Critical Thinking Skills - uni-mainz. Introduction Glossary Acknowledgements 1 What is critical thinking? Introduction What is critical thinking? Reasoning Why develop critical ...

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Critical Thinking SkillsDeveloping Effective Analysis and ArgumentStella CottrellmacmillanContentsIntroductionGlossaryAcknowledgements1 What is critical thinking?IntroductionWhat is critical thinking?ReasoningWhy develop critical thinking skills?Underlying skills and attitudesSelf-awareness for accurate judgementPersonal strategies for critical thinkingCritical thinking in academic contextsBarriers to critical thinkingCritical thinking: knowledge, skills andattitudesPriorities: developing critical thinkingabilitiesSummaryviiixiixiv112345678101314162 How well do you think? Developyour thinking skills 17Introduction 17Assess your thinking skills 18Scoring Sheet 22Focusing attention 23Focusing attention: Identifying difference 24Focusing attention: Recognising sequence 25Categorising 27Activity: Categorising text 28Close reading 29Information about the sources 31Answers to activities in Chapter 2 323 What's their point? Identifyingarguments 37Introduction 37The author's position 38Activity: Capturing the author's position 39Argument: Persuasion through reasons 40Identifying the argument 41Activity: Identifying simple arguments 44Activity: Reasons and conclusions 45Hunting out the conclusion 46Summary of features 47Summary 48Information about the sources 48Answers to activities in Chapter 3 494 Is it an argument? Argument andnon-argument 51Introduction 51Argument and disagreement 52Activity: Argument and disagreement 53Non-arguments: Description 54Non-arguments: Explanations andsummaries 55Activity: What type of message? 56Distinguishing argument from othermaterial 58Activity: Selecting out the argument 59Summary 61Information about the sources 61Answers to activities in Chapter 4 625 How well do they say it? Clarity,consistency and structure 63Introduction 63How clear is the author's position? 64Internal consistency 65Activity: Internal consistency 66Logical consistency 67Activity: Logical consistency 68Independent reasons and joint reasons 69Activity: Independent and joint reasons 70Intermediate conclusions 71Intermediate conclusions used as reasons 72Activity: Intermediate conclusionsSummative and logical conclusionsActivity: Summative and logicalconclusionsLogical orderActivity: Logical orderSummaryInformation about the sourcesAnswers to activities in Chapter 573747576777878796 Reading between the lines:Recognising underlying assumptionsand implicit arguments 85IntroductionAssumptionsActivity: Identify the underlyingassumptionsIdentifying hidden assumptionsImplicit assumptions used as reasonsActivity: Implicit assumptions used asreasonsFalse premisesActivity: False premisesImplicit argumentsActivity: Implicit argumentsDenoted and connoted meaningsActivities: Associations and stereotypes858687888990919293949597Activity: Denoted and connoted meanings 98Summary 99Information about the sources 99Answers to activities in Chapter 6 1007 Does it add up? Identifying flawsin the argument 105Introduction 105Assuming a causal link 106Correlations and false correlations 107Activity: Identify the nature of the link 108Not meeting the necessary conditions 109Not meeting sufficient conditions 110Activity: Necessary and sufficientconditions 111False analogies 112Activity: False analogies 113Deflection, complicity and exclusion 114Other types of flawed argument 115Unwarranted leaps and 'castle of cards' 116Emotive language; Attacking the person 117More flaws 118Misrepresentation and trivialisation 119Tautology; Two wrongs don't make a right 120Summary 121Information about the sources 121Answers to activities in Chapter 7 1228 Where's the proof? Finding andevaluating sources of evidence 125Introduction 125Primary and secondary source materials 126Searching for evidence 127Literature searches 128Reputable sources 129Authenticity and validity 130Currency and reliability 131Selecting the best evidence 132Relevant and irrelevant evidence 133Activity: Relevant and irrelevant evidence 134Representative samples 135Activity: Representative samples 136Certainty and probability 137Sample sizes and statistical significance 138Over-generalisation 139Controlling for variables 140Facts and opinions 141Eye-witness testimony 142Triangulation 143Evaluating a body of evidence 144Summary 145Information about the sources 145Answers to activities in Chapter 8 1469 Critical reading and note-making:Critical selection, interpretation andnoting of source material 147Introduction 147Preparing for critical reading 148Identifying the theoretical perspective 149The relation of theory to argument 150Categorising and selecting 151Accurate interpretation when reading 152Making notes to support critical reading 153Reading and noting for a purpose 154Concise critical notes: Analysing argument 155Concise critical notes: Books 156Concise critical notes: Articles and papers 157Critical selection when note-making 158Activity: Critical selection 159Commentary on critical selection 161Note your source of information 162Summary 164Information about the sources 164Answers to activities in Chapter 9 165VI10 Critical, analytical writing:Critical thinking when writing 167Introduction 167Characteristics of critical, analyticalwriting 168Setting the scene for the reader 170Activity: Setting the scene for the reader 171Writing up the literature search 172Words used to introduce the line ofreasoning 173Words used to reinforce the line ofreasoning (2) 174Signposting alternative points of view 175Words used to signpost conclusions 177Words and phrases used to structurethe line of reasoning 178Drawing tentative conclusions 179Activity: Writing conclusions 180Summary 181Information about the sources 181Answers to activities in Chapter 10 18211 Where's the analysis? Evaluatingcritical writing 183Introduction 183Checklist for Essay 1 184Evaluate Essay 1 185Evaluation of Essay 1 187Commentary for Essay 1 188Checklist for evaluating Essay 2 190Evaluate Essay 2 191Evaluation of Essay 2 192Commentary on Essay 2 194Evaluating your writing for criticalthinking 196Summary 198Texts for activities in Chapters 8, 9and 11 199Practice activities on longer texts 207Practice 1: Features of an argument 208Answers to Practice 1: Features of anargument 212Practice 2: Finding flaws in theargument 215Answers to Practice 2: Finding flaws inthe argument 219Practice 3: Features of an argument 223Answers to Practice 3: Features of anargument 229Practice 4: Finding flaws in theargument 234Answers to Practice 4: Finding flaws inthe argument 239Appendix: Selected search enginesand databases for on-line literaturesearches 245BibliographyIndex246248VII

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