraprofessionals could be effectively taught how to writeand implement Social Stories. Furthermore, the targeted studentbehaviors decreased after the implementation of the intervention.Maintenance data showed continued use of the Social Storiesintervention and its effectiveness with the students with ASD.

SOCIAL STORIES™ ARE A WELL-PUBLICIZED SOCIAL

facilitation intervention designed for children with autismspectrum disorders (ASD; S. J. Rogers, 2000). According toGray and Garand (1993), Social Stories were developed toaddress the difficulties that children with ASD have in read-ing, understanding, and formulating appropriate responses tosocial situations through a story that describes the social cues,responses, or response options of events or skills (Gray, 1995,2000). Specifically, the goals of Social Stories are to share ac-curate social information and to promote social understand-ing. These short, individualized stories provide support in newand sometimes confusing social experiences (Gray, 1995).

Social Stories have been used successfully in many dif-ferent social contexts and environments with students with

autism and of a wide age range. Thus, the intervention hasbeen effective in (a) improving mealtime behaviors (Bledsoe,Myles, & Simpson, 2003), (b) increasing hand washing andon-task behavior (Hagiwara & Myles, 1999), (c) improvingsocial behaviors (Barry & Burlew, 2004; Delano & Snell,2006; Norris & Dattilo, 1999; Sansosti & Powell-Smith,2006; Swaggart et al., 1995; Thiemann & Goldstein, 2001),and (d) decreasing behavior challenges (Adams, Gouvousis,VanLue, & Waldron, 2004; Brownell, 2002; Kuoch & Mi-renda, 2003; Kuttler, Myles, & Carlson, 1998; Lorimer,Simpson, Myles, & Ganz, 2002; Scattone, Wilczynski, Ed-wards, & Rabian, 2002). Studies were conducted by educa-tors with training in special education, often with the directsupport of university personnel with extensive experience inASD and Social Stories. As Social Stories are designed to bean easy-to-use intervention, it is reasonable to ask whether in-dividuals other than trained special educators, such as class-room paraprofessionals, can implement this interventioneffectively with students with ASD.

Over time, the roles and responsibilities of paraprofes-sionals in educational settings have expanded and evolved.Although they are still responsible for some of the more tra-ditional clerical, preparatory, and monitoring duties, parapro-fessionals now assume a wider range of roles. As a result,they are active in the instructional process and often serve as“a child’s primary interventionist in inclusive and communitysettings” (Killoran, Templeman, Peters, & Udell, 2001, p. 68).For example, they provide one-to-one support or small-group

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instruction for students with disabilities in general educationsettings, collect data on student performance, facilitate inter-actions, adapt academic materials, provide direct interven-tion services, assist with functional assessments, and supporthome-school instruction (Causton-Theoharis & Malmgren,2005; Minondo, Meyer, & Xin, 2001; Xin, 2001). Despite theextensive use of paraprofessionals in myriad critical roles inboth general and special education environments, their effec-tiveness has gone virtually unstudied (Causton-Theoharis &Malmgren, 2005; Giangreco, Broer, & Edelman, 2001; Gian-greco, Edelman, Luiselli, & MacFarland, 1997; Young, Simp-son, Myles, & Kamps, 1997).

This study examined paraprofessionals’ use of SocialStories and their effectiveness in implementing this interven-tion. Specifically, this study sought to determine if parapro-fessionals could be effectively taught to write and implementSocial Stories that share accurate social information and, as aresult, have a positive impact on the targeted behaviors ofchildren with ASD.

METHOD

Participants

Participants were three students with ASD and three parapro-fessionals. All children were diagnosed in accordance withthe Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association,1994) or its text revision (DSM-IV-TR; American PsychiatricAssociation, 2000). Student–paraprofessional pairs were se-lected based on the following criteria:

1. each pair worked together for at least 1 hour ofthe school day;

2. each student had been diagnosed with ASD byspecially trained professionals;

3. each student demonstrated consistent andtypical daily difficulties that included but were not limited to self-stimulatory behaviors,aggression, difficulties with transitions, andsocial and communicative interactions;

4. each paraprofessional had minimal or no priortraining in writing and implementing a SocialStories intervention; and

5. each student had limited or no previousexposure to a Social Stories intervention.

Pair 1: Ben and Kate. Ben was a 6-year-old EuropeanAmerican boy who had been diagnosed with autism. He par-ticipated in a kindergarten classroom during the morningsession with assistance from a paraprofessional. In the after-noon, Ben received one-to-one paraprofessional support inthe autism resource room. His afternoon programming

focused on reinforcing academic skills such as reading, math,handwriting, and life skills. Ben also received speech–language services for approximately 1 hour per day and occu-pational therapy services once a week for 20 min. At the timeof the study, he read at the first-grade level, and his readingcomprehension skills were commensurate with his readingabilities. Ben’s speech was typically composed of one- tothree-word utterances. He often used the carrier phrase, “Iwant.” He displayed delayed echolalia. Some of his speechwas unintelligible to unfamiliar listeners.

Kate was a European American woman with 3 years’ ex-perience as a paraprofessional. She had attended college for1 year prior to becoming a paraprofessional. During her 3 years as a paraprofessional, Kate had worked with 13 stu-dents with ASD in both school and home settings. At the timeof the study, Kate had worked with Ben for 1.5 years. Prior toworking with Ben, she had received 2 weeks of training onASD by an autism resource teacher in the school district.Kate also participated in weekly inservice meetings offeredby the autism resource teacher at the elementary schoolwhere she worked. Kate had not received training in writingand implementing Social Stories; however, she was familiarwith the intervention and had written and implemented a fewSocial Stories with students with ASD.

Pair 2: Sarah and Amy. Sarah was a 10-year 9-month-old European American girl with autism. She received one-to-one educational programming implemented by para-professionals in the autism resource room during for 90% ofher day. Pictorial cues were used throughout the day to aug-ment her educational programming. Her educational pro-gramming in the autism resource room included reading (e.g.,sight words, leveled readers), spelling, handwriting, typing,and life skills. She participated with her third-grade class dur-ing gym, music, art, lunch, recess, and class parties. She re-ceived speech–language services once a week for 20 min,occupational therapy once a week for 20 min, and music ther-apy three times a week for half an hour. Sarah’s educationalplacement had been primarily in pullout services since firstgrade. At the time of the study, she read at the primer level,and her comprehension skills were commensurate with herreading level. She was able to spell 35 high-frequency wordsand understood sound–letter correspondence. Sarah’s speechwas often unintelligible, and she used immediate and delayedecholalia to communicate. She often displayed difficulty ingeneralizing knowledge from one context to another as wellas from one form of presentation to another.

Amy was a European American woman with 7 years’experience as a paraprofessional. She had obtained an associ-ate’s degree in general studies prior to becoming a parapro-fessional. For the past 7 years, Amy had worked with 25 to 30students with ASD in both school and home settings. At thetime of the study, Amy had worked with Sarah for 3 years.Her initial training in ASD included corrective feedback byan autism resource specialist as she worked with students

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with ASD. She also participated in the weekly inservicemeetings offered by the autism resource teacher at her school.Amy had not received training in writing and implementingSocial Stories. However, she was familiar with the interven-tion and had written and implemented a few Social Storieswith some students with ASD.

Pair 3: Adam and Meghan. Adam was a EuropeanAmerican boy, age 10 years 4 months, who had been diag-nosed with autism. He participated in a fourth-grade class-room for 80% of the day with paraprofessional support andreceived additional instruction in reading and adapted mathe-matics in the autism resource room. Moreover, he receivedspeech–language services twice a week for 20 min. At thetime of the study, Adam was able to decode words at thefourth-grade level, with comprehension skills at the pre-primer level. He successfully understood and retained con-crete information, such as historical events and geography,but had more difficulty understanding abstract science andhistorical concepts. Furthermore, he displayed some diffi-culty in retaining academic material and in generalizing.Adam had previous exposure to Social Stories both at homeand at school. Specifically, he had used two Social Stories—one in each environment—that had proved beneficial. At thetime of the study, Social Stories were not used as a strategyto support Adam.

Meghan was a European American woman with 3 years’paraprofessional experience. She had a bachelor’s degree inelementary education and was certified to teach kindergartenthrough eighth grade. For the past 3 years, she had workedwith 13 students with ASD in both school and home settings.At the time of the study, Meghan had worked with Adam for1 year at school. She participated along with Kate, Amy, andother paraprofessionals in weekly inservice sessions offeredby the autism resource teacher at the school. Meghan had noprior training in writing and implementing Social Stories. Al-though she had never written Social Stories prior to thisstudy, she had been involved in implementing a few SocialStories with students with ASD.

Setting

Each paraprofessional provided one-to-one support to six stu-dents with ASD on a 1-hour rotating schedule throughout theschool day. The schedule remained the same each school dayunless modified due to paraprofessional or student absences.The paraprofessionals provided support to the students inboth the general education classroom and the autism resourceroom as well as during lunch, recess, and specials (i.e., art,music, and gym).

The training sessions for the paraprofessionals wereheld in the autism resource room. Observations and data col-lection were conducted in the autism resource room for Benand Sarah. For Adam, they were conducted in his classroom,the gymnasium, and the art and music rooms.

Paraprofessional Training

At the beginning of the study, Kate, Amy, and Meghan par-ticipated in two 11⁄2 hour training sessions scheduled 1 weekapart during afternoon inservice meetings. The first trainingsession focused on social understanding and social differ-ences in ASD, including why social understanding and com-munication is difficult for people with ASD. Furthermore,Social Stories were introduced. Specifically, the three para-professionals viewed an 8-min video clip from Writing SocialStories with Carol Gray (Gray, 2000), which explained thepurpose and goals of writing Social Stories for individualswith ASD. The steps for writing Social Stories, adapted fromthe methodology used by Gray, and for collecting SocialStories information, were shared along with examples of So-cial Stories. At the end of the session, the paraprofessionalswere asked to practice writing Social Stories using specificscenarios. Finally, they were asked to observe the studentwith whom they were paired to collect information in an ef-fort to target a behavior that might be addressed by SocialStories.

During the second training session, the author providedinformation about how to implement and revise Social Sto-ries. In collaboration with each other, the paraprofessionalsthen wrote Social Stories addressing the needs of their stu-dent with ASD. Finally, they were asked to create an imple-mentation plan.

Reliability of Social Stories

A graduate student in speech–language pathology with expe-rience in writing Social Stories read each of the Social Storiesto determine if it contained the following components: (a) atitle; (b) introduction, body, and conclusion statements; (c) an-swers to applicable wh– questions; (d) positive and flexiblelanguage; and (e) a greater proportion of descriptive than di-rective statements. Moreover, the autism resource teacherread each of the Social Stories to determine that each storywas compatible with the student’s functioning level. All So-cial Stories met these criteria.

Targeted Behaviors

In addition to targeting behaviors for change, the paraprofes-sionals were asked to identify a specific period of time orevent associated with each student’s targeted behavior, as de-scribed hereafter. The first author, then the paraprofessionalsand each student’s special education teacher, conducted afunctional behavior assessment to identify the function of thetargeted behaviors.

Ben. Kate targeted the last hour and 5 min of Ben’sschool day, during which he repeatedly used the phrase “gohome” while working and taking breaks. During this time, hisverbalizations of “go home” interrupted his work. Kate used

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an electronic timer to indicate the beginning and end of Ben’sbreaks. Data on the frequency of the use of the phrase “gohome” were collected using an event recording system. Afunctional behavior assessment revealed that Ben engaged inthis behavior because he was unable to predict when and howhis day would end.

Sarah. Amy chose to write a Social Story to help Sarahunderstand how to earn breaks from her work sessions. Sarahexhibited aggression during a 1-hour period in late morningwhen she worked on educational computer programs. Ag-gression was defined as pinching, scratching, grabbing, orbiting others, or attempting to pinch, scratch, grab, or biteothers. A functional behavior assessment indicated that thesebehaviors appeared to be in response to her inability to com-municate her feelings. Data on the aforementioned behaviorswere taken using an event recording system.

Adam. Meghan targeted Adam’s difficulties duringspecial activities, which included gym, art, and music. Adamattended one special class that was offered on a rotatingschedule on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday for 45min and on Wednesday for 30 min. A functional behavioralassessment revealed that during specials, Adam often actedinappropriately when he was unsure of the expectations of theclass. Adam’s inappropriate behavior was defined as laugh-ing, falling to the floor, tickling, or other noncontextual bodymovements, such as slumping and shrugging shoulders. Dataon Adam’s inappropriate behaviors were collected using aninterval recording system.

Materials

Once written for an individual student, the Social Storieswere formatted in similar fashions. That is, each was typed,and each page included a photograph corresponding to thetopic of the social story. The pictures and sentences of thestory were mounted on black construction paper (4.5 × 6 in.),and students were given an opportunity to choose a brightlycolored piece of card stock (4.5 × 6 in.) to serve as the frontand back covers to the story. The title of the social story ap-peared in the center of the front cover. Each story was thenbound using the binding machine at the elementary school.The Appendix contains copies of Ben, Sarah, and Adam’s So-cial Stories.

Procedure

Baseline data on the targeted behaviors were collected by theparaprofessional who was paired with a given student. Datawere collected for 11 days for Ben, 13 days for Sarah, and 16days for Adam.

Each paraprofessional received guided implementationfor the first 3 days that the social story was read. During thisphase, the author provided feedback and suggestions as nec-

essary. Revisions were made to the implementation plans andto the Social Stories when deemed necessary by the parapro-fessionals. After the first paraprofessional–student pair com-pleted the guided implementation phase, the social storywritten for the second student was introduced using the for-mat aforementioned. The same scenario occurred with thethird paraprofessional–student pair and continued for 6 daysafter Meghan, the third paraprofessional, received support forimplementing Adam’s social story.

Data Collection

During the implementation phase, data were collected onboth the student and the paraprofessional. Data were col-lected on each student’s target behavior. The data collectionon the paraprofessionals consisted of observing how they fol-lowed their self-created implementation plan. Each plan wasdivided into two parts: (a) introducing the social story, and (b) reviewing the social story. A third part allowed the para-professionals to make revisions to the plan. The primary in-vestigator used a plus (+) and minus (–) system to indicatewhether the paraprofessionals addressed the components oftheir self-created implementation plans. If revisions had beenmade to the plan, the paraprofessional informed the author,and data were subsequently collected using the revised im-plementation plan.

Maintenance data were collected for the students and theparaprofessionals on 2 days, 6 and 9 weeks after the inter-vention. Maintenance data were collected using the same pro-cedures described earlier.

Interrater Reliability for Student Behaviors

Interrater reliability for each of the students was establishedby comparing the number of targeted behaviors during thespecified time period that were recorded by each paraprofes-sional and by the first author. Interrater reliability was calcu-lated using the following formula: agreements / (agreements +disagreements) × 100 (Tawney & Gast, 1984). Interrater reli-ability observations were obtained for each student on 73% ofthe data days during the baseline, intervention, and mainte-nance phases of the study. Interrater agreement was 84% forBen, 89% for Sarah, and 84% for Adam.

RESULTS

The purpose of this study was to teach paraprofessionals towrite and implement Social Stories that had social validityand resulted in a positive impact on the targeted behaviors of a student with ASD. Specifically, data were collected todetermine the effectiveness of teaching paraprofessionals towrite and implement Social Stories as well as the effect of theSocial Stories on the targeted behaviors of three students withASD.

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Paraprofessionals

Each paraprofessional created an implementation plan com-patible with the needs of her students. Data on paraprofes-sionals’ use of the implementation plan were collected todetermine their effectiveness in using the Social Stories in-tervention. Fidelity of treatment was ascertained by deter-mining the degree to which the paraprofessionals followedtheir implementation plan. The author collected fidelity-of-

treatment data during 50% of the implementation and main-tenance days. Results were as follows: Kate, 67% accuracy;Amy and Meghan, 100% accuracy.

Maintenance data on adherence to the implementationplan were collected 6 and 9 weeks after the interventionphase. Observations by the author revealed that all parapro-fessionals continued to follow their implementation plans.Kate and Amy followed the implementation plans they hadcreated for their students during the intervention phase.

FIGURE 1. Students’ responses to Social Stories interventions for targeted behaviors at baseline, inter-vention, and maintenance conditions.

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Meghan revised her plan by fading the use of Social Storiesto only once or twice a week as a result of her observationsof Adam’s decreased silly behavior during school specials.

Students

The data on the students’ targeted behaviors are reported inFigure 1. A multiple-baseline design across subjects was usedfor this portion of the study.

Ben. The behavior targeted for Ben by his paraprofes-sional, Kate, was to reduce the number of utterances of thephrase “go home” during the last hour of the school day. Ben’sbaseline condition lasted for 11 days. Changes in the typicalschool schedule during the last hour of the day, because ofschool assemblies and early dismissal days, lengthened thebaseline period. Data were not collected on the last day (Day11) of baseline due to the absence of the paraprofessional.During the baseline condition, the data revealed a mean of15.87 (range = 1– 47) “go homes” during the last hour of theday. Ben’s intervention phase lasted for 14 days. The data re-vealed a range of 1 to 32 “go homes,” with a mean of 7.54.Maintenance data were collected on two separate days, 6 and9 weeks, respectively, after the intervention phase of thestudy. On both dates, no utterance of the phrase “go home”was observed (see Figure 1).

Sarah. The total number of aggressive behaviors thatSarah exhibited during each phase of the study is depicted inthe second graph of Figure 1. The baseline condition lastedfor 13 days, lengthened by student and paraprofessional ab-sences. During this condition, data revealed a range of zero tosix targeted behaviors during the 1-hour observation period,with an average of 2.00 aggressive acts. The intervention con-dition lasted for 12 days. Here Sarah exhibited a range of zeroto four targeted behaviors, with an average of 1.10 aggressivebehaviors during the 1-hour period. Maintenance data werecollected in the manner aforementioned. No occurrences ofaggression were noted on the first day of maintenance. Oneoccurrence of maladaptive behavior was noted on the secondday.

Adam. Adam’s baseline condition lasted for 16 days,lengthened by difficulty in establishing trend and stability.The total number of silly behaviors exhibited during schoolspecials (art, gym, and music) during each phase of the studyis depicted in the third graph of Figure 1. In the baseline con-dition, the data revealed a range of zero to six silly behaviorsduring specials, with an average of 1.73 each day. Data dur-ing the 9-day intervention period revealed a range of zero totwo silly behaviors when the social story was read beforegoing to specials, with an average of 0.33 silly behaviors perday during specials. Adam’s maintenance data were also col-lected during specials. No occurrences of inappropriate or

silly behaviors were noted on the first maintenance day. Twooccurrences of silly behaviors were noted on the second day.

DISCUSSION

The purpose of this study was to answer the following tworesearch questions:

• Can paraprofessionals be effectively taught towrite and implement Social Stories?

• Do Social Stories have a positive impact onthe targeted behaviors of students with ASD?

The data revealed that paraprofessionals were effec-tively taught how to write and implement Social Stories.Moreover, the data indicated a decrease in the target behav-iors of the students after the implementation of the Social Sto-ries intervention. Maintenance data revealed the continueduse of Social Stories among the paraprofessional–studentpairs and provided further support of the effectiveness of theSocial Stories intervention with students with ASD.

Limitations

The findings of this study should be interpreted with cautiondue to the small sample size of both paraprofessionals andstudents with ASD. That is, Kate, Amy, and Meghan are notrepresentative of all paraprofessionals who work with stu-dents with ASD, just as Ben, Sarah, and Adam are not repre-sentative of all students with ASD. Although some of Gray’soriginal Social Stories guidelines were modified in this studysimilar to previous studies (Kuttler et al., 1998; Swaggart et al., 1995)—by using visual cues with one to two sentencesper page to help students with more severe impairments ben-efit from the intervention—it is still unknown if all individu-als with ASD can benefit from a Social Stories intervention.

Teaching Paraprofessionals to Write and Implement Social Stories

Consistent with the findings of Martella, Marchand-Martella,Miller,Young, and MacFarlane (1995) and Causton-Theoharisand Malmgren (2005), the present study found that parapro-fessionals were effective in changing student behaviors whenthey received appropriate instruction and support. Unlike pre-vious paraprofessional training studies (Hall, McClannahan,& Krantz, 1995; Martella et al., 1995; Storey, Smith, &Strain, 1993), the present study provided opportunities forcollaboration. For example, the paraprofessionals collabo-rated with the author, the autism resource teacher, and eachother to write the Social Stories. Such collaboration allowedfor discussions of how to identify target behaviors and de-

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scribe them, as well as how to identify expectations for eachstudent during the chosen time frame. Also, while writing theSocial Stories, Kate, Amy, and Meghan asked questions ofthe author and each other and problem-solved word choicesand the layout of each social story together.

Effects of Social Stories on Students’ Targeted Behaviors

In previous studies, Social Stories have been written for a va-riety of purposes, including the reduction of inappropriate so-cial behaviors (see Norris & Dattilo, 1999; M. F. Rogers &Myles, 2001), reducing precursors to tantrum behaviors (seeKuttler et al., 1998; Lorimer et al., 2002), and increasing on-task behavior (see Hagiwara & Myles, 1999). In each of thestudies using this intervention, Social Stories had a positiveeffect on the targeted behaviors of the students with ASD.Consistent with these findings, the present study demon-strated that a Social Stories intervention had positive effectson the targeted behaviors of Ben, Sarah, and Adam. Thisstudy, however, was the first to use paraprofessionals as thecreators and implementers of Social Stories.

Summary

This study showed that paraprofessionals who were taught todevelop, use, and evaluate Social Stories did so effectively.Furthermore, the Social Stories they created had a positive ef-fect on the students’ targeted behaviors. In brief, the resultsshowed that teaching paraprofessionals to write and imple-ment Social Stories resulted in positive behavior changes forstudents with ASD. �

KIMBERLY MOUDRY QUILTY, MA, CCC-SLP, is a speech pathologistwho currently provides services to students in the Chicago Public Schools.Address: Kimberly Moudry Quilty, 2235 W. Lawrence Ave., Unit 2, Chicago,IL 60625; e-mail: [email protected]

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APPENDIX

Ben’s Social Story: When Can I Put My Things Away?

Usually, my last teacher comes to work with me at 2:30. Most of thetime, it is Kate. I work on lots of different things with my teacher.When I finish my work, I can take a break. There are lots of funthings I can do on my break. Sometimes, my work makes me tired,and I want to be done. My teacher likes me to finish my work be-fore I put my things away. I will try to work nicely with my voiceoff until it is time to put my things away. This makes my teacherhappy. My teacher tells me when it is time to get ready to go home.Usually, we start to put my things away at 3:35. I will try to waituntil 3:35 to put my toys away. My teacher and I get stuff from class.Then it is time to go home and see mom.

Sarah’s Social Story: How I Earn Breaks

I work with lots of different teachers during the day. When my nextteacher comes to see me, we look at my schedule. My schedule haspictures of what we work on together. I get to choose what I want todo for my break. I can choose food, necklaces, toys, or gooey stuff.Sometimes, my work is hard, and I don’t want to do it. I get threechances to work nicely. When I don’t work nicely, my teacher takes

a picture away. This makes my teacher sad. If I have no more pic-tures left, then I have to wait to get a break with my next teacher. Myteachers are happy when I work nicely and get breaks. I will try towork nicely to earn breaks because my breaks are fun.

Adam’s Social Story: Going to Specials

Most days at school, I have specials. I usually go to specials withMeghan. I can go to art, music, or gym. In gym, I may learn to playa new game. In art, I may start a new project. In music, I may playa game, sing a song, or play a new instrument. It is fun to learn dif-ferent things in specials. It is a good idea to wait and listen to myspecials teacher’s directions, so I know what to do. It is a good ideato look at my specials teacher when she is giving directions. Thislets my specials teacher know I am listening. I will try to sit or standnicely when listening to directions. Sometimes I get silly. This is notokay. When I get silly, I usually have to leave specials. This makesmy teacher sad. I will try my best to ask my teacher to help me whenI don’t know what to do. I can say, “I don’t know how,” or “I needhelp.” It is a good idea to work nicely during specials. Sometimes itis hard to work on the art project or to play games in music and gym.It is okay to ask for a break. My teachers like to see me have funwith the other kids during specials. Fourth-grade specials are fun!

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