Text of Critical Thinking Skills: Reading and Communication
Critical Thinking Skills: Reading and Communication
Competency 0001 Identify a writers point of view and intended meaning
Main Idea What is the most important point the author is making about the paragraph or passage. Not always directly stated, but inferred
Questions on test that are asking for main idea The best title for this selection is The passage discusses The passage focuses mainly on The topic of this passage is This passage concerns The problem the author is discussing in this passage is The author is explaining the nature of
Recognizing ideas that support, illustrate, or elaborate the main idea What additional information the author has used to support the main idea Additional information that helps you understand the main idea
Test questions about supporting details may be phrased as: According to the passage According to the information in the passage The author states that The author states
Writers opinions When asked what is authors point of view, you are being asked what is his position on an issue. Is he for it or against it. When asked what is authors purpose for writing the passage, you are being asked if the passage informs or explains, instructs or teaches, persuade or convinces, or if it entertains or amuses the reader.
Point of View & Position These are one in the same
Competency 0002 Analyze the Relationship Among Ideas in Written Material
Writing Patterns 1. List 2. Division/classification 3. Sequence 4. Process 5. Definition 6. Definition with example 7. Comparison/contrast 8. Cause/effect 9. Spatial order
Deductive Reasoning Take a generalization and see how it applies to a specific situation. Look at the big picture and draw a conclusion
Inductive Reasoning Drawing a conclusion that is based on specific details or facts. Going from the smaller to the bigger picture
Competency 0003 Use critical reasoning skills to evaluate written material
Facts Something you can prove
Opinion Something that cannot be proved or disproved: a judgment or a belief Signal words: perhaps, greatest, better, safer, apparently, one possibility
Validity Examine the authors logic What does the author take for granted? What type of support does the author present? (facts, opinions, research) Does the support pertain directly to the argument? Is the argument objective and complete?
Competency 0004 Recognize the roles of purpose and audience in written communication
Purpose for writing Persuade Describe Teach Entertain
Tone Authors choice of words and style Sarcasm contempt or ridicule Some words that describe tone: serious, emotional, critical, supportive, grim, humble, etc
Intended Audience Who should read this? Who did the author write this for?
Competency 0005 Recognize the unity, focus, and development in writing
Writing Examples 1. Does the point of view change? (shift from 1 st to 3 rd person) 2. Does the writing improve with revision?
Subarea II Communications
Competency 0006 Recognize effective organization in writing
Paragraph Organization Topic Sentence Supporting details Cohesive and effective sequence of ideas Transitional words and phrases
Competency 0007 Recognize sentences that effectively communicate intended meaning
1. Ineffective repetition and inefficiency in sentence construction 2. Modifier placement, 3. parallel structure, 4. Use of negatives in sentence formation 5. Inappropriate word choices
Competency 0008 Recognize standard conventions of formal written English usage in the United States.
1. Verb forms 2. Pronouns 3. Adverbs 4. Adjectives 5. Comparatives 6. Superlatives 7. Plural 8. Possessive 9. Standard punctuation 10. Identify fragments and run-on sentences 11. Subject-verb agreement