Country Environmental Analysis - Bangladesh

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    Country Environmental Analysis

    Bangladesh

    Asian Development Bank

    July 2004

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    Table of contents

    I. INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................... 1

    II. NATURAL RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENT IN BANGLADESH ECONOMY ....................................................................................................................... 2

    A. NATURAL RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENT ................................................................... 2 B. THE ECONOMY............................................................................................................. 3 C. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT AGENDA ................................................. 4

    III. NATURE AND EXTENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ...................... 6 A. POLLUTION.................................................................................................................. 6 B. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION WITH ARSENIC....................................................... 9 C. LAND DEGRADATION AND LOSS OF SOIL QUALITY....................................................... 9 D. RIVER BANK EROSION................................................................................................ 12 E. LOSS OF WETLAND .................................................................................................... 12 F. DEGRADATION OF FORESTS AND LOSS OF FOREST LANDS......................................... 13 G. LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY ............................................................................................. 14 F. CLIMATE CHANGE AND VULNERABILITY.................................................................... 15

    a. Greater vulnerability in coastal areas.................................................................. 16 b. Impact on fresh water resources........................................................................... 16 c. Implications for Agriculture and Fisheries.......................................................... 17

    G. UNPLANNED URBANIZATION ..................................................................................... 17

    IV. LEGAL, INSTITUTIONAL, AND POLICY FRAMEWORK............................ 19 A. LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK.................................................................... 19 B. POLICY FRAMEWORK ................................................................................................ 21 C. NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS........................................................................................... 26

    a. General institutional arrangement ...................................................................... 26 b. Major government institutes in environment sector ............................................ 27 c. Local government institutions ............................................................................... 30

    D. INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS.................................................... 30

    V. DONOR PROGRAM AND ACTIVITIES .............................................................. 32 A. ACTIVITIES OF DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS................................................................. 32

    a. NEMAP Implementation ....................................................................................... 32 b. Sustainable Environment Management Program (SEMP) ................................... 32 c. Bangladesh Environmental Management Project (BEMP) .................................. 33 d. Air Quality Management Project.......................................................................... 33 e. National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project (NCS IP) ..................... 34 f. Dhaka Urban Transport Project............................................................................ 35

    B. ROLE OF BANK IN ENVIRONMENT SECTOR ................................................................ 36 a. Sundarbans Biodiversity Conservation Project.................................................... 36 b. Southwest Areas Integrated Water Resources Management Project ................... 37 c. Flood Rehabilitation Project................................................................................. 37 d. Upazila Afforestation and Nursery Development Project .................................... 38

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    e. Aquaculture Development Project ........................................................................ 39

    IV. KEY CONSTRAINTS.............................................................................................. 40 A. LACK OF INTER-SECTORAL COORDINATION ............................................................... 40 B. CONFLICT IN SECTORAL POLICIES .............................................................................. 40 C. LACK OF INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITIES ........................................................................ 41 D. REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL INADEQUACIES FOR POLICY IMPLEMENTATION... 41 E. OUTDATED LAW ........................................................................................................ 42 F. NON-PUNITIVE APPROACH OF LAWS........................................................................... 43

    VI. BANKS FUTURE ROLE IN ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS IN BANGLADESH.................................................................................. 44

    A. THE BANKS STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES ........................................................................ 44 B. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES .............................. 45 C. OPTIONS OF BANKS INVOLVEMENT .......................................................................... 49

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    Abbreviations

    ADB Asian Development Bank

    AQMP Air Quality Monitoring Project

    BBS Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

    BEMP Bangladesh Environment Management Program

    BFIDC Bangladesh Forest Industries Development Corporation

    BFRI Bangladesh Forest Research Institute

    BSAP Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

    BWDB Bangladesh Water Development Board

    CBD Convention On Biological Diversity

    CCF Chief Conservator of Forests

    CHT Chittagong Hill Tracts

    CIDA Canadian International Development Agency

    CSP Country Strategy Plan

    DANIDA Danish International Development Agency

    DFID Department for International Development

    DoE Department of Environment

    ECA Ecologically Critical Areas

    ECNEC Executive Committee of National Environment Council

    ECR Environmental Conservation Rules

    EIA Environmental Impact Assessment

    FAP Flood Action Plan

    FCDI Flood Control, Drainage and Irrigation

    FD Forest Department

    FSP Forestry Sector Project

    FSRFD Fisheries Sector Review and Future Development

    FYPs Five Year Plans

    GDP Gross Domestic Product

    GMO Genetically Modified Organisms

    GoB Government of Bangladesh

    ICTPS International Convention, Treaties and Protocols

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    ICZM Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    IFDP Irrigation Fisheries Development Project

    INC Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee

    IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    IPR Intellectual Property Right

    IUCN The World Conservation Union

    IWRM Integrated Water Resource Management

    KNM Khulna News Print Mills

    LGED Local Government Engineering Department

    MDG Millennium Development Goals

    MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forests

    MPO Master Plan Organization

    NCS National Conservation Strategy

    NEC National Environment Council

    NEMAP National Environment Management Action Plan

    NEP National Environment Policy

    NGO Non Governmental Organization

    NRM Natural Resources Management

    NRMC Natural Resource Management Council

    NS-EGPRSD National Strategy for Economic Growth, Poverty Reduction

    and Social Development

    NWMP National Water Management Plan

    PA Protected Area

    PMEs Public Manufacturing Enterprise

    PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    RF Reserved Forest

    SBCP Sundarban Biodiversity Conservation Project

    SEMP Sustainable Environment Management Program

    SRF Sundarban Reserved Forests

    UNDP United Nations Development Program

    UNEP United Nations Environmental Program

    USAID United Sates Agency for International Development

    USF Uncalssed State Forest

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    WARPO Water Resources Planning Organization

    WHO World Health Organization

    WTO World Trade Organization

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    I. INTRODUCTION

    1. This report of Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) aims to assess ADBs future

    role and operational strategy in the environment sector and will also provide input to the Country Strategy and Action Plan (CSP). This CEA for 2005-2009 outlines the environmental issues that are most significant to the Bangladeshs economy. It will also provide background information on the environmental constraints, needs and opportunities in Bangladesh. Over the given period of this strategy document, ADB will be working with the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) for the improvement of the environment sector, wherein this report may be a basis for actions and/or interventions.

    2. This work focuses on the aspects of understanding the important features of the

    Bangladesh environment that need to be essentially understood. The purpose of the report is to present the findings of a review done on the environment sector. The review considered the ongoing and past interventions, legal and policy regimes and finall