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    1 / WCS U.S. AR MY MILITARY Hl!3TORY tl$jTlWTE CIC

    CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5008

    Wwk!OUNTER INTELLIGENCE CORPS HISTORY AND MISSION

    IN. WORLD WAR II

    COUNTER INTELLIGENCE SCHOOL

    FORT HOLABIRD

    BALTIMORE 19, MARYLAND

    CORPS

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  • Special Text

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    BISTGRY AND NISSION \

    IFJ woB[D WAR II

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    - CIC School

    Counter Intelligence Corps Center

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    LlU, a.* , ARMY WAR COLLEGE

    ~Ai%WyE [email protected], PA,

  • THE CORPS OF INTELLIGENCE POLICE

    CHAPTER 1. FROM 1917 TO WORLD WAR II Paragraph

    Purpose and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Corps of Intelligence

    1 Police . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

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    CHAPTER 2. ORGANIZATION FOR WAR

    The Corps of Intelligence Police is Geared for Action The Counter Intelligence Corps

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    Personnel Procurement ..............................

    The Problem of Rank ....................................... 5

    ......................................... 6

    CBAPIER 3. TBE COUNlER ITVIELLIGENCE CORPS IN THE ZONE OF TIE INTERIOR, 1941-1943

    The Military Intelligence Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..*.......... 7

    PART TWO

    OPERATIONS OF TIE COWTER INTELLIGENCE CORPS IN THE PRINCIPAL TBEATERS

    CHAPTER 4. OPERATIONS IN NORTH AFRICA

    The klission The Landing

    . . . . ..*.........................................* 8

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..*...........****............. Organization for Operation with Combat Troops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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    Operations in Liberated Areas 10

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liaison with United States Intelligence Organizations....... Liaison with Allied Intelligence Organizations.............. 13 Lessons Learned Through Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..*...... 14 Counterintelligence During the Tactical Planning Phases..... 15 Counterintelligence During Mounting Phase of Tactical

    Operations Conclusions

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    CBAPIER 5. OPERATIONS M SICILY

    Pre-Invasion Program . . . . . ..*................................ Staging Area Preparations and Duties Operation with Combat Troops

    . . . . . . . . . ..a............ . . ..*...........................

    Operation in the Static Situation 20

    Occupational Phase Begins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..*........

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...*

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    Paragraph We

    Captured Documents .......................................... 23 Lessons Learned Through Field Experience .................... 24

    _~ CHAPTER 6. OPERATIONS IN ITALY

    Pre-Invasion Planning ....................................... 25 Counter Intelligence Corps During the Invasion .............. 26 - From the Volturno River to Rome .......... ..? ................ 27 Administrative Procedures During the Italian Campaign ....... 28 From Rome to the Arno River ................................. 29

    - The German Espionage Roblem ................................ 30 The Final Breakthrough ...................................... 31 Lessons Learned on the Basis of Field Fhqerience ............ 32

    - CBAPTER 7. OPERATICNS IN THE IJNYlED KlNGDOM

    Organization ................................................ 33 .- Liaison with British Intelligence ........................... 34

    .CHAPTER 8. OPERATIm IN FRANCE AND TIE LWLANDS -

    Pre-Invasion Planning ....................................... 35 Operations with Combat Troops ............................... 36 Operations in Normandy ...................................... 37 - Operations in Northeastern France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and

    Holland .................................................. 38 Operations in Southern France ............................... 39

    - CHAPTER 9. OPERATIONS IN GERMANY

    Operations During the Advance ............................... 40 Operations in the Static Situation .......................... Conclusions ................................................. 2

    CHAPTER 10. OPERATIONS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN AREAS

    North Atlantic Operations ................................... 43

    CHAPTER 11. OPERATIONS IN THE CARIBBEAN AREAS

    Background .................................................. 44 Operations in the Canal Zone ................................ 45 Operations in the Department of the Antilles ................ 46

    ~~- CBAPTER 12. OPERATICNS IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC THEATER

    Organization and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 -

    CBAPTER 13. OPERATIONS M THE MIDDLE EAST

    . CHitions Existing in the Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 -

    25 26

    28 28 29 31 32

    ii 34

    36 36

    38 39 41

    42 44

    46 47 48

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    53 53 54

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    Organization and Administration ............................. Activities in an Area of Multiple Jurisdictions ............. Lessons Learned ............................................. 51

    CBAPIER 14. OPERATIONS IN TBE CHINA-BBRMA-II0I.A TBEAlER

    Activities in India and Bum Activities in China

    . . . . . . . . . . ..*.................. 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..*..........*........

    Southeast China Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    CHARER 15. OPERATIONS IN ALASKA

    Introduction Organization

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    ................................................ Operation and Investigative Procedure ....................... 57

    CHAPTER 16. OPERATI(lNS lN THE HAWAIIAN l!XANBS

    Introduction Organization

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

    .a............................................., 59 Counter Intelligence Corps Controls in Insular Areas.. . . . . . . 60

    CHAPTER 17. OPERATIONS IN THE S OUIHWEST PAC IFIC

    Early Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reorganization of the Counter Intelligence Corps . . . . . . . . . . . . Counter Intelligence Corps in Combat in the Admiralty Islands63 Counter Intelligence Corps in the New Guinea Operations..... 64 Operations in the Solomon Islands Operations in New Hebrides

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..e.

    Operations in the Fiji Islands 66

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lessons Learned from These Island Activities .e.............. bo

    CHAPTER 18. OPERATIONS IN THE PBlLIPPINE ISLANDS

    Pre-Invasion Planning The Landing Phase

    . . . ..e...c........................eo.... 69

    Lessons Learned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..o......e... 70

    . . ..e.....................*..............*... Operations in Luzon The Entry into Manila

    . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . ..*..........................

    The Final Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

    . . . . . . . . . . . ..o.............................*. 74

    CHAPTER 19. CONCLUSION

    77 77

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    81 81 -

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . ..~....................................... 75 82

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    74 74 -- 74

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  • Part One

    TBE COBPS OF IWIELLIGENCE POLICE

    CHAPTER 1

    FROM 1917 to 1IoBlD WAB II

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    1. PDEPCSE AND SCOPE. The material in this manual is designed to furnish information on the historical development of the Counter Intelli- gence Corps. It covers the period from 1917 to 1945, with special emphasis on the war years. An attempt has been made, from the documents available, to describe the history and mission of the Counter Intelli- gence Corps in the various theaters of operations.

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    2. Tf?E COB&% OF IMTEUIGEWCE POLICE. During World War I the In- telligence Section, American Expeditionary Force, recoaaaended and the War College Division sanctioned the establishment of the Corps of In- telligence Police. Authority for such action was contained in the provi- sions of Section II of an Act of Congress (approved 18 May 19171 giving the President the power to increase the Army to meet the national emer- gency. . This Corps of fifty men in the rank of sergeant of infantry was to report for counterespionage duty under the Commanding General, Ameri- can Expeditionary Force. On 13 August 1917, the Corps of Intelligence Police was officially established by War Department General Orders.

    a. A French-speaking officer with experience in police work was given the mission of recruiting the men. He traveled to New Orleans and New York City where he advertised in the local newspapers for men who could speak French to do intelligence work in France. Ae accepted all candidates who could pass the Army physical examination and answer a few simple questions in French.

    b. On 25 November 1917, the Corps of In

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