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    Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP)

    Presentation at EU sf Raising Public Awareness about the Information Society

    Tallinn, Estonia

    14 March 2012

    Dr. K. P. AnanthPhone: (208) 757-0590



  • 2


    Background on Idaho National Laboratory

    What constitutes Critical Infrastructure in the U.S. and why protect it?

    Risks and Threats: Cyber threats to Electric Grid, Control Systems and Wireless Communications

    Some current approaches for protecting Critical Infrastructures

    Proposed Senate Cybersecurity Act of 2012

    How can INL and Estonia collaborate?

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    Idaho National Laboratory Today the Site Supports Three Focused National Missions

    Naval Reactors Facility

    1400 Employees 1200 EmployeesBusiness Volume $365M

    600 EmployeesBusiness Volume $124M

    4200 EmployeesBusiness Volume $1B

    Idaho National Laboratory The National Nuclear Laboratory with synergistic capabilities in National & Homeland Security


    Nuclear Energy

    National & Homeland Security

    Energy & Environment


    890 square miles, ~4800 ft elevation

    111 miles of electrical transmission and distribution lines, with isolatable grid

    6 cellular towers (Wireless Comms 3 fixed, 3 mobile)

    579 buildings

    Abundant water

    177 miles of paved roads

    14 miles of railroad lines



  • 4

    Research - Development - Demonstration Deployment (RDDD)

    At INL, We have a history supporting National Missions

    National Reactor Testing Station 1949, INEL 1974, INEEL 1994, INL 2005

    Fuel cycle development and demonstration reprocessing

    Specific Manufacturing Capability (SMC)

    Design construction testing and operation of 52 unique nuclear reactors, incl. Navys Nautilus Submarine Prototype (S1W) Reactor

    Testing Naval Large Caliber Guns

  • 5

    Todays RDDD Programs are of National Importance

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Work

    Grid Reliability and Security

    Cyber Security

    Wireless Communications

    Nuclear Nonproliferation

    Nuclear Counterproliferation

    Armor, Explosive Blast Protection

    A leader in critical infrastructure protection and homeland security

    National & Homeland Security

    Energy & Environment

    Battery Technology

    Bio-fuels and Synfuels

    Hybrid Energy Systems

    Non-traditional Hydrocarbon use

    A leader in developing energy solutions to Idaho and the Region

    Nuclear Energy

    Advanced Fuel Cycle R&D

    Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    ATR National Scientific User Facility

    Space Nuclear

    U.S. National Nuclear Energy Laboratory and an International leader

  • Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD-7) identifies 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR)

    Agriculture and Food

    Banking & Finance


    Commercial Facilities

    Critical Manufacturing


    Defense Industrial Base

    Emergency Services

    Energy (production, refining, storage,

    distribution of oil/gas/electric power

    except nuclear)


    Manmade or Natural Disasters to any of CIKR would adversely impact the national economy, national security,

    public safety and health consequences for its citizens. Furthermore, cascading impacts would affect other

    sectors in the country, worsening the situation; and taken to the next level, it could cascade to other nations.

    As an example, the Chemical Sector in the U.S. accounts for about $700B in revenue and 800,000 employment,

    and Public Health/Health Care accounts for $2 Trillion in revenue and 17M employment . This is

    industry-specific without accounting for cascading impacts to other sectors and potentially other Nations.

    The 9/11 terrorist incident in the U.S. stands as an example of the adverse impacts in Transportation

    and its cascading impacts to other sectors of the economy and other nations as well.

    Government Facilities

    Information Technology

    National Monuments

    Nuclear Reactors

    Postal & Shipping

    Public Health



    Water (Drinking Water, Wastewater


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    INLs three critical enabling technology platforms cut through all 18 Infrastructure Sectors


    Computers/Wireless Comms

    Control Systems

    Threats can range from Economic Cyber Espionage to Data/Credit Card theft, stealing funds from Automated Teller

    Machines, and Modern Warfare with Cyber attacks --- caused by individuals, terrorists, Nation states.

  • Markets and Operations


    Transmission Distribution Customer Use

    Todays Electric Grid: One-way flow of electricity

    2-way flow of electricity and information

    Electric Grid Protection

    Smart Grid = Electric Grid + Intelligence

    Integrates Renewables (e.g., wind, solar)

    Better Demand Supply Management

    Reduce Peaking

    Two-Way flow of Power & Information

    Automated Management, Operation, Control

    8Figures courtesy of EPRI

  • Threats to the Electric Grid

    Legacy SCADA system vulnerabilities

    Integration of new IT and networking technologies add security challenges

    Limited cyber security controls currently in place

    Specified for bulk power distribution and metering

    Deliberate attacks (disgruntled employees, industrial espionage, unfriendly states, terrorists, and EMP)

    Inadvertent threats (equipment failures, user errors)

    Natural phenomena (disasters, solar activity)


    Vulnerabilities might allow an attacker to penetrate a network, gain access to control software,

    or alter load conditions to destabilize the grid in unpredictable ways

  • Electric Grid R&D Test & Evaluation at INL

    INL Power Infrastructure:

    62 Mile dual fed, 138kV

    Transmission loop

    7 Substations

    3 Commercial feeds

    Ability to isolate portions of grid

    for specialized testing

    Real-time grid monitoring and

    control through centralized

    SCADA operations center

    Power Simulation using Real

    Time Digital Simulator (RTDS)

    Protection & Restoration

    Staff with both R&D and

    Utility Sector Experience


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    We operate DOE/OEs National Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed for the Energy Sector

    Capabilities: Conduct Assessments at INL and Asset

    Owner Sites

    Research and Development

    Training and outreach

    Subject matter experts

  • 12

    We support Control System Challenges in Critical Infrastructures through DHS ICS-CERT Program, a National Program

    Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team

    Provides situational awareness in the form of actionable information

    Conducts vulnerability and malware analysis

    Responds to and analyzes control systems related incidents

    Partners with federal, international and private sector to secure control systems

  • 13

    Outreach to Industry/Federal Entities Through Training is a Significant Element of the DHS, DOE Programs

    Share vulnerability and mitigation information with industry and government

    Conduct Red Team/Blue Team advanced training sessions

    Permanent Training Facility in Idaho Falls

    Classroom supports up to 42 students at a time

    Segregated areas for Red Team/

    Blue Team

    Integrated substation with chemical plant

    Trained over 4,000 incl. asset owners, vendors, and Feds since 2007

  • 14

    With increased interest in Broadband applications, several new challenges have emerged. NTIA and FCC have jurisdiction over the Spectrum.

    Wireless Communication: Global Advances Create Security-related Challenges & INL is Focused on Addressing Them Major Trends:

    Ubiquitous, global broadband communications

    Wireless centric access and vanishing wireline

    Proliferation of Wireless Devices IP protocol centric communications Open Access environment

    Limitations in Spectrum Little available spectrum in the U.S. Spectrum usage 17%

  • INLs Communications Range has unique attributes well suited to address current/ emerging National challenges (Security and Public Safety)

    Isolated Location and Spectrum Management

    NTIA approved wireless experimental station, with local

    spectrum management

    Low RF Noise background

    No Military Bases/ International Airports nearby

    Full Scale Communications Networks

    GSM & UMTS Cellular + CDMA networks

    WiMAX, Mobile & Fixed networks

    WiFi / VoIP network isolated from the Internet

    State-of-the-art Network Operations Center (NOC)

    Industry and Scientific Expertise

    Cellular, UHF, HF

    Power Grid, Cyber security, Control Systems

    In-house design, Operations, Maintenance, Engineering

    Cellular Design, Software and Hardware development


    With Industry and DOD-experienced staff, INL supports critical national missions.

  • Some Current Approaches to CIP


    Protection of Proprietary


    Privacy rights of


    Sharing of information

    while protecting it from

    bad actors

    Insider Threats