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  • TM

    Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York Basel

    Handbook of Cosmetic Science

    and Technology

    edited by

    Andr O. BarelFree University of BrusselsBrussels, Belgium

    Marc PayeColgate-Palmolive Research and Development, Inc.Milmort, Belgium

    Howard I. MaibachUniversity of California at San Francisco School of MedicineSan Francisco, California

    Copyright 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • ISBN: 0-8247-0292-1

    This book is printed on acid-free paper.

    HeadquartersMarcel Dekker, Inc.270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540

    Eastern Hemisphere DistributionMarcel Dekker AGHutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerlandtel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896

    World Wide Webhttp:/ /www.dekker.com

    The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For more information,write to Special Sales/Professional Marketing at the headquarters address above.

    Copyright 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

    Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any informa-tion storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

    Current printing (last digit):10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

  • Preface

    Cosmetic composition and formulation are becoming increasingly complex, and cosmeticingredients more sophisticated and functional, while laws and regulations impose moreconstraints on the cosmetic scientist and manufacturer. The Handbook of Cosmetic Scienceand Technology reviews in a single volume the multiple facets of the cosmetic field andprovides the reader with an easy-to-access information source.

    This handbook covers topics as varied as the physiology of the potential targetsof cosmetics, safety, legal and regulatory considerations throughout the world, cosmeticingredients, vehicles and finished products, and new delivery systems, as well as microbi-ology and safety and efficacy testing.

    To achieve our goal, we, the editors, requested the contributions of expert scientistsfrom academic dermatology and dermato-cosmetics, the cosmetics industry, ingredientsand raw materials producers, and regulatory agencies. Because cosmetology is universal,while having some regional specificity, those authors were selected on a broad geographi-cal basis, with some coming from the United States, Europe, Japan, and Australia. Theyshare in their chapters not only their experience and knowledge but also new informationand their expert views regarding the future. We thank the authors for their high dedication,which permitted us to make this handbook a review of the state of the art in cosmetologyin the new millennium. The staff of Marcel Dekker, Inc., played a great role in the produc-tion of the handbook, ensuring on a day-to-day basis the contact between the editors andthe authors. Our thanks especially go to Sandra Beberman, Jane Roh, and Moraima Suarezfor their constant and excellent help.

    Finally, we encourage our readership to send us their comments and suggestions onwhat should be modified or considered in future editions.

    Andre O. BarelMarc Paye

    Howard I. Maibach

    iii

  • Contents

    Preface iiiContributors xi

    Part 1 INTRODUCTION

    1. Introduction 1Andre O. Barel, Marc Paye, and Howard I. Maibach

    2. Definition of Cosmetics 5Stanley R. Milstein, John E. Bailey, and Allen R. Halper

    Part 2 TARGET ORGANS FOR COSMETIC PRODUCTS

    3. The Microscopic Structure of the Epidermis and Its Derivatives 19Joel J. Elias

    4. The Normal Nail 29Josette Andre

    5. Hair 35Ghassan Shaker and Dominique Van Neste

    Part 3 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

    6. Safety Terminology 47Ai-Lean Chew and Howard I. Maibach

    7. Principles and Practice of Percutaneous Absorption 53Ronald C. Wester and Howard I. Maibach

    8. Principles and Mechanisms of Skin Irritation 67Sibylle Schliemann-Willers and Peter Elsner

    9. Allergy and Hypoallergenic Products 77An E. Goossens

    v

  • vi Contents

    10. Dermatological Problems Linked to Perfumes 89Anton C. de Groot

    11. In Vitro Tests for Skin Irritation 95Michael K. Robinson, Rosemarie Osborne, and Mary A. Perkins

    12. In Vivo Irritation 107Saqib J. Bashir and Howard I. Maibach

    13. Eye Irritation Testing 119Leon H. Bruner, Rodger D. Curren, John W. Harbell, RosemarieOsborne, and James K. Maurer

    Part 4 VEHICLES OF COSMETIC PRODUCTS

    14. Main Cosmetic Vehicles 145Stephan Buchmann

    15. Encapsulation to Deliver Topical Actives 171Jocelia Jansen and Howard I. Maibach

    16. Encapsulation Using Porous Microspheres 191Jorge Heller, Subhash J. Saxena, and John Barr

    17. Liposomes 201Hans Lautenschlager

    18. Topical Delivery by Iontophoresis 211Veronique Preat and Rita Vanbever

    19. Mousses 221Albert Zorko Abram and Roderick Peter John Tomlinson

    20. Cosmetic Patches 233Spiros A. Fotinos

    Part 5 COSMETIC INGREDIENTS

    21. Antibacterial Agents and Preservatives 245Francoise Siquet and Michel J. Devleeschouwer

    22. General Concepts of Skin Irritancy and Anti-irritant Products 253Andre O. Barel

    23. Anti-irritants for Surfactant-Based Products 271Marc Paye

    24. The Case of Alpha-Bisabolol 277Klaus Stanzl and Jurgen Vollhardt

    25. Anti-irritants for Sensory Irritation 285Gary S. Hahn

    26. Antioxidants 299Stefan Udo Weber, John K. Lodge, Claude Saliou, and Lester Packer

  • Contents vii

    27. Alpha Hydroxy Acids 311Enzo Berardesca

    28. Colorants 317Gisbert Otterstatter

    29. Hair Conditioners 331Charles Reich and Dean T. Su

    30. Hydrating Substances 347Marie Loden

    31. Ceramides and Lipids 361Bozena B. Michniak and Philip W. Wertz

    32. Natural Extracts 369Jurgen Vollhardt

    33. Rheological Additives and Stabilizers 377Ekong A. Ekong, Mohand Melbouci, Kate Lusvardi, andPaquita E. Erazo-Majewicz

    34. Silicones: A Key Ingredient in Cosmetic and Toiletry Formulations 389Janet M. Blakely

    35. Skin-Feel Agents 399Germaine Zocchi

    36. Surfactants 417Takamitsu Tamura and Mitsuteru Masuda

    37. Classification of Surfactants 431Louis Oldenhove de Guertechin

    38. UV Filters 451Stanley B. Levy

    39. Vitamins 463Alois Kretz and Ulrich Moser

    40. Ellagic Acid: A New Skin-Whitening Active Ingredient 473Yoshimasa Tanaka

    Part 6 COSMETIC PRODUCTS

    Skincare Products

    41. Cosmetics and Interactions with Superficial Epidermis 479Jrgen Serup

    42. Skin Cleansing Bars 485Joshua B. Ghaim and Elizabeth D. Volz

    43. Skin Cleansing Liquids 499Daisuke Kaneko and Kazutami Sakamoto

  • viii Contents

    44. Emulsion-Based Skincare Products: Formulating and Measuring TheirMoisturizing Benefits 511Howard Epstein and F. Anthony Simion

    45. Anticellulite Products and Treatments 531Andre O. Barel

    46. Antiwrinkle Products 543William J. Cunningham

    47. Artificial Tanning Products 551Stanley B. Levy

    48. Barrier Creams 557Cees Korstanje

    49. Skin-Whitening Products 567Hongbo Zhai and Howard I. Maibach

    Haircare Products

    50. Interactions with Hair and Scalp 575Dominique Van Neste and Ghassan Shaker

    51. Hair Cosmetics 581Leszek J. Wolfram

    52. Ethnic Differences in Haircare Products 605Joerg Kahre

    Other Cosmetic Products

    53. Oral-Care Products 619Abdul Gaffar

    54. Decorative Products 645Mitchell L. Schlossman

    55. Cosmetics for Nails 685Douglas Schoon and Robert Baran

    56. Antiperspirants 689Jorg Schreiber

    57. Deodorants 703Jorg Schreiber

    58. Baby Care 715Uwe Schonrock

    59. Cosmetics for the Elderly 723Uwe Schonrock

  • Contents ix

    Part 7 LEGISLATION AND REGULATIONS WORLDWIDE

    60. EEC Cosmetic Directive and Legislation in Europe 729Rene Van Essche

    61. Regulatory Requirements for the Marketing of Cosmetics in the UnitedStates 737Stanley R. Milstein, John E. Bailey, and Allen R. Halper

    62. Legislation in Japan 761Mitsuteru Masuda

    Part 8 TESTING COSMETIC PRODUCTS

    63. Stability Testing of Cosmetic Products 769Perry Romanowski and Randy Schueller

    64. Stability Control: Microbiological Tests 781Michel J. Devleeschouwer and Francoise Siquet

    Part 9 COSMETIC CLAIMS

    65. Introduction to the Proof of Claims 797Marc Paye and A. O. Barel

    66. Tests for Sensitive Skin 807Alessandra Pelosi, Sabrina Lazzerini, Enzo Berardesca, andHoward I. Maibach

    67. Tests for Skin Hydration 815Bernard Gabard

    68. Tests for Skin Protection: Barrier Effect 823Hongbo Zhai and Howard I. Maibach

    69. Objective Methods for Assessment of Human Facial Wrinkles 829Gary Grove and Mary Jo Grove

    70. Acnegenicity and Comedogenicity Testing for Cosmetics 837F. Anthony Simion

    71. Sensory Testing 845Linda P. Oddo and Kathy Shannon

    Index 859

  • Contributors

    Albert Zorko Abram, B.Sc. Soltec Research Pty Ltd., Rowville, Victoria, Australia

    Josette Andre, M.D. Faculty of Medicine, Free University of Brussels, and Departmentof Dermatology, Hopital Saint-Pierre, Brussels, Belgium

    John E. Bailey, Ph.D. Office of Cosmetics and Colors, Center for Food Safety andApplied Nutrition (CFSAN), U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C.

    Robert Baran, M.D. Nail Disease Center, Cannes, France

    Andre O. Barel, Ph.D. Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Free Univer-sity of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium

    John Barr, Ph.D. Pharmaceutical Sciences, Advanced Polymer Systems, RedwoodCity, California

    Saqib J. Bashir, B.Sc.(Hons), M.B., Ch.B. Department of