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682526 EN 06/04 COSIMIR ® PLC Manual

COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

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Page 1: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

682526 EN

06/04

COSIMIR® PLC

Manual

Page 2: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

Order No.: 682526

Description: MANUAL

Designation: D:HB-COSI-PLC-EDU-EN

Edition: 06/2004

Authors: Christine Löffler

Graphics: Doris Schwarzenberger

Layout: 09.06.2004, Beatrice Huber

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, 73770 Denkendorf, Germany, 2004

Internet: www.festo.com/didactic

E-Mail: [email protected]

The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the

communication of its contents to others without express authorization

is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages.

All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utility

model or ornamental design registration.

Page 3: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 3

1. What will you learn from the manual?___________________ 7

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC _________________ 10

2.1 System requirements ________________________________ 10

2.2 Installation of COSIMIR® PLC

via on-line activation ________________________________ 12

2.3 Network installation of COSIMIR® PLC __________________ 26

2.4 Installation of the communication program EzOPC ________ 28

3. These functions support you in the preparation

of PC workstations for students _______________________ 29

3.1 Description of files for a process model _________________ 29

3.2 Creating a user-specific working environment ____________ 30

3.3 Creating files with fault settings

for a process model _________________________________ 33

4. The COSIMIR® PLC system ___________________________ 37

4.1 Overview of COSIMIR® PLC ___________________________ 37

4.2 The process models of COSIMIR® PLC __________________ 39

4.3 Controlling the process models via internal PLC __________ 44

4.4 Controlling the process models via external PLC __________ 45

4.5 Functions for fault setting

in the process model ________________________________ 47

4.6 Functions for the analysis of process models_____________ 48

Contents

Page 4: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

Contents

4 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

5. Important control functions of COSIMIR® PLC ___________ 50

5.1 Loading the process model ___________________________ 50

5.2 Simulating the process model ________________________ 59

5.3 Displaying and operating a process model ______________ 62

5.4 Changing the view of the process model ________________ 65

5.5 The Inputs and Outputs windows ______________________ 69

5.6 The Manual Operation window ________________________ 70

5.7 Controlling a process model via the internal S7 PLC _______ 84

5.8 Controlling a process model via the external

Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM _________________________________ 94

5.9 Controlling a process model via an external PLC _________ 108

5.10 Setting faults in the process model____________________ 121

5.11 Eliminating faults in the process model ________________ 129

5.12 Logging of fault elimination __________________________ 134

6. The following training contents can be taught with

COSIMIR® PLC ____________________________________ 136

6.1 Training contents __________________________________ 136

6.2 Target group ______________________________________ 137

6.3 Previous knowledge ________________________________ 138

6.4 Example: Assigning of training aims to training syllabi ____ 138

6.5 The training concept of COSIMIR® PLC _________________ 143

7. This is how you establish the mode of operation and

structure of a system in COSIMIR® PLC _______________ 145

7.1 Training aims _____________________________________ 145

7.2 Methods _________________________________________ 146

7.3 Support via COSIMIR® PLC __________________________ 150

7.4 Example _________________________________________ 150

7.5 Example _________________________________________ 156

7.6 Example _________________________________________ 161

Page 5: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

Contents

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 5

8. This is how you establish the mode of operation of the

components forming part of a system in COSIMIR® PLC __ 166

8.1 Training aims _____________________________________ 166

8.2 Methods _________________________________________ 167

8.3 Support via COSIMIR® PLC __________________________ 167

8.4 Example _________________________________________ 168

9. This is how you use COSIMIR® PLC in PLC programming _ 175

9.1 Training aims _____________________________________ 175

9.2 Methods _________________________________________ 176

9.3 Support via COSIMIR® PLC __________________________ 178

9.4 Example _________________________________________ 178

9.5 Example _________________________________________ 185

10. This is how you carry out systematic fault finding

on a simulated system _____________________________ 193

10.1 Training aims _____________________________________ 193

10.2 Methods _________________________________________ 194

10.3 This is how COSIMIR® PLC supports you________________ 201

10.4 Example _________________________________________ 201

Page 6: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

6 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

Page 7: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 7

COSIMIR® PLC is a PC-based graphic 3D simulation system consisting of

preassembled process models. These process models represent

automated systems of varying complexity.

COSIMIR® PLC is a tool, which enables you

• to familiarise yourself with the mode of operation and structure of a

system,

• to practise PLC programming and testing of the PLC programs und

• to carry out systematic fault finding on systems.

These process models, also called work cells, are also available in the

form of actual systems.

This manual is intended for

• Instructors

The manual provides ideas and suggestions on how COSIMIR® PLC

can be used for tuition in vocational and further training.

• Teachers

The information and instructions on how to operate COSMIR PLC are

of particular interest to the above.

The manual is subdivided into the following subject areas:

• Chapter 2 contains information and notes regarding the installation

of COSIMIR® PLC .

• Chapter 3 contains information on how to set up COSIMIR® PLC on

students’ PC workstations.

• Chapters 4 and 5 describe the system and the main user functions of

COSIMIR® PLC .

• Chapter 6 deals with didactic aspects and lists the training contents

taught with COSIMIR® PLC . It also describes the training concept

and the resulting possibilites for use in tuition.

1. What will you learn from the manual?

What is COSIMIR® PLC ?

Target group

Composition of the manual

Page 8: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

1. What will you learn from the manual?

8 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

• Chapters 7 to 10 describe actual problem definitions regarding the

training contents, the methodical approach to solutions and their

realisation in COSIMIR® PLC . The exercises are for example carried

out on the distribution station.

Certain print formats have been used for text as well as key

combinations and sequences to enable you to find information more

easily.

Print format Meaning

Bold This format is used for command names,

menu names, dialog window names, directory

names and command options.

Key1 + key2 A plus sign (+) between the key names means

that you must press the keys mentioned

simultaneously.

Key1 – key2 A minus sign (–) between the key names

means that you need to press the keys

mentioned in succession.

Additional descriptions and support are available via the on-line Help.

The on-line Help comprises

• COSIMIR® Help with operation and

• COSIMIR® PLC Assistant.

The on-line Help consists of detailed information regarding the

functions and operation of COSIMIR® PLC .

Conventions

Additional support

Page 9: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

1. What will you learn from the manual?

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 9

This Help function is also a component part of the software package

COSIMIR® Rob. COSIMIR® Rob has a wider function scope than

COSIMIR® PLC and the combined on-line Help therefore describes more

functions than those required for COSIMIR® PLC .

The menu bar of the on-line Help provides functions that you are

already familiar with from using a standard Internet browser. These

include: Next and back, select start page, print selected topics, show

and hide the navigation bar or Internet connection options.

The additional indexes such as Contents, Index, Search or Favourites,

furthermore give you the option of conveniently navigating through the

information provided in the Help menu of COSIMIR® PLC .

COSIMIR® PLC Assistant provides detailed function descriptions and

technical documentation for the individual process models. It also

comprises a sample PLC program for the more complex process models.

The PLC program is created in STEP 7.

All process models can be directly accessed via the graphic navigator.

Adobe Acrobat Reader will need to be installed on your PC to view PDF

documents. The Adobe Acrobat Reader program is available free of

charge and can be downloaded via the Internet address

www.adobe.com.

Our telephone Hotline is available 24 hours, should you have any

queries when installing or commissioning COSIMIR® PLC .

Page 10: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

10 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

With COSIMIR® PLC you have also acquired a CD-ROM and these

instructions. We offer two methods for the software installation:

• Network installation with dongle for parallel interface or USB

interface

• Installation with on-line activation.

The system requirements for COSIMIR® PLC are specified.

The system requirements for a PLC programming system are not taken

into consideration. A PLC programming system is required, if you create

your own PLC programs for the process models.

Minimum configuration for COSIMIR® PLC

Processor Pentium II 300 MHz processor or higher

Main memory 128 MB

Hard disk space 800 MB available

Operating system Windows 98; Windows NT/2000/XP;

Microsoft Internet Explorer

Version 5.0 or later

Graphics card Card with 3D acceleration and OpenGL

support, 32 MB RAM

Monitor 17“ with screen resolution 1024 x 768 Pixel

Interfaces Parallel or USB interface for dongle with

network licence

optional: serial interface for connection to

PLC

Additional Adobe Acrobat Reader Version 6.0 or later

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

2.1

System requirements

Page 11: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 11

Recommended configuration for COSIMIR® PLC

Processor Pentium IV 1 GHz processor

Main memory 256 MB

Hard disk space 800 MB available

Operating system Windows 98; Windows NT/2000/XP;

Microsoft Internet Explorer

Version 5.0 or later

Graphics card Card with 3D acceleration and OpenGL

support, 64 MB RAM

Monitor 19“ with screen resolution 1024 x 768 Pixel

Interfaces Parallel or USB interface for dongle with

network licence

optional: serial interface for connection to

PLC

Additional Adobe Acrobat Reader Version 6.0 or later

Page 12: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

12 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

The initial steps for installation:

• Switch on the PC and start up Microsoft Windows.

• Insert the COSIMIR® PLC CD-ROM.

• Click onto Execute in the Start menu.

• Enter d:setup.exe in the input field of the open dialog window.

Confirm this entry with OK.

The start screen of the installation program is now displayed:

Follow the instructions of the installation program. If you are unsure

when answering some of the questions, click onto either Back or

Cancel.

First, you will be familiarised with the licence agreements of Festo

Didactic. You must accept these licence agreements in all instances,

2.2

Installation of COSIMIR®

PLC via on-line activation

Preparing the installation

Page 13: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 13

otherwise it is not possible to continue with the installation. Select

Accept and then click onto the Next button.

Page 14: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

14 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

You are then offered the option of installing the software for only one

registered user.

Page 15: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 15

In the following dialog window, you are requested to enter the product

ID. The product ID is a 12-digit number, which you will find on the

reverse side of the CD-ROM sleeve.

If you enter an incorrect product ID, you will receive a message from the

program, requesting you to enter a valid product ID.

Page 16: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

16 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

In the window Select Target Folder , define the subdirectory, in which

COSIMIR® PLC is to be installed. We have selected the subdirectory

C:\Programme\didactic\COSIMIR PLC as a default setting for you.

To install the program in a different directory, click onto the Search

button.

You should always select an installation directory, which does not

contain any other versions of COSIMIR®.

You also have the option of specifying a particular program group where

the COSIMIR® PLC symbols are stored. We have specified Festo Didactic

for the program group as a default setting. You can of course rename

this.

Note

Page 17: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 17

COSIMIR® PLC is now ready for installation. Click onto Next to start the

installation.

Page 18: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

18 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

The Start window of COSIMIR® PLC:

Carrying out the

installation

Page 19: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 19

You can install COSIMIR® PLC using two different options. These are:

COSIMIR® extensions as well as robot and PLC languages.

We strongly recommend that you accept the preset option.

The following window is displayed if you click onto the Options button

to select the COSIMIR® main program:

Page 20: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

20 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

You are now advised of the successful completion of the COSIMIR® PLC

installation. Now click onto Finish.

Page 21: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 21

The installation of COSIMIR® PLC is complete. You now still need to

decide whether you wish to carry out the licence activation immediately

or at a later stage.

Various options are available to you for the activation of your licence:

On-line activation

Page 22: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

22 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

We recommend that you use the direct on-line activation as a default

setting.

You can however also carry out the activation from another PC. If you do

not have an Internet connection, you can also request the activation

code via telephone.

This telephone service is available

Monday to Friday from 8:00 h to 22:00 h CET.

You have decided to use direct on-line activation:

You are requested to establish an Internet connection. Having done so,

click onto Next and your licence will then been activated automatically.

The following message will be displayed if direct communication is not

possible due to Internet access protected by a firewall:

Page 23: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 23

The activation code is available on the relevant Internet page.

Highlight the activation code and copy it via the clipboard to the input

field provided for the activation code using Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V.

Activation is complete as soon as you click onto Finish.

Page 24: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

24 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

You have selected the option of carrying out the on-line activation from

another PC. The following request is therefore displayed:

Now establish Internet access to the specified Internet address on

another PC. The following window is then displayed:

Indirect activation

Page 25: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 25

Copy the licence code to the relevant input field. Now click onto the

Generate activation code button.

The activation code is now displayed. Copy this code and insert it in the

specified field of your installation computer.

You have decided to request the activation code via telephone:

Contact Festo Didactic via one of the telephone numbers listed. Quote

your licence code and you will then be given the activation code for your

COSIMIR® PLC software.

Enter the activation code in the input field designated for this. The

licence will be activated as soon as you click onto Finish.

Telephone request

Page 26: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

26 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

You can save the licence code and the activation code prior to

completing the licence activation via Finish. To do so, click onto the

Print/Copy button.

You are offered various options of saving the licence code and

activation code.

If you have purchased a multiple licence, you will need to activate each

individual installation. You will be given the relevant information during

each activation as to how many licences can still be activated with the

product ID quoted.

The term “network installation” refers primarily to the software licence

allocation. With network installations, the software is made available

via a network and a central licence server.

You will need a green dongle for the network installation. The licences

are allocated dynamically and can be requested from any workstation in

the network up to the maximum number ordered. The licence server is a

computer on the network, which performs the licence allocation. The

dongle needs to be permanently inserted in the parallel or USB port

during the operation of COSIMIR® PLC so that users on the network are

able to permanently access the information of the dongle.

Multiple licence

2.3

Network installation

of COSIMIR® PLC

Page 27: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 27

You also have the option of setting up a local single station licence.

Start the installation as described above. The following start screen is

then displayed:

To set up a single station version, select the second option. The

installation process is effected in the same as described above.

If you have already completed an installation, you can subsequently

make additions to the COSIMIR® PLC installation using the option

Change Components.

Single station

Page 28: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

2. This is how you install COSIMIR® PLC

28 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

The software program EzOPC is required if you control the process

models of COSIMIR® PLC via an external PLC. EzOPC effects the

communication between the process model and the external PLC.

This is how you install EzOPC

1. Insert the COSIMIR® PLC CD-ROM.

2. Click onto Execute in the Start menu.

3. Enter d:\EzOPC\ezopc_setup.exe in the input field of the open dialog

window and confirm it with OK.

The start screen of the installation program is now displayed:

4. Follow the instructions of the installation program.

2.4

Installation of the com-

munication program

EzOPC

Page 29: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 29

COSIMIR® PLC consists of functions to support you in the use of the

software program during training.

These include:

• An individual working environment that can be set up on each

student’s PC. This working environment stores user specific data for

COSIMIR® PLC .

• Files with fault settings for a process model can be centrally set up

by instructors and easily copied to the PC workstation of the

students.

The example of the distribution station process model is used to

demonstrate which files belong to a process model and what

information is stored in these files.

The name of the directory for the distribution process model is

DistributingStation.

3. These functions support you with the preparation

of PC workstations for students

3.1

Description of files for a

process model

Page 30: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

30 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

File Description

DistributingStation.mod Process model for simulation via the internal S7-PLC.

DistributingStation.ini Initialisations for the process model: This file contains all user

specific settings for the process model such as window

configuration, fault settings, etc.

DistributingStation.prot Protocol of fault localisation: This file is read in the teacher mode

and displayed in the fault log window.

DistributingStation.htm

DistributingStation.xls

DistributingStation.txt

Export of fault log: Changes in the fault localisation and in the fault

log are automatically exported to these files. These files can then for

instance be viewed via Microsoft Internet Explorer or Microsoft

Excel.

DistributingStation.mcf Settings regarding fault setting: This file contains all settings

regarding the activation, start, duration and localisation of a fault. If

this file exists in the process model directory, then it overwrites the

settings in the INI file. If not, then the fault settings stored in the INI

file are used.

User-specific working environments consist in the main of the process

models and files with the user specific data.

User specific data are:

• Window configurations,

• Settings for the process model,

• Settings regarding fault setting,

• Protocol of fault localisation.

In order to create a user-specific working environment, the process

models are saved to a separate directory on the PC. Any user specific

data is then also stored in this directory.

3.2

Creating a user-specific

work environment

Page 31: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 31

For example, to set up the working environment for three different users

on one PC, you will need to copy the process models into three different

directories. Each user will then be working with “his/her own” directory,

which corresponds to the user’s working environment. The user loads

the process models with which he/she is working in COSIMIR® PLC from

„his/her“ directory.

COSIMIR® PLC supports you with the setting up of user specific working

environments. Use the setup program SetupSamples.exe for this.

The SetupSamples.exe program

The SetupSamples.exe program enables you to create the user specific

working environments for COSIMIR® PLC on a PC.

• The setup program SetupSamles.exe installs the process models

assistant-aided on a computer or a network path.

• The choice of installation directory is arbitrary.

• No administrator rights on the computer are required.

This is how you create a user specific working environment for

COSIMIR® PLC

1. Insert the COSIMIR® PLC CD-ROM.

2. Click onto Execute in the Start menu.

3. Enter d: SetupSamles.exe in the input field of the open dialog

window and confirm this with OK.

The start screen of the installation program is now displayed.

Page 32: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

32 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

4. Follow the instructions of the installation program. Select the

desired working directory as the installation directory.

5. If users want to work in their working environment, then they are to

start COSIMIR® PLC . The process models that users are to work with

must always be loaded from the user’s working directory.

You can load a process model from any working directory by

selecting Open in the File menu and navigating through your

working directory and selecting the desired process model.

Please note that file names of process models to be controlled via

an external PLC always end with the identifier OPC. File names of

process models controlled via the internal PLC do not end with the

identifier OPC.

Page 33: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 33

You can also start the setup program SetupSamples.exe from the

Windows command line (cmd.exe). To install several working

environments from COSIMIR® PLC on one PC, you have the option of

carrying out the installation by means of a batch file. The batch file is

called up via the Windows command line.

Excerpt from a batch file:

SetupSamples.exe /S –XD:C:\CosimirPLC\Student1

SetupSamples.exe /S –XD:C:\CosimirPLC\Student2

SetupSamples.exe /S –XD:C:\CosimirPLC\Student3

Files with fault settings for a process model can be created centrally by

teaching staff and copied to the PC workstations of students in a simple

manner.

Note

3.3

Creating files with fault

settings for a process

model

Page 34: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

34 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

This is how you create a file centrally with fault settings for a process

model:

1. Start COSIMIR® PLC .

2. Load the desired process model, e.g. the process model Distribution

Station. The process model is to be controlled via the internal PLC

and the file name therefore does not include the identifier OPC.

3. Open the Fault Setting window by clicking onto Fault Setting in the

Execute menu.

4. The Fault Setting window opens once you have entered the

password.

5. Now set a fault – for example for the PLC input 1B1.

6. Activate the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button and

select the option Export.

Page 35: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 35

7. The faults set for the process model DistributingStation.mod have

been exported to the file DistributingStation.mcf. You will find this

file in the same directory, in which the process model loaded at the

time is also stored.

Page 36: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

36 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

8. Now copy the file with the fault settings to the user specific working

environments. The user specific working environments are those

directories, where only the process models have been installed.

Select the directory in which the relevant process model is stored as

directory, in this case the Distribution Station process model.

Page 37: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 37

COSIMIR® PLC comprises the following:

• The simulation software COSIMIR® PLC

• The communication software EzOPC

• The on-line COSIMIR® Help

• The on-line COSIMIR® PLC Assistant

• A PDF file with information regarding EzOPC

• A manual

COSIMIR® PLC is a PC-based 3D simulation system with preassembled

process models.

Internal S7 PLC

OPC client

EzOPC (OPC server)

EasyPort

ExternalPLC

S7-PLCSIM

Operatingfunctions

COSIMIRassistant

COSIMIRhelp

Process models

MC7-Code

Component parts of COSIMIR® PLC

4. The COSIMIR® PLC system

4.1

Overview of

COSIMIR® PLC

Page 38: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

4. The COSIMIR® PLC system

38 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

The following are required to simulate the operation of a process:

• A PLC and PLC program to control the process,

• The simulation to simulate the behaviour of the process. This

simulation ensures for example, that cylinders move and sensors

are activated.

Sample PLC programs are available for complex process models. These

PLC programs define a possible process control system. You can of

course create new PLC programs that generate a different process

execution.

When loading a process model, the sample PLC program is

automatically downloaded at the same time, provided that it exists. The

PLC program is executed via a SIMATIC S7 simulator. This S7 simulator

is a component part of COSIMIR® PLC . The integrated

S7 simulator is also referred to as the internal PLC.

Once the process model has been loaded, the process can be simulated

immediately.

The advantage with this is that you can familiarise yourself with,

activate and monitor the process. Plus there is no need for you to have

created a PLC program beforehand.

One particular additional function offered by COSIMIR® PLC is the

possibility of simulating faults, whereby you can set typical faults in a

process model. The following can for example be causes of malfunction:

A mechanically displaced sensor, a cable break or failure of an entire

module. The cause of the fault must be found by means of systematic

fault finding and eliminated.

One of the main focal points of COSIMIR® PLC is the monitoring and

analysis of processes and elimination of faults.

Another focal point is the creation of your own PLC programs for the

process models. These PLC programs are loaded to an external PLC and

COSIMIR® PLC exchanges the input/output signals with the external PLC

via the OPC interface.

Page 39: COSIMIR Manual - Festo Didactic

4. The COSIMIR® PLC system

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 39

The following can be used as external PLCs

• Any actual PLC

• The Soft PLC SIMATIC S7-PLCSIM

COSIMIR® PLC requires the software program EzOPC for connection to

an external PLC. The OPC server EzOPC communicates with any PLC via

the EasyPort interface.

.

Please note: EzOPC is not installed automatically with the software

program COSIMIR® PLC . If required, this program is to be installed from

the DC-ROM provided.

The process models are realistic replicas of actual working stations and

modules.

Each process model comprises two work cells. The work cell whose file

name does not have the ending OPC is controlled via an internal PLC. If

you wish to control the process model via an external PLC, you need to

select the process model with the file name ending in OPC.

Process model Description File name

Processing Station

The process model represents a

simulation of the MPS Processing

Station of Festo Didactic. In this

work cell, workpieces are to be

tested, processed and transferred

to the adjacent station. A sample

PLC program is available for this

process model.

ProcessingStation.mod

ProcessingStation(OPC).mod

4.2

The process models

of COSIMIR® PLC

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Process model Description File name

Handling Station

The process model represents a

simulation of the Festo Didactic

MPS Handling Station. In this

work cell, workpieces are to be

removed from a retainer and,

depending on the results of

material testing, deposited on a

slide. A sample PLC program is

available for this process model.

HandlingStation.mod

HandlingStation(OPC).mod

Stacker Store Station

The process model represents a

simulation of the Festo Didactic

Stacker Store. In this work cell,

workpieces are to be put into and

removed from storage. A sample

PLC program is available for this

process model.

StoreWorkCell.mod

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Process model Description File name

Testing Station

The process model represents a

simulation of the Festo Didactic

MPS Testing Station. In this work

cell, the material characteristics

of the workpieces is to be

determined and the workpiece

height checked. Depending on

the test result, the workpiece is

either ejected or transferred to

the adjacent station. A sample

PLC program is available for this

process model.

TestingStation.mod

TestingStation(OPC).mod

Buffer Station

The process model represents a

simulation of the Festo Didactic

MPS Buffer Station. In this work

cell, workpieces are to be

transported, buffered and

separated out. A sample PLC

program is available for this

process model.

BufferStation.mod

BufferStation(OPC).mod

Sorting Station

The process model represents a

simulation of the Festo Didactic

MPS Sorting Station. In this

workcell, workpieces are to be

sorted according to material and

colour. A sample PLC program is

available for this process model.

SortingStation.mod

SortingStation(OPC).mod

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Process model Description File name

Distribution Station

The process model represents a

simultation of the Festo Didactic

MPS Distribution Station. In this

work cell, workpieces are to be

separated out and transferred to

the adjacent station. A sample

PLC program is available for this

process model.

DistributingStation.mod

DistributingStation(OPC).mod

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Process model Description File name

Rotary Indexing Table Module

The process model represents a

simulation of the Festo Didactic

MPS Rotary Indexing Table

module. In this work cell,

workpieces are to be tested and

polished in two parallel

sequences.

RotaryTable.mod

RotaryTable(OPC).mod

Stacking Magazine Module

The process model represents a

simulation of the Festo Didactic

MPS Stacking Magazine module.

In this work cell, workpieces are

to be separated out from the

magazine.

StackMagazine.mod

StackMagazine(OPC).mod

Changer Module

The process model represents a

simulation of the Festo Didactic

MPS Changer module. In this

work cell, workpieces are to be

picked up by a vacuum suction

cup and transferred by means of a

semi-rotary actuator.

ChangerModule.mod

ChangerModule(OPC).mod

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The PLC integrated into COSIMIR® PLC is a SIMATIC S7 simulator. The S7

simulator can execute LDR, FCH and STL programs created in STEP 7.

The internal PLC executes the sample PLC programs provided for the

process models and enables you to immediately simulate the

processes.

Detailed information regarding the function scope of the internal PLC is

available via the COSIMIR® on-line Help.

4.3

Controlling the process

models via internal PLC

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If you are creating and testing your own PLC programs, we recommend

that you download the programs to an external PLC and execute them

from there. The advantage of this is that you can choose the PLC and

programming system of your choice. Also, the testing and diagnostic

functions designated by the program for this purpose are available to

you for fault finding in the PLC program. This includes the status display

of PLC input/outputs and variables, the on-line display of the PLC

program and also the read-out of machine statuses.

If you are using the Soft PLC7-PLCSIM as external PLC, you do not

require any additional hardware components.

Information exchange with configuration via external Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM

4.4

Controlling the process

models via external PLC

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If you are using a hardware PLC as external PLC, you will require

EasyPort and the data cable for the exchange of input/output signals.

EasyPort transmits the input/output signals of the PLC to the OPC

server ExOPC via the serial interface of the PC and the OPC server

passes on the data to the process model simulation. Conversely, the

statuses of sensors and actuators are communicated from the process

model to the external PLC.

Information exchange with configuration via external hardware PLC

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The dialog window for fault setting is password protected. Only

instructors have access to this dialog.

A list of typical faults is available for each process model, from which

you can select one or several faults.

The exercise for students is to identify and describe the fault within the

process and to then determine the cause of it. The students then enter

the suspected fault in the dialog window for fault elimination. If the fault

has been correctly identified, the process will then function correctly.

The entries in the dialog window for fault elimination are logged and can

be seen by instructors and trainers.

4.5

Functions for fault setting

in the process model

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COSIMIR® PLC offers you various options of monitoring and analysing

the execution of a process.

As soon as the simulation of a process model is active and a PLC is

controlling the process, you can activate and visually monitor progress.

The process is controlled by means of the keys and switches on the

control console.

4.6

Functions for the analysis

of process models

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• The electrical status of the process components is displayed by LEDs

on the sensors and valves.

• If pressure is applied to a cylinder connection, the connection is

highlighed in blue. The pneumatic tubing itself is not simulated.

• The statuses of the PLC inputs/outputs are shown in separate

windows.

• An overview of all process statuses and process operations is

provided in the Manual Operation window.

If you want to run the process step-by-step, you need to use the Manual

Operation as a tool to control the process. You can stop the process at

defined points by setting breakpoints.

In the absence of an active PLC program during process model

simulation, you can use the Manual Operation window to activate

individual process activities. This will enable you to, for instance,

control the movement of a cylinder or switch on or off an electrical

motor.

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This chapter describes the main control functions of COSIMIR® PLC . MS

Windows programs provides various options for activating commands.

In this account, commands are initiated via the options in the menu bar.

You can of course also use the symbols bar, appropriate key

combinations or the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button.

Detailed information regarding the use of all options in COSIMIR® PLC is

available via the on-line Help for this software package.

Prior to loading a process model, you will need to decide whether the

process model is to be controlled via the internal or via an external PLC.

The file names of process models to be activated via an external PLC

end with the identifier OPC.

You can load the process model with the help of COSIMIR® PLC

Assistant or a command in the menu bar.

5. Important control functions of COSIMIR® PLC

5.1

Loading a process model

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This is how you load a process model via COSIMIR® PLC Assistant

1. Start COSIMIR® PLC .

Once COSIMIR® PLC is started, both the View window and the Help

window are displayed.

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2. Select the desired process model, for example the process model

Distribution, controlled via the internal PLC.

The process model is opened by clicking onto Open Distribution (for

internal PLC).

Please note:

A click onto the picture or the title of the process model will take you to

COSIMIR® PLC Assistant, where a function description and technical

documentation regarding the process model are at your disposal.

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3. The process model for the Distribution station is loaded and is

displayed in the View window. In addition, you will also find the

status of the PLC input/outputs in the Inputs and Outputs windows.

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A dialog window is displayed via File download, if you open a process

model the first time via the on-line Help.

Note

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If you select the option Open File from your Current Position, you need

to deactivate Always Confirm Open Files of this Type and click OK.

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This is how you load a process model by activating a menu command

1. Click onto Open in the File menu.

The process models are filed under the default setting

c:\Programme\didactic\COSIMIR PLC \samples.

Each process model is in its own subdirectory.

2. Select the desired process model, for example the process model

Distribution, controlled via the internal PLC. To do so, open the

subdirectdory DistributingStation:

Highlight the directory DistributingStation and click onto the Open

button.

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3. Highlight the file DistributingStation.mod and click onto the Open

button.

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4. The process model for the Distribution station is now loaded and is

displayed in the View window.

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Once loaded, the process is displayed, but simulation is not active.

If a process model, controlled via the internal S7 PLC, has been loaded,

a sample PLC program will have been downloaded to the internal S7 PC

at the same time.

This is essential to facilitate the operation of a process model.

As soon as simulation is active, you can monitor the visual simulation

and as such the function sequence of the process model in the activity

window.

5.2

Simulating a process

model

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Certain information is always available to you.

In the header you will see the file name with path details of the process

model loaded.

The status line informs you of the operational status of the process

model:

The field to the far left shows whether simulation is active or stopped.

• Stopped:

Simulation mode is not active. The process model is not simulated.

• Cycle:

The process model is simulated.

• Sequence:

The process model is simulated.

The field to the right indicates the simulation time.

In COSIMIR® PLC , both simulation modes Cycle and Sequence are

identical.

Note

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This is how you switch simulation on and off again

1. Click onto Start in the Execute menu.

Simulation is active. In the status bar, the simulation mode is

displayed via Sequence.

Alternatively, you can also activate simulation via the menu option

Start Cycle or via the Stopped button in the status bar.

2. You can stop simulation by clicking onto Stop in the Execute menu.

Alternatively, you can also click onto the Cycle field.

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A process model controlled via a PLC program is operated via the keys

and switches of the control console. To do so, simulation must be

active. The simulation status can be established via the information in

the status bar.

5.3

Displaying and operating

a process model

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This is how you operate a process model controlled via the sample PLC

program

1. Start simulation by clicking onto Start in the Execute menu.

2. The illuminated Reset button now requests the Reset function.

Failing this, put the process model into the initial position. To do so,

activate the simulation. Then click onto the command Work Cell

Initial Position in the Processing menu.

Now restart simulation.

3. Carry out the Reset function by clicking onto the Reset button.

4. The illuminated Start button indicates that the process model is in

the initial position and the start condition is fulfilled.

5. Make sure that workpieces are available. For the process model

Distribution, you fill the magazine with workpiece by clicking onto

the different coloured symbolic workpieces on the slotted assembly

board.

6. Start the cycle by clicking onto the Start button.

If the process model is to be controlled via your own PLC program, then

you will know how the process and operation are defined.

If the process model is not controlled via a PLC program, then you can

manually activate specific actuators of the process. You will need the

functions of the Manual Operation window for this.

This is how the status of the process model is displayed

• The electrical status of the process components is displayed via the

LEDs on the sensors and valves.

• If pressure is applied to a cylinder connection, then this connection

is highlighted in blue.

The pneumatic tubing itself is not shown.

• The status of the PLC signals is displayed in the Inputs and Outputs

windows.

• The Manual Operation window provides an overview of all process

statuses and process events.

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• The designation of components is shown by clicking onto the

connection or LED of a process component. This designation is

identical to the designation in the circuit diagram.

An exception to this are the designations of compressed air

connections. These pertain to the valves which supply the

compressed air connections with air.

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The perspective view of a process model is freely adjustable and you

can turn, move, enlarge or minimise the process model representation

by means of a few central commands.

5.4

Changing the view of a

process model

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The perspective view is defined by the coordinates of the viewer (=

angle) and a reference point of the process model (= centre).

Z

Reference pointAngleTurn

Y

X

Definition of perspective view

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This is how you move the process model

1. Click onto the Move command in the View menu.

This changes the mouse pointer into a small coordinate system,

which indicates the direction in which the angle and reference point

can be moved. A dashed arrow means that it is not possible to move

in the respective direction.

2. Hold down the left mouse button.

3. Move the mouse pointer in Z- or X-direction.

4. Release the mouse pointer again. The view will then change

accordingly.

You can also activate the Move command by holding down the Shift key

and pressing the left mouse button.

This is how you turn the process model

1. Click onto Turn in the View menu.

The mouse pointer now changes into a small coordinate system,

which indicates the direction in which the angle and reference point

can be moved. A dashed arrow means that it is not possible to move

in the respective direction.

2. Hold down the left mouse button.

3. Move the mouse pointer in Z-or X-direction.

4. Release the mouse pointer again.

The view will then change accordingly.

You can also activate the Turn command by holding down the Ctrl key

and then pressing the left mouse button.

This is how you enlarge or minimise the view

1. Activate the Zoom command in the View menu.

The mouse pointer now changes into two squares.

2. To enlarge the view, hold down the left mouse button and move the

mouse pointer in the direction of the arrow.

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3. To reduce the view, hold down the left mouse button and move the

mouse pointer in the opposite direction of the arrow.

You can also activate the Zoom command by holding down the Shift +

Ctrl key combination and then pressing the left mouse button.

This is how you enlarge a particular section

1. Position the mouse pointer on a corner of the section.

2. Hold down the Shift + Ctrl key combination.

3. Press the right mouse button and move the mouse. A frame is then

displayed.

4. Place the frame around the section you would like to enlarge by

moving the mouse.

5. Release the right mouse button. The view is now enlarged.

This is how you enlarge the view

Click onto Zoom-In in the View menu. The image is now enlarged to

125%.

This is how you minimise the view

Click onto Zoom-Out in the View menu. The picture is minimised to

80%.

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The Inputs and Outputs windows indicate which signals are applied at

the inputs and outputs of the PLC. 0-signals are displayed in red and

1-signals in green. If the input or output signal is forced, the value is

shown in angle brackets, e.g. <1>.

This is how you open the Inputs window

Click onto the option Inputs/Outputs in the Options menu and select

Display Inputs.

So that you know which process signal you are dealing with, the signal

names include the relevant designation from the circuit diagrams.

Example: STATION_1B2: PLC input, which is connected to the sensor

1B2.

This is how you open the Outputs window

Click onto the option Inputs/Outputs in the Options menu and select

Display Outputs.

So that you know which process signals you are dealing with, the signal

names contain the relevant designations from the circuit diagrams.

Example: STATION_1Y1: PLC output, which is connected to the valve

coil 1Y1.

5.5

The Inputs and Outputs

windows

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You can however also open the Inputs and Outputs windows via Work

Areas in the Windows menu, where you will often find the required

window combinations.

The Manual Operation window offers various functions

• Display of process statuses and process activities,

• Controlling individual actuators of the process model,

• Setting breakpoints in the process model simulation.

In the lefthand section of the window you can see the process activities.

These include mainly the actuation of valves. An applied 1-signal is

represented by a red illuminated LED.

In the righthand section of the window you can monitor all process

statuses.

Process statuses include the status of the sensor and valve coils. Here,

1-signals are represented by a green illuminated LED.

The signal statuses are also shown in the Value column. If the signal is

forced, the value is shown in angle brackets. If the Value column is now

shown, activate the item in the context sensitive menu via the right

mouse button.

Notes

5.6

The Manual Operation

window

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The following additional information is displayedi: If a signal status has

changed since the last simulation cycle, then the respective line is

highlighted in colour. Process activities are shown in red and process

statuses in green. This method enables you to easily identify and track

any signals which have changed.

This is how you open the Manual Operation window

In the Execute menu, click onto Manual Operation.

Alternatively , open the window by clicking onto Manual Operation

under Work Areas in the Windows menu.

This is how you control individual actuators in the process model

If you want to actuate individual actuators of a process model manually,

we recommend that you disconnect the process model from the PLC.

Only those commands will then be executed which have been initiated

via manual operation since the PLC program is no longer active.

If you wish to terminate manual operation and control the process

model via a PLC program once again, you will need to reconnect the

process model to the PLC.

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1. Make sure that simulation is stopped.

2. Isolate the process model from the PLC.

Move the mouse pointer to the left section of the Manual Operation

window and the process activities. Press the right mouse button to

open the context sensitive menu and select Disconnect Controllers.

Or:Click onto the left section of the Manual Operation window and

open the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button and

then select Disconnect Controllers.

3. Start the simulation.

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4. Double click onto the process activity line you wish to execute. The

double click causes the signal to change.

If you double click onto a line with a valve activation, this causes the

value of the respective valve coil to change. If the value 0 is applied,

this will be set to 1 or vice versa. The double click therefore has a

toggle function.

Please note: To switch a valve with two valve coils to a particular

position, the appropriate electrical signal must be applied to both

valve coils.

5. Stop simulation, if you wish to end Manual Operation.

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6. To control the process model via a PLC program again, move the

mouse pointer to the left section of the Manual Operation window

to the process activities. Now press the right mouse button to open

the context sensitive menu and select Restore I/O Connections.

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This is how you set breakpoints during the operation of the process

model

To stop the process model operation at defined points, you will need to

set breakpoints in the process model simulation. You can stop the

process run whenever the value of a process signal is changing.

Breakpoints merely influence process model simulation; the PLC

program for the control of the process model remains unaffected. If a

breakpoint is set at a signal, this causes the process model simulation

to stop when the value of the signal changes. The changed value is

transmitted to the PLC as soon as simulation is restarted.

1. Make sure that a process model is loaded.

2. Start the process model simulation and establish that the process

model is controlled via a PLC program.

3. Open the Manual Operation window. To do so, click onto Manual

Operation in the Execute menu.

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4. Click onto the line of the desired process activity. In this case, for

example, line 2 to control valve coil 1Y1 for the magazine ejector.

Click onto the right mouse button to open the context sensitive

menu and select Stop at Value Change.

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5. The Stop sign in the line in the Manual Operation window indicates

that a breakpoint is set at this signal.

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6. Activate the process. As soon as the PLC generates a 1-signal at the

valve coil, simulation stops. You can follow the simulation status in

the status bar.

7. If you restart simulation of the process model, this causes the

process run to continue and the magazine ejector to eject a

workpiece.

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8. To delete the breakpoint, click onto the line with the breakpoint with

the right mouse button. This opens the context sensitive menu of

the right mouse button. Select Stop at Value Change. This command

is realised in the form of a toggle function. The breakpoint is

removed. Alternatively, you can select the command Delete all

Stops.

Please note that you can also set breakpoints at signals in the Process

Status window section.

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This is how you control the process model step-by-step

If you want to execute the process stepwise, then use the Manual

Operation window as a tool to control simulation. You can stop the

process at defined points by setting breakpoints.

To execute the process step-by-step, set breakpoints against all process

activities. In this way, the process will be stopped whenever an actuator

changes its status.

1. Make sure that a process model is loaded.

2. Start the process model simulation and make sure that the process

model is controlled via a PLC program.

3. Open the Manual Operation window. To do so, click onto Manual

Operation in the Execute menu.

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4. Under Process Activities, highlight all lines containing signals for

valve coils by pressing the Ctrl key and clicking onto the desired

lines with the left mouse button.

Open the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button and

select Stop at Value Change.

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5. All lines with valve coils now indicate breakpoints.

6. Control the process by using the keys and switches of the control

console. Whenever the status of a process signal changes,

simulation stops. The process is continued if you restart simulation.

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7. To remove the breakpoints again, open the context sensitive menu

via the right mouse button and select Delete all Stops.

Please note that you can also set breakpoints at signals in the Process

Status window section.

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The internal S7 simulator interprets executable S7 programs. A sample

PLC program for S7-300 is available for each of the more complex

process models. When you load a model, the respective S7 program is

also downloaded. You can exchange this S7 program with another S7

program, if required.

Only complete project files with the file extension S7P can be

downloaded. The project will need to have been created via the SIMATIC

Manager and must be in accordance with the Siemens MC7 code at

binary level.

5.7

Controlling a process

model via the internal

S7 PLC

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This is how you control a process model via the relevant sample PLC

program

1. Click onto Open in the File menu.

2. Load the desired process model, for example the Distribution

process model. The file name of the model is

DistributingStation.mod.

The process models are stored under a default setting

c:\Programme\didactic\COSIMIR PLC \samples.

When a process model is loaded, the respective S7 program is also

downloaded.

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3. As soon as simulation of the process model is started, the execution

of the S7 is also started.

To do so, click onto Start in the Execute menu.

This is how you control a process model via a newly created S7 PLC

program

1. Load the desired process model. The process model is to be

controlled via the internal PLC. The file names of process models for

the internal PLC do not end in OPC.

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2. Make sure that simulation has stopped.

3. Select Open in the File menu to open the Open File window.

4. Under File Type, select S7 Project (*.S7P).

All files of this format available in the current directory are

displayed.

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5. Navigate to the directory which contains your S7 project.

Select the required S7 project and click onto the Open button.

6. If the project you have selected contains several S7 programs, then

select one for simulation and confirm your choice with OK.

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7. Start the process model simulation. Select Start in the Execute

menu. As soon as the simulation of the process model is started, the

internal S7 simulator is also started and the loaded PLC program is

executed.

This is how you estalish which S7 program is currently loaded

1. Click onto the S7 Program Manager option in the Execute menu.

2. The name and the structure of the PLC program are displayed in a

clearly set out tree structure.

The PLC program may consist of the following blocks: Organisation

blocks, function blocks, data blocks, functions and system

functions.

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3. Click onto the +-symbol to display the PLC program.

You can view the contents of a block by clicking onto a block.

4. In the absence of a loaded PLC program, the window S7 Program

Manager looks as follows:

Further information regarding the display of S7 programs in STL or for

the display and use of timing diagrams is available via the on-line Help.

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This is how the sample programs are filed on the computer

1. Select Open in the File menu to open the Open File window.

2. Under File Type, select S7 Project (*.S7P).

All the files in this format available in the current directory will be

displayed.

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3. Navigate to the directory c:\Programme\didactic\COSIMIR

PLC\samples\S7\MPSC. This directory contains the S7 project with

all the sample PLC programs for the stations, provided that you have

transfered all the preset directories when installing COSIMIR® PLC .

The sample program for the stacker store is stored in the Store

subdirectory.

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4. Select the S7 project and click onto the Open button.

The program name provides information about the PLC program and the

process model to which it belongs:

• The initial digit corresponds to the station number.

• The two letters after this digit designate the station:

DI: Distribution station

TE: Testing station

PR: Processing station

HA: Handling station

BU: Buffer station

SO: Sorting station

• The letters beginning with underscore designate the programming

language of the PLC program:

AS: Programming language GRAPH,

KFA: Programming languages LDR, FCH and STL,

KFAFF: Programming languages LDR, FCH and STL. The step

structure of the process activity is simulated with flipflops.

Please note that the internal S7 PLC can only execute LDR, FCH or STL

programs.

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S7-PLCSIM is a Soft PLC, which executes the PLC programs created in

STEP 7. Within STEP 7, comprehensive testing and diagnostic functions

are available to you for fault finding in the PLC program. They include,

for instance, the status display of variables or the on-line display of the

PLC program. You can make use of these functions when creating the

PLC program for a process model in STEP 7 and subsequently when

testing the PLC program during interaction with the process model.

The exchange of the PLC input/output signals between the process

model simulation and the Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM is effected via the EzOPC

program. EzOPC must be installed on your computer. Should this not be

the case, you will need to carry out the installation of the COSIMIR® PLC

CD-ROM now.

5.8

Controlling a process

model via the external

Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM

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Following successful installation, EzOPC is automatically called up by

COSIMIR PLC as soon as you start the process model simulation.

The following requirements must be fulfilled in order for the PLC

input/output signals to be correctly exchanged:

• When EzOPC is started, both communication users – S7-PLCSIM and

the process model simulation- must already be active. Only then can

EzOPC set up the communication link to both stations.

• The EzOPC must be correctly configured for the data exchange.

Therefore check the configuration as soon as EzOPC is started.

Configuration of EzOPC for data exchange with S7-PLCSIM

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This is how you control a process model with S7-PLCSIM

1. Start STEP 7 or the STEP 7 Manager and open the required

S7 project.

2. Start S7 PLCSIM by clicking onto Simulate Modules under Options.

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3. The S7-PLCSIM window now opens.

4. Delete the contents of the virtual CPU of S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto

the MRES button in the CPU 300/400 window.

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5. Download the desired PLC program in S7-PLCSIM by highlighting the

Modules folder. Then click onto Download in the menu Target

System.

6. Load the appropriate process model in COSIMIR® PLC . The file name

of the process model must end in OPC, since it is to be controlled via

the external PLC S7-PLCSIM.

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7. Start the process model simulation by clicking onto Start under

Execute.

As soon as simulation starts, the EzOPC program is automatically

called up and you will see this from the item EzOPC displayed in the

Start bar.

If EzOPC is not called up, you will need to check whether the

program is installed. Failing this, now carry out the installation.

When EzOPC is started, both communication users - S7-PLCSIM and the

process model simulation – must already be active. Only then are the

communication links correctly set up.

Note

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8. Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar. This opens the EzOPC

window, where you configure the communication between

COSIMIR® PLC and S7-PLCSIM.

The EasyPort D16 interface is crossed out. This indicates that the

communication link between EasyPort and EzOPC does not exist.

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9. Click onto Communication Setup under Configuration.

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10. The window Communication Setup is now displayed.

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11. Carry out the necessary settings.

Select Not Connected in the EasyPort section for EasyPort 1.

Now select Installed in the section PLCSIM for Step 7 PLCSIM V5.x.

Accept the preset values for Start Byte and End Byte without

changing them, although only the first four bytes are required.

In the section VirtualPLC, select PLCSIM for Connect VirtualPLC to:

and confirm the settings with OK.

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12. The changes require EzOPC to be restarted. Acknowledge this

message with OK.

13. Close the EzOPC program and restart it.

You will find EzOPC under the default setting Programs � Festo

Didactic � EzOPC V4.9.2 .

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14. EzOPC displays the new configuration:

– EzOPC does not use the serial interface.

– EzOPC has set up a communication link with S7-PLCSIM. The data

bytes from S7-PLCSIM shown are exchanged.

15. Minimise the EzOPC window.

16. Make sure that the process model simulation in COSIMIR® PLC is

active.

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17. Start S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the box next to RUN in the window

CPU 300/400. The LED for RUN should now start flashing.

18. Operate the process model as planned and programmed in the PLC

program.

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19. If faults still exist in the PLC program, then the on-line

representation in STEP 7 will provide you with excellent support

during fault finding. To do so, call up the program block in which you

suspect the fault. Then click onto Monitor in the Test menu. You can

now monitor in parallel with simulation, which PLC program sections

are or are not being executed.

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If you are creating and testing your own PLC program, we recommend

that you load the programs to an external PLC and have these executed

from there.

You can use the Soft PLC S7-PLC SIM as external PLC, if you are

programming in STEP 7, in which case you will not require any

additional hardware components.

You can however also use any other control or programming system, in

which case you download the PLC program to your hardware PLC. The

exchange of the PLC input/output signals between the process model

simulation and your external PLC is effected via the serial interface of

the PC and via the EasyPort interface. Also included in the exchange of

process signals is the EzOPC program.

The advantage of this configuration is that you can use the PLC and

programming system of your choice. Also available for fault finding in

the PLC program are the testing and diagnostic functions intended for

this purpose in the programming system.

We recommend that you install the simulation software COSIMIR® PLC

and the PLC programming system on different computers.

5.9

Controlling a process

model via an external PLC

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Possible configuration with a hardware PLC and two PCs

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However, you can also choose a different configuration and install the

two software packages on one PC. Your PC will need to be equipped

with two serial interfaces if you intend to make use of the testing and

diagnostic functions during the process model simulation .

The following can be used as EasyPort interface:

• EasyPort D16 interface box for 16 digital I/O (Order No.. 1676 121)

The following data cables are required:

• PC data cable RS232 (Order No. 162 305)

• For PLC EduTrainer of Festo Didactic: I/O data cable with SysLink

plugs at both ends to IEEE 488, cross paired (Order No.. 167 106)

• For any PLC: I/O data cable with SysLink plug at one end to IEEE 488

and open cable end sleeves (Order No. 167 122)

The EzOPC program

The EzOPC program organises the exchange of PLC input/output signals

between the process model simulation and the external PLC. EzOPC

does not access the external PLC signals directly, but via the EasyPort

interface.

EzOPC must be installed on your computer. If this is not the case, you

will need to install the COSIMIR PLC CD-ROM now. Once the installation

has been successfully completed, EzOPC will be automatically called up

by COSIMIR PLC as soon as you start the process model simulation.

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The following requirements must be fulfilled in order for the PLC

input/output signals to be correctly exchanged:

• When starting EzOPC, both communication users – EasyPort and the

process model simulation - must be active. Only then can EzOPC set

up the communication link to the two users.

In the case of EasyPort this means that EasyPort must be connected

to the PC via the serial interface and voltage applied to EasyPort.

• The EzOPC program must be correctly configured for the data

exchange. Therefore check the configuration as soon as EzOPC is

started.

Configuration of EzOPC for data exchange with an external PLC via EasyPort

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This is how you control a process model via an external PLC

1. Connect the PC with COSIMIR® PLC to the external PLC via the

EasyPort interface.

– The data cable with Order No. 162 305 connects the serial

interface of the PC to the serial interface RS232 of EasyPort.

– The PLC input/output signals for the process are applied at port 1

of EasyPort.

– The PLC input/output signals for the control console are

transmitted via port 2.

For the DIP switches under Mode at EasyPort, select the following

setting: 1 ON, 2 OFF, 3 OFF.

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Configuration with PLC EduTrainer

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Configuration with PLC board

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2. Switch on the power supply for EasyPort.

3. Load the desired process model to COSIMIR® PLC . The file name of

the process model must have the ending OPC, since it is to be

controlled via an external PLC.

4. Start the simulation of the process model by clicking onto Start

under Execute.

The EzOPC program is called up automatically when simulation

starts. You will see EzOPC displayed in the Start bar.

If EzOPC is not shown in the Start bar, you need to install it now from

the COSIMIR® PLC CD-ROM.

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When EzOPC is started, both communication users - EasyPort and the

simulation of the process model – must already be active. Only then can

the communication link be correctly set up.

5. Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar to open the EzOPC

window, where you configure the communication between

COSIMIR® PLC and EasyPort.

Note

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6. Carry out the settings for the serial interface. To do so, click onto

Serial Interface in the Configuration menu.

7. Under COM Port , enter the serial interface of your PC, to which

EasyPort is connected and confirm this setting with OK.

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8. Under Configuration, click onto Communication Setup.

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9. This opens the Communication Setup window.

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10. Carry out the necessary settings.

Select the entry EasyPort in the section VirtualPLC for Connect

VirtualPLC to: and confirm this with OK.

11. Minimise the EzOPC window.

12. Download the PLC program to the PLC.

13. Start up the PLC.

14. Start the process model simulation.

15. Operate the process model according to how you have planed and

programmed it in the PLC program.

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Use the Fault Setting window to set specific faults in the functional

sequence of a process model. Use the internal PLC and the sample PLC

program provided to control the process model. This ensures that a

potential fault behaviour is caused solely by process components. The

PLC program is operating error-free.

The setting of faults is permissible by authorised users only. This is why

the dialog for fault setting is password protected. The default for the

password is didactic. The password can be changed at any time.

Each process model contains a list of possible faults.

5.10

Setting faults in a

process model

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The following data is required if you want to generate a fault for one of

the listed process components

• Type of fault

• Start of fault

• Duration of fault

With some components, different faults can occur and you can select

these faults from a list of options.

The following mean:

• Reed switch displaced: Reed Switch is mechanically displaced.

• Reed switch jammed: A 1-signal is continually applied at the reed

switch.

• Cable break: A 0–signal is continually applied at a component.

• Short circuit - voltage: A 1-signal is continually applied at

component.

• Malfunction: Complete failure of component.

• Tubing defective: Pneumatic tubing is defective, operating pressure

not achieved.

• Compressed air supply malfunction: Pressure failure.

• Power supply malfunction: Voltage not available.

The time stated for the start of malfunction refers to the simulation time

after the fault is set.

The duration of the fault is to be indicated in seconds.

Error statuses influence the simulation of the process model as soon as

the Fault Simulation is active.

The fault function remains active even if COSIMIR® PLC is terminated or

restarted. It remains active until it is deactivated in the Fault Setting

window.

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This is how you set faults in the process model

1. Make sure that a process model is loaded. The process model is to

be controlled via the internal PLC.

2. Open the Fault Setting window by activating Fault Setting in the

Execute menu.

You can also open the Fault Setting via Window Workspaces Teacher

mode. Under Teacher mode are frequently-needed window

combinations for the Fault operation.

Note

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3. A dialog box is displayed for the password to be entered.

Enter the password. Provided that you have not changed the

password since COSIMIR® PLC has been installed, then the standard

specified password is still valid.

Enter didactic in the Password box.

Note that the password is case-sensitive.

Confirm your entry with OK.

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4. The Fault Setting window is now displayed.

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5. Set a fault function – for example for the PLC input 1B1.

Double click onto the appropriate field in the Type column to display

a list of options. Open the list and select the type of fault, e.g. Cable

break.

The fault is to become active with the start of simulation and to

remain so until the fault is cancelled in Fault Setting. No entry is

therefore required in the Begin column field.

The duration of the fault is arbitrary and likewise, no entry is

therefore required in the Duration column.

Entries in the Begin and Duration column are activated by means of

a double click.

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6. The selected faults are displayed in the Status column.

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7. Now activate the Fault Simulation mode by selecting Fault

Simulation in the Execute menu.

8. Close the process model in order to deactivate the teacher mode.

This is how you start the simulation of the process model with the set

faults

1. Open the process model with the set fault.

2. Make sure that Fault Simulation is activated.

3. Start the process model simulation.

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Use the Fault Localisation window to eliminate error functions in the

process model. The set error functions only occur if the process model is

controlled via a PLC program and if the Fault Simulation mode is active.

Distribution process model: The process activity stops once a workpiece

is ejected. The next step, moving the swivel arm into the magazine

position, is not executed.

When monitoring and analysing the process model simulation, you

realise that voltage is applied to the sensor 1B1, but not to the

respective PLC input. You therefore conclude that there is a cable break

at the PLC input 1B1.

5.11

Eliminating faults in a

process model

Example

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This is how you eliminate a fault in the process model

1. Make sure that the process model is loaded.

2. Open the Fault Localisation window by clicking onto the Fault

Localisation window in the Execute menu.

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3. The Fault Localisation window is displayed.

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4. In the line 1B1 PLC input, double click onto No fault and select Cable

break in the list.

The button is now illuminated in yellow.

If the fault Is correctly identified, the next process model simulation

will be executed fault-free.

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5. In teacher mode, the Fault Localisation window looks as follows:

• If you have correctly identified and entered the fault, the process

model is executed correctly in the next simulation cycle.

• If you have failed to correctly identify the cause of the fault, then the

fault remains in place.

• If you have erroneously identified the cause of the fault as a

mechanically displaced sensor, then you have created an additional

fault within the process as a result of this and the fault is active from

the next simulation onwards.

Note

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Each action in the Fault Localisation window is logged in a log file.

Authorised persons are able view the log file.

The log file contains a list of activities which have been listed in the

Fault Localisation window. The entries contain the following data

entered by the student.

• Date

• Time

Faults, which have been correctly identified and eliminated are marked

in green.

5.12

Logging of eliminated

faults

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This is how you access the log file

1. Open the Fault Log window by activiating Fault Log in the Execute

menu.

2. A dialog box is then displayed for you to enter the password.

Enter the password. Provided that you have not changed the

password since COSIMIR® PLC has been installed, the the standard

specified password is still valid.

Enter didactic in the Password box.

Please note that the password is case-sensitive.

Confirm your entry with OK.

3. The Fault Log window is now displayed.

To cancel the fault log, activate the context-sensitive menu via the right

mouse button and select the appropriate command.

Notes

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COSIMIR® PLC is a multimedia training aid for use in the field of

automated systems. The examples given represent practice-related

applications. The exercises are based on industrial process sequences

and aim to portray a holistic training process. With COSIMIR® PLC , you

will be training in both methodology and professional competency.

COSIMIR® PLC provides process models for systems of varying

complexity from the production sector.

The general training aims to be achieved with COSIMIR® PLC are to be

able to

• Analyse and understand the mode of operation and system

structure of PLC controlled systems,

• Create and test PLC programs or clearly configured systems and

• Carry out systematic fault finding as part of maintenance and

corrective maintenance.

These general training aims cover all subject areas that can be taught by

means of simulated processes. The main focus of training is on a

methodical approach.

Significance of the training contents in industrial practice

One of the most important influences in industrial development over the

past few years has been the ever increasing degree of automation,

growing complexity of processes and faster operating cycles. The

keywords here are optimal utilisation of high investment, flexible and

cost effective production. More specifically these include:

• High degree of machine efficiency,

• Less downtimes,

• Optimisation of systems,

• Continual improvement processes.

6. The following training contents can be taught with

COSIMIR® PLC

6.1

Training contents

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As a result of this, those who are dealing directly with a system are to

some extent faced with entirely new demands. A system operator now

takes on minor maintenance work and possibly some corrective

maintenance, as does the installer. A mechanical maintenance engineer

must have sufficient knowledge and understanding of electrical and

electronic control technology to draw the necessary conclusions

regarding pneumatics, hydraulics and mechanics. Conversely, an

electrical engineer requires knowledge about pneumatic and hydraulic

actuators. At the same time, these changing requirements lead to new

forms of collaboration.

Grouped together, these requirements can be put into three areas

• Technology know-how

• System know-how and system understanding

• Socio-cultural skills

With COSIMIR® PLC you will develop your knowledge and practice your

skills in the areas of technology know-how as well as system know-how

and understanding. Apart from technical know-how, these skills also

include decision-making responsibility and methodological

compentency .

The target group for COSIMIR® PLC includes all those whose

professional area of activities involves PLC programming, maintenance

and corrective maintenance or those who need to have a basic

knowledge on these topics.

These include:

• Professional teachers/instructors

– Mechatronics engineers

– Electrical engineers, for instance specialising in automation

technology

– Industrial mechanical engineers

• Professional qualifications in metal-working and electrical

engineering

• Vocational training at colleges and universities

6.2

Target group

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Knowledge is required of the following in order to work and train with

COSIMIR® PLC :

• A basic knowledge of control technology: Structure of an automated

system

• A basic knowledge of PLC technology: Design and mode of operation

of a PLC

• A basic knowledge of PLC programming and handling of a PLC

programming tool, such as the programming system SIMATIC STEP 7

• A basic knowledge of pneumatic control technology: Drives, control

elements

• A basic kowledge of sensor technology: Limit switches, contactless

proximity sensors

• A basic knowledge of designing, wiring and tubing of

electropneumatic systems.

• A basic knowledge of electrical engineering: Electical variables,

correlations and calculations thereof, direct and alternating current,

methods of electrical measurement

• Basic knowledge of how to read and interpret circuit diagrams

• The ability to deal with and operate Windows programs

Below is a list of training aims on the subjects of system know-how, PLC

programming and systematic fault finding. The training aims are taken

from the 1999 sillabus for mechatronics engineers. The contents have

been adapted and weighted accordingly such as for instance for the

2003 syllabi for electronic engineers.

Mechatronics and electronics engineers are two examples of how

vocational training in Germany is currently updated and adapted to the

new training area concept.

The tables below list only those training aims which can also be taught

with COSIMIR® PLC.

6.3

Previous knowledge

6.4

Example: Assiging

training aims to training

courses

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Training content: Analysis of mode of operation and structure of a

system

Mechatronics engineer

Area of training Training aims

Area of training 1:

Analysis of functional interrelationships

within mechatronic systems

To read and use technical documentation.

To have a command of processes in order to be able to

analyse and document functional interrelationships.

To draw up and interpret block diagrams.

To identify the signal, material and energy flow with the

help of technical documentation.

Area of training 4:

Investigating the energy and information

flow in electrical, pneumatic and

hydraulic modules

To understand basic control technology circuits: To actuate

(pneumatically and hydraulically) a single-acting and

double-acting cylinder, basic logic operations, contactor

circuits, digital circuits.

To read and use circuit diagrams.

To identify power supply units in electrotechnology,

pneumatics and hydraulics.

To identify and describe the control functions of simple

control systems.

To design a control system (block diagram).

To identify signals & measured values in control systems.

Area of training 7:

Realisation of mechatronic subsystems

To understand and describe mechatronic subsystem

structures.

To understand and analyse the mode of operation, signal

behaviour and the use of components (sensors and

actuators).

To understand basic circuits and the mode of operation of

drives.

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Mechatronics engineers (continuation)

Area of training Training aims

Area of training 8:

Design and construction of mechatronic

systems

To describe the structure and signal pattern of mechatronic

systems.

To analyse the effect of changing operating conditions on a

process cycle.

Area of training 9:

Analysing the information flow in

complex mechatronic systems

To describe the information structure (signal structure,

signal generation, signal transmission) of a system with the

help of circuit diagrams.

To establish the interrelationship between electrical,

pneumatic and hydraulic components.

To analyse signals (binary, analogue, digital) and to

deduce potential error sources.

To use computer-aided diagnostic methods, e.g. testing

and diagnostic functions of a programming system or bus

system.

Area of training 11:

Commissioning, fault finding and

corrective procedures

To analyse mechatronic systems on the basis of technical

documentation and to break down their configuration into

function blocks.

Area of training 13:

Handover of mechatronic systems to

customers

To describe mechatronic systems.

To create operating instructions and documentation.

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Training content: PLC programming and testing of the program

Mechatronics engineers

Area of training Training aim

Area of training 7:

Realisation of mechatronic subsystems

To understand the design and mode of operation of a PLC.

To design and document control systems for simple

applications.

To program simple control processes via PLC: Logic

operations, memory functions, timers, counters.

To carry out programming in one of the PLC programming

languages – ladder diagram, function chart or statement

list – in accordance with DIN EN 61131-3.

To document control systems in function diagrams and

function chart according to DIN EN 60848.

Area of training 8:

Design and creation of mechatronic

systems

To program mechatronic systems in one of the

programming languages – ladder diagram, function chart,

statement list, sequential function chart.

To program the mode section.

To program a sequence control.

Area of training 9:

Analysing the information flow in

complex mechatronic systems

To use computer-aided diagnostic methods, e.g. testing

and diagnostic functions of the programming system.

Area of training 11:

Commissioning, fault finding and

corrective procedures

To eliminate errors in the PLC program.

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Training content: Systematic fault finding on systems

Mechatronics engineers

Area of training Training aim

Area of training 4:

Analysing the energy and information

flow in electrical and hydraulic modules

Fault finding on simple modules with the help of

measurement technology.

Area of training 7:

Realisation of mechatronic subsystems

To check control systems for simple applications, e.g. by

means of signal analysis.

Area of training 8:

Design and creation of mechatronic

systems

To identify errors by means of signal analyses at interfaces

and eleminating error causes.

Computer simulation

Area of training 9:

Analysing the information flow within

complex mechatronic systems

To analyse signals (binary, analogue, digital) and deduce

potential error sources.

To use computer-aided diagnostic methods, e.g. the

testing and diagnostic function of the programming

system.

Area of training 11:

Commissioning, fault finding and

corrective procedures

To understand the procedure for fault finding in electrical,

pneumatic and hydraulic systems.

To carry out a fault analysis.

To have a command of and apply systematic fault finding.

To recognise typical error causes.

To make specific use of diagnostic systems.

To document faults.

To create a log of corrective procedures.

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COSIMIR® PLC is a motivating, multimedia training aid on the subject of

automated systems.

The systems vary in complexity and can be flexibly programmed.

Problem definitions can thus be formulated according to requirements

and the instructor’s previous knowledge. It is therefore for instance

possible to analyse the mode of operation of individual components.

Similarly, it is possible to program and test the mode section of a

system.

Simulated processes have an innate didactic quality:

• They are practice-related and as representational as possible.

• The ability to experiment with process models creates an

environment close to that of an actual system, which is the real

object of training and knowledge is tested and consolidated.

• Practice-related experience with simulated processes lends a new

dimension and quality to knowledge in that theoretical knowledge

becomes application and practice-orientated competence.

COSIMIR® PLC supports self-motivated, experimental learning:

• A simulated system operates in the same way as an actual system.

This enables students, for instance, to immediately see whether

they have programmed the sequence of a system correctly. The

effect of incorrect operation also is apparent without causing any

damage to the system. This enables students to independently

reach and analyse their findings.

• Students can access technical documentation about process models

according to their needs.

• Students can practice their knowledge and skills on a wide range of

different process models.

6.5

The training concept of

COSIMIR® PLC

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What are the advantages of COSIMIR® PLC as a training medium?

• COSIMIR® PLC is a PC-assisted training aid and therefore represents

an alternative training method. Training can be devised in a

diversified and motivating way.

• Industry-based process models are used to practice and consolidate

the knowledge and skills acquired on actual systems.

• Simulated processes can be used to highlight and experiment with

statuses, which would be too hazardous on actual systems.

• Efficient, practice-related hands-on training is possible without the

use of an actual system.

• A one-off, actual system is available in the form of several simulated

systems, which increases the availability of this system for training

purposes.

• The actual and virtual world of automation can be combined in any

way and adapted to the requirements of the learning process.

• All systems simulated in COSIMIR® PLC are also available in the form

of actual systems and can be ideally combined and supplemented

for training.

• Skills and activities which can only be acquired and practiced on

actual systems should not to be replaced, but supplemented,

practised and consolidated.

• Simulation is an advanced tool for use with automated systems.

Example 1

To ensure that the PLC programs and design of a system are ready at

the same time, appropriate simulation of the system is used to test

the PLC program.

Example 2:

Since production systems should have as few downtimes as

possible, simulated systems are often used to train and familiarise

operators and maintenance personnel with systems.

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COSIMIR® PLC supports you in many different ways with the

familiarisation and analysis of a system.

The systematic procedure you use to do so and the knowledge you

acquire can be transferred to any system and of course also an actual

system.

Load a process model to COSIMIR® PLC . Whilst the process model is

being simulated, you can control, monitor and analyse the process,

which follows the specification of the PLC program provided. The

supplied PLC program defines a possible sequence and operation of the

process. The process model can however also be controlled via a

different PLC program.

• The selected process model is operational and there are no faults in

the process.

• The selected process model is to be controlled via the internal PLC.

A correct STEP 7 PLC program is available in the form of a sample

program. The sample program is loaded to the internal PLC.

These training aims can be taught with the use of COSIMIR® PLC :

• To analyse and understand automated systems on the basis of

technical documentation and with the help of simulated processes.

• To identify the function and mode of operation of the individual

components.

• To break down the system into function blocks in order to identify

the system structure.

• To identify and track the signal , material and energy flow of the

system.

7. This is how you establish the mode of operation and

structure of a system in COSIMIR® PLC

Prerequisite

7.1

Training aims

Main training aim

General training aims

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• To identify the controller behaviour and the operating sequence of

the system with the help of the technical documentation, i.e.

Function Chart.

• To familiarise students with the operation of the system.

• To understand the product and the processing method.

• To investigate the system with the help of the simulated process.

• To use the technical documentation specifically to investigate the

system.

The technical documentation is comprised of the following: Function

chart, circuit diagrams, operating instructions, commissioning

instructions, data sheets.

• To identify the advantages of a simulated process for the operating

sequence.

To be able to understand and analyse a system, you will need to

subdivide.

One possible way, is to subdivide a system into the areas of system and

controller structure, mechanical configuration, drive technology, control

elements, control system, signal generators and energy supply.

No. Function scope Components and component parts

1 System structure and

controller structure

Program flow charts, function charts, function diagrams,

description

2 Mechanical configuration Support and mounting unit, function units, adjustment

3 Drive technology Electrics, hydraulics, pneumatics, mechanics

4 Control elements Electrics, hydraulics, pneumatics, mechanics

5 Control system Electrical relay controller, PLC, pneumatics, CNC, robot controllers

6 Signal generators Binary sensors, analogue sensors, digital sensors

7 Energy supply Electrics, hydraulics, pneumatics

Structure of a system

7.2

Methods

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This structure serves as the basis for a systematic procedure to analyse

and investigate the system.

Questions regarding the individual function scopes provide ideas and

guidance as to what exactly you should investigate within the individual

function scopes.

Function scope - system and controller structure

– What is the function of the system?

– What is the system to produce?

– How is the operating sequence of the system defined?

– What control functions are provided?

– What display functions are provided?

– What type of control system is available: Logic control system,

sequence control?

– What function units does the system consist of?

– Are the function units or components networked?

– What bus systems are used: PROFIBUS, AS-i, Ethernet, or similar?

– What information is exchanged within the system?

– What information is exchanged with other systems or higher order

processes?

– What does the material flow look like?

– What does the signal flow look like?·

– What does the energy flow look like?

– What does the information flow look like?

– What are the possibilities of tracing the signal flow?

– Program flow chart

– Function chart

– Function diagrams

– Description

– Operating instructions

– Commissioning instructions

Questions

Documents

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Function scope - drive technology

– What drives are incorporated: Linear drive, swivel drive, rotary drive,

electric motor

– Which drive technology is used: Electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic?

– Circuit diagrams

– Data sheets

Function scope - control elements

– What control elements are incorporated?

– How are the control elements actuated: Electrically, pneumatically,

hydraulically?

– How high is the control voltage used for electrically actuated control

elements?

– What interfaces occur between the signal control section and the

power section?

– How do the control elements react in the event of Emergency-Stop?

– What are the status display options of control elements?

– Circuit diagrams·

– Data sheets

Function scope - the control sysem

– How is the control system realised: PLC, relay control, robot control,

CNC, pneumatic control?

– Which control energy does the PLC require?

– What is the voltage applied at the PLC inputs?

– What is the voltage applied to the PLC outputs?

– Is a bus system used?

– Which fieldbus system forms part of the control system?

– Circuit diagrams

– Data sheets

Questions

Documents

Questions

Documents

Questions

Documents

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Function scope - signal generators

– Which signal generators are incorporated: Binary, analogue, digital?

– Which electronic signal generators are incorporated: Optical

sensors, inductive sensors, capacitive sensors, magnetic sensors?

– What is the design (polarity of the output signal) of the electronic

sensors: PNP, NPN?

– Which mechanically actuated sensors are incorporated?

– Which pressure sensors are incorporated?

– What are the status display options of the sensors?

– Circuit diagrams

– Data sheets

Function scope - energy supply

– Which energy supply is used?

– How high is the operating pressure in the case of pneumatic or

hydraulic energy supply?

– Is direct or alternating current used?

– How high is the operating voltage: 24 V or 230 V?

– Circuit diagrams

– Data sheets

Questions

Documents

Questions

Documents

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COSIMIR® PLC supports you with the following during your analysis and

investigation of the system:

• Simulation of the process model and execution of the PLC program

in the internal PLC.

• Window for PLC inputs/outputs: Display of the PLC inputs/outputs.

• Window for manual operation: To monitor process activities and

process statuses.

• Window for manual operation: To set breakpoints to enable you to

monitor system operation step by step.

• Window for manual operation: To set specific breakpoints in order to

stop the process at a particular step.

• COSIMIR® PLC Assistant: Provides information on-line, such as

circuit diagrams for the process model.

Investigating the operating sequence of the Distribution station

Investigate the operating sequence of the distribution station. To do so,

use the checklist containing the system structure.

Answer the following questions:

• How is the initial position of the system defined?

• What is the purpose of the Reset function?

• What is defined as the start precondition: Does it include the

execution of the Reset function?

• How does the distribution station react if no more workpieces are

available?

• No more workpieces are available in the stacking magazine. What

do you need to do for the station to operate correctly again?

7.3

Support via

COSIMIR® PLC

7.4

Example

Exercise

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1. Load the Distribution process model controlled via the internal PLC.

2. The system can be broken down into the following function blocks:

Stacking magazine, swivel drive and electrical. The electrics also

include the PLC.

Implementation

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3. Refer to the technical documentation for information regarding the

initial position and start condition of the system.

To do so, access the on-line help for the process model. Click onto

Help with the Work Cell in the Help menu.

The required information is available in the chapters „The

Distribution Station“ and „Technical Documentation“.

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Initial position: Ejecting cylinder extended (1B2=1) and swivel arm at

magazine (3S1=1) and workpiece not picked up (2B1=0).

The system moves to the initial position via the Reset function.

The start condition is met if the station is reset and in the initial

position.

4. Start the simulation of the process model by clicking onto Start in

the Execute menu.

5. Control the process by means of the pushbuttons and switches of

the control console.

Carry out the reset function first by clicking onto the green

illuminated Reset button.

Then place two workpieces into the magazine by clicking onto the

workpieces on the slotted assembly board.

Start executing the process by clicking onto the Start button.

You can now follow the implementation of the process.

Result

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6. If there are no further workpieces in the magazine, the swivel arm

stops in the adjacent station position. The indicator light Q1 is

illuminated. The designation of the indicator light in the circuit

diagram is H3.

7. Fill the magazine with workpieces. Click onto the illuminated Start

button to acknowledge that you have finished filling the magazine.

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8. Open the Manual Operation window, if you want to execute a

process sequence step by step, to enable you to monitor it more

effectively. To do so, click onto Manual Operation in the Execute

menu.

Highlight all the process activities and set breakpoints at these

process activities by activating the context sensitive menu via the

right mouse button. Select Stop at Value Change.

Start the simulation of the process model. Simulation stops at each

value change. As soon as simulation is re-started, the next step is

executed.

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9. You can trace the signals in the process via the status display in the

Manual Operation window or via the LEDs of the process

components.

10. To access information regarding the circuit diagram designations of

process components, click onto the LED or the air connection of a

component.

If, as a result of simulation, the process model reaches a status you

cannot or do not want to work with any longer, return the process model

to the initial position by stopping the simulation. Then click onto Work

Cell Initial Position in the Processing menu.

Determining the components of the Distribution station

Investigate the design of the Distribution station. Use the checklist

detailing the structure of the station and the questions regarding the

system for this.

Answer the following questions:

• With which valve is the swivel drive actuated?

• How is the vacuum generated?

• What are the designations of the solenoid coils of the valve for the

ejection of the workpieces?

• Via which sensor is the filling level of the magazine monitored?

• How many PLC inputs and PLC outputs are required for the control of

the Distribution station?

Note

7.5

Example

Exercise

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1. Load the Distribution process model controlled via the internal PLC.

Implementation

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2. Refer to the technical documentation for information regarding the

process components and their circuit diagram designations.

To do so, open the on-line help for the process model and click onto

Help with the Work Cell in the Help menu.

The required information is available in the chapter „Technical

Documentation“.

The swivel drive is actuated via two 3/2-way solenoid valves. This valve

combination has the function of a 5/3-way solenoid valve with mid-

position pressurised. The circuit diagram designation for this valve is

3V1.

The vacuum is generated via a 2/2-way solenoid valve. The second

2/2-way solenoid valve creates an ejector pulse, which results in

reliable ejection once the vacuum is switched off. The circuit diagram

designation for the valve is 2V1.

All valves are housed on one valve terminal.

The designation of the valve coil of valve 1V1 for the actuation of the

ejecting cylinder is 1Y1.

The filling level of the magazine is checked via the optical sensor with

the circuit diagram designation B4.

Result

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3. Take a look also at the process components in the process model

itself.

Click onto the LED or the air connection in order to display the

designation.

To enlarge or turn the components, use the options in the View

menu.

You can restore the standard setting of the process model by

clicking onto Standard in the View menu and then selecting

Presetting.

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4. Determine the number of PLC inputs and outputs required to control

the process.

You will find the relevant information for this in the technical

documentation via the on-line help.

You can however also display the PLC inputs/outputs and their

statuses in a separate window for the process model by clicking

onto Inputs/Outputs under Extras and selecting Display Inputs and

Display Outputs.

The process control system requires 12 PLC inputs and 8 PLC outputs.

Result

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Tracing the signal and energy flow on the Distribution process model

Investigate the signal and energy flow of the Distribution station.

To do so, trace the signal of the sensor 1B1 up to the respective PLC

input.

Trace the signal and energy flow from the PLC output 3Y1 to the

pneumatic drive.

Answer the following additional questions:

• To which PLC input is the sensor 2S2 connected?

• To which PLC input is the sensor B4 connected?

• Which drive is actuated via the solenoid coil 1Y1?

• To which PLC output is the vacuum generator connected?

1. Load the Distribution process model controlled via the internal PLC.

7.6

Example

Exercise

Implementation

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2. Refer to the technical documentation for information regarding the

signal and energy flow of the sensor 1B1 and the PLC output 3Y1.

To do so, open the on-line help for the process model and click onto

Help with the Work Cell in the Help menu.

The required information is available in the chapter „Technical

Documentation“.

The sensor 1B1 is connected to the PLC input 1B1 (I0.2).

The PLC output 3Y1 (O 0.3) controls the valve coil 3Y1 of the valve 3V1.

3. Move the process model into the initial position by clicking onto

Work Cell Initial Position in the Processing menu.

4. Start the simulation by clicking onto Start in the Execute menu.

5. Establish where the components are located in the system and

investigate the signals and energy flow of these. You will recognise

the components by their circuit diagram designation.

6. Control the process by using the pushbuttons and switches of the

control console.

First, carry out the reset function by clicking onto the green

illuminated Reset button.

Then fill the magazine with workpieces by clicking onto one of the

workpieces on the slotted assembly board.

Start the process operation by clicking onto the Start button.

You can now follow the process execution.

Result

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7. Carry out the process activity step-by-step to enable you to better

monitor everything. Open the Manual Operation window by clicking

onto Manual Operation in the Execute menu.

Highlight all the process activities and set the breakpoints at these

by activating the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button.

Select Stop at Value Change.

Start the simulation of the process model. Simulation stops with

each value change. The next step in the process is executed as soon

as you restart simulation.

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8. Monitor the signal flow of the sensor 1B1.

The sensor 1B1 is connected to the PLC input 1B1, i.e. to

STATION_1B1. The sensor status can be established via the LED on

the sensor. You can also monitor the switching status of the sensor

in the Manual Operation window.

If the sensor 1B1 switches, then a 1-signal is applied at the PLC

input STATION_1B1. The status of the PLC inputs is displayed in the

Inputs window. Open this window by clicking onto PLC

Inputs/Outputs in the Extras menu and select Display Inputs.

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9. Monitor the signal and energy flow of the PLC output STATION_3Y1.

The PLC output STATION_3Y1 is connected to the valve coil 3Y1. The

status of the PLC can be established in the Ouputs window. Open

this window by clicking onto PLC Inputs/Outputs in the Extras menu

and select Display Outputs.

If a 1-signal is applied at the PLC input, voltage is also applied at the

valve coil 3Y1. The LED of the valve coil is illuminated. If a 0-signal is

also applied simultaneously at the valve coil 3Y2, then the

valve 3V1 switches. The swivel arm moves into the magazine

position.

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When investigating a system, the main focus can be put on

familiarisation with the components, in which case the system will not

be not controlled via a PLC program.

To enable you to more closely observe the mode of operation and

behaviour of a component, COSIMIR® PLC allows you to operate

individual actuators “by hand”, similar to an actual station. With manual

operation, an electrical signal is generated at the selected solenoid coil

and the valve switches according to the signal applied and controls the

drive.

The system components can be specifically controlled via manual

operation. You can trace the signal and energy flow, identify interfaces

and therefore systematically analyse and understand the system.

• The process model selected is operational and there are no faults

within the process.

• The process model selected will not be controlled via a PLC. The

working energies current and compressed air are connected.

The following training aims can be taught with the use of COSIMIR® PLC:

• Familiarisation with the individual components of an automated

system: Mode of operation, status display elements, mechanical

characteristics.

8. This is how you establish the mode of operation of the

components forming part of a system in COSIMIR® PLC

Prerequisite

8.1

Training aims

Main training aim

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• Familiarisation with the mode of operation of sensors and limit

switches.

• To be able to identify application areas for optical, magnetic,

inductive and capacitive sensors.

• To be familiar with the DC motor as an example of an electrical drive.

• To know of examples for pneumatic linear drives and rotary drives.

• To be familiar with the design and mode of operation of

electropneumatic valves.

• To analyse and understand the signal and energy flow of

components.

• To be familiar with electropneumatic circuits.

• To be familiar with status display components on electrical

components and to use these for signal tracing.

Use a systematic approach to familiarise yourself with a system or

system components. The instructions for a systematic procedure are set

out in Chapter 7.

COSIMIR® PLC supports you with the following during your analysis and

investigation of the components which formpart of a system:

• Simulation of the process model. The PLC programs are not active

during this.

• Window for manual operation: Monitoring of process activities and

statuses.

• Window for manual operation: Initiating individual process

activities.

• COSIMIR® PLC Assistant: Provides information on-line, such as

circuit diagrams for the process model.

General training aims

8.2

Methods

8.3

Support via

COSIMIR® PLC

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168 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

Investigating the mode of operation of the ejecting cylinder in the

stacking magazine module

Investigate the mode of operation of the stacking magazine.

Answer the following questions:

• How is the initial position of the stacking magazine defined?

• What is the status of the ejecting cylinder in the initial position?

• How do you identify whether the ejecting cylinder is extended or

retracted?

• Via which valve is the ejecting cylinder actuated?

• What is the designation of the valve solenoid coil for the actuation of

the ejecting cylinder?

• How can you identify whether voltage is applied at the solenoid coil?

• Is the sensor for workpiece detection an inductive, capacitive or

optical sensor?

• Which signal is applied at the sensor if a workpiece is available in

the magazine?

8.4

Example

Exercise

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8. This is how you establish the mode of operation of the components forming part of a system in

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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 169

1. Load the stacking magazine process model. Since neither a sample

PLC program is available for the stacking magazine nor a PLC

program is to be executed, you can load the work cell for the internal

or external PLC.

Proceed as follows, when carrying the investigation of individual

components on a process model for which a sample program is

available:

• Load the process model controlled via the internal PLC.

• Open the Manual Operation window.

• Activate the context-sensitive menu via the right mouse button.

Select Disconnect Controllers.

• Carry out your investigations by means of manual operation.

• Once you have completed your investigations and want to control

the process model via the internal PLC, connect the simulation of the

process model with the internal PLC. To do so, activate the context-

sensitive menu via the right mouse button and select Restore I/O

Connections.

Implementation

Note

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170 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

2. Establish which components the stacking magazine consists of.

You can find the relevant information by clicking onto the LED or the

compressed air connection of the component. Additional

information is available in the technical documentation. This

technical documentation is available on-line. To access this, open

the on-line help for the process model by clicking onto Help with the

Work Cell in the Help menu.

You will find the required information in the chapter „Technical

Documentation“.

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The ejecting cylinder separates out the workpieces.

The end positions of the ejecting cylinder are detected via two sensors:

Sensor 1B1 (ejecting cylinder retracted), sensor 1B2 (ejecting cylinder

extended).

The valve for the actuation of the ejecting cylinder is a 5/2-way solenoid

valve with the designation 1V1.

The valve coil 1Y1 actuates the valve 1V1.

The optical sensor B4 detects whether a workpiece is available in the

magazine.

3. Make sure that the stacking magazine is in the initial position by

clicking onto Work Cell Initial Position in the Processing menu.

In the initial position, the ejecting cylinder is extended.

4. Start the process model simulation by clicking onto Start in the

Execute menu.

Result

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172 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

5. Open the Manual Operation window by clicking onto Manual

Operation in the Execute menu.

6. Add a workpiece into the magazine by clicking onto one of the

workpieces on the slotted assembly board.

Check whether the status of the sensor B4 changes.

You can identify the switching status of the sensor on the LED of the

sensor. You can however also establish the sensor status via the

Manual Operation window.

No workpiece available: B4=1

Workpiece available: B4=0.

Result

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7. Eject a workpiece from the magazine by applying a 1-signal at valve

coil 1Y1.

Double click onto line 1 of the process activities. Valve coil 1Y1 is set

at value 1 and the ejecting cylinder ejects a workpiece. No

compressed air tubing is shown in the simulation. Applied

compressed air is signalled by means of a blue connection.

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174 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

8. Return the magazine ejector to the magazine by double clicking onto

line1 of the process activities. This double click changes the value of

the valve coil from 1 to 0; the ejecting cylinder extends again.

9. Remove the ejected workpiece by double clicking onto line 2 of the

process activities. The workpiece is removed.

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COSIMIR® PLC offers you numerous process models for automated

applications that are typical in industry. You determine the process

sequence, which can be either simple or complex. You then create the

PLC program for this sequence in the programming system and for the

PLC of your choice. The PLC program is subsequently used to control the

process model. You can immediately detect whether the PLC program is

operating correctly. If errors occur, then use the testing and diagnostic

functions of your programming system for error detection and error

elimination.

The main focus of COSIMIR® PLC as part of PLC programming is on:

• Practising a systematic procedure to create the PLC program.

• Systematic testing of the PLC program on the simulated process.

The advantage is that relevant actual systems exist for these process

models. This enables you to carry out comprehensive commissioning on

the actual systems with the tested PLC programs.

• The selected process model is operational and there are no faults

within the process.

• The process model selected is to be controlled via an external PLC.

COSIMIR® PLC is a tool for the process of creating a PLC program. With

the help of this tool you can teach the following training contents.

• To design, create and test PLC programs for simple motion

sequences.

9. This is how you use COSIMIR® PLC in PLC programming

Prerequisite

9.1

Training aims

Main training aim for the

Beginners target group

Beginners

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• To describe the design and function of a PLC.

• To list the differences between a PLC and relay control.

• To realise simple control tasks using basic logic functions (and

timers).

• To program simple control tasks in one of the programming

languages: Ladder diagram, function chart or statement list

according to DIN EN 61131-3.

• To test PLC programs for simple control tasks.

• To systematically solve simple control problems from problem

definition and analysis through to finding a solution, programming,

checking and documentation.

• To design, create and test a PLC program for extensive control

systems.

• To program sequence control systems in sequential function chart

according to DIN EN 61131-3.

• To program the mode section.

• To utilise the diagnostic and testing functions of the PLC

programming system.

• To systematically solve control tasks from problem definition and

analaysis through to finding a solution, programming, checking and

documentation.

PLC programs – or more generally control programs - are an important

component part of an automated system. In order for PLC programs to

be as error-free, easy to maintain and cost effective as possible, they

need to be systematically designed, well structured and documented in

detail.

General training aims for

the target group Beginners

Main training aim for the

Advanced target group

General training aim for

the Advanced target group

9.2

Methods

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9. This is how you use COSIMIR® PLC in PLC programming

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 177

Proceeding in stages has proved a successful method for the

development of a PLC program. Breaking down the process into stages

or sections provides a targeted, systematic approach and gives clearly

configured results that can be checked against the problem definition.

Stages Activities Result/documents

Specification

(description of the

control task)

– Description of the system

– Defining the system process

– Function description

– Positional sketch

– Technology layout

Planning and design

(description of the

solution)

– Planning the system

– Defining the control technology

requirements (Emergency-Stop,

modes of operation,

visualisation...)

– Design of the PLC program

(formal representation of the

sequence and logic of the PLC

program)

– Circuit diagrams·

– Parts lists·

– Solution in the form of a function

table or logic diagram to

IEC 617-12 for sequence

controllers

– Solution in the form of a function

chart to DIN EN 60848 for

sequence controllers

– Function diagrams

– Definition of software modules

Realisation

(Implementation of the

solution)

– Programming of the PLC progam

– Simulation and testing of program

sections and the overall program

– Construction of the system

– Annotated PLC program in one

of the programming languages

to DIN EN 61131-3

Commissioning

(integration and

testing of the solution)

– Testing and commissioning of the

control system

– Operational PLC program

– Commissioning report

– Storage medium with PLC program

– Full documentation

Stages within the systematic solution of a control task

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178 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

COSIMIR® PLC with the following for PLC programming:

• Industry-typical, realistic process models of varying complexity.

• Simulation of the process model.

• Control of the process model via OPC interface using any PLC (for

example via S7-PLCSIM).

• Window for PLC inputs/outputs: Display of PLC inputs/outputs.

• Window for manual operation: Monitoring process activities and

process statuses.

• COSIMIR® PLC Assistant: Provides information such as system

description or circuit diagrams.

Programming the display of the initial position of the Distribution

process model.

On the Distribution station, the indicator light H1 is to be illuminated if

the station is in the initial position.

The technical documentation for the station is to be used, such as the

circuit diagrams and symbols table. You will find these in COSIMIR® PLC

Assistant.

• Represent the control function in the form of a logic diagram.

• Program the control task in one of the following languages: Ladder

diagram, function chart or statement list.

• Test the PLC program using the simulated process model.

9.3

Support via

COSIMIR® PLC

9.4

Example

Exercise

Ancillary conditions

Your task

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Implementation using the programming system STEP 7and the Soft PLC

S7-PLCSIM

1. Start COSIMIR® PLC .

2. Load the Distribution process model controlled via the external PLC.

3. Use the technical documentation to find out how the initial position

of the station is defined.

To do so, open the on-line help for the process model and click onto

Help with the Work Cell in the Help menu.

You will find the required information in the chapters „The

Distribution Station“ and „Technical Documentation“.

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180 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

Initial position: Ejecting cylinder extended (1B2=1) and swivel arm at

magazine (3S1=1) workpiece not picked up (2B1=0).

4. Formulate the control function in the form of a logic diagram.

1B1 H1

3S1

2B1

&

Logic diagram

5. Create the symbols table for the control function.

Take the required inputs/outputs from the general symbols table for

the Distribution station. The symbols table is available via the on-

line Help for the work cell. Activate the on-line Help by clicking onto

Help with the Work Cell in the Help menu

Symbol Address Data

type

Comment

1B2 I 0.1 BOOL Ejecting cylinder extended

2B1 I 0.3 BOOL Workpiece picked up

3S1 I 0.4 BOOL Swivel arm in magazine

position

H1 O 1.0 BOOL Indicator light

Initial position

6. Start STEP 7 or the SIMATIC Manager.

7. Plan a project for the control function.

Result

Result

Result

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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 181

8. Create the PLC program and store this.

9. Open S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto Simulate Module under Options in

the SIMATIC Manager.

10. Delete the contents of the virtual CPU of S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto

the MRES button in the CPU 300/400 window.

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182 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

11. Load the PLC program to the S7-PLCSIM. In order to do this,

highlight the folder Module, then click onto Load in the Target

System menu.

12. Start the S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the box next to RUN in the CPU

300/400 window.

13. Start the process model simulation by activating Start in the

Execute menu.

With the starting of the process model simulation, the communication

program EzOPC is also started. If EzOPC is started, both communication

users - S7-PLCSIM and process model simulation must already be

active. Only then can the communication link be correctly set up.

Note

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14. Carry out the settings in EzOPC.

Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar. This will open the

EzOPC window.

Click onto Communication Setup in the Configuration menu.

Carry out the necessary settings.

In the Easy Port section, select Not Connected for EasyPort 1.

In the PLCSIM section, select Installed for STEP 7 PLCSIM V5.x.

Accept the preset values 0 and 32 for Start Byte and End Byte

without changing it, although only the first four bytes are required.

In the section VirtualPLC, select PLCSIM for Connect VirtualPLC to:.

Click onto OK to confirm your settings.

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184 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

15. These changes may require EzOPC to be restarted. Close the EzOPC

program and carry out the restart from the start menu. EzOPC can be

accessed via the default setting Programs -> Festo Didactic -> EzOPC

V4.9.2 .

16. Minimise the EzOPC window.

17. If your PLC program is correct, the indicator light H1 is illuminated if

the station is in the initial position.

18. If PLC program still contains errors, then the on-line view in STEP 7

will support you ideally during fault finding. Call up the program

module , in which you suspect the fault and activate Monitor in the

Test menu. You can now monitor in parallel with simulation, which

PLC program sections are or are not being executed.

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9. This is how you use COSIMIR® PLC in PLC programming

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 185

Programming a simple sequence for the Distribution station

A simple sequence is to be programmed for the Distribution station.

The sequence is defined as follows:

1. The swivel drive swivels to the „Succeeding Station“ position, if

workpieces are detected in the magazine and the Start button is

pressed.

2. The ejecting cylinder retracts and ejects a workpiece from the

magazine.

3. The swivel drive moves to the „Magazine“ position.

4. The vacuum is switched on. If the workpiece is reliably picked up, a

vacuum switch switches.

5. The ejecting cylinder extends and releases a workpiece.

6. The swivel drive moves to the „Succeeding Station“ position.

7. The vacuum is switched off.

8. The swivel arm moves to the „Magazine“ position.

The technical documentation for the station is to be used, such as

circuit diagrams and the symbols table. You will find these in COSIMIR®

PLC Assistant.

• Represent the control task in function chart according to

DIN EN 60848.

• Program the control task in sequential function chart.

• Test the PLC program with the simulated process model.

9.5

Example

Exercise

Ancillary conditions

Your task

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186 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

Implementation using the programming system STEP 7 and the Soft

PLC S7-PLCSIM

1. Start COSIMIR® PLC .

2. Load the Distribution process model, controlled via the external PLC.

3. Refer to the technical documentation to find out which process

components are used and what the designations of the components

are in the circuit diagram.

Open the on-line help to do so and activate Help with the Work Cell

in the Help menu.

You will find the required information in the chapter „Technical

Documentation“.

4. Formulate the control task in function chart.

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Station in initial position andpart in magazine and Start button

Function chart to DIN EN 60848 (IEC 60848)

1Start

2Swivel arm

to“SucceedingStation” pos.

Swivel arm to“Succeeding Station” position

Swivel arm in “Succeeding Station” position

Swivel arm in “Succeeding Station” position

Workpiece not picked up

4Swivel arm

to“Magazine”

position

8Swivel arm

to“Magazine”

position

6Swivel arm

to“SucceedingStation” pos.

5Pick up

workpiece

7Deposit

workpiece

3Eject

workpiece

Magazine slide forward(ejecting cylinder to retract)

Magazine slide back(ejecting cylinder to extend)

Vacuum OFF

Swivel arm to“Magazine” position

Swivel arm to“Magazine” position

Swivel arm to“Succeeding Station” position

Vacuum ON

Workpiece ejected

Swivel arm in “Magazine” position

Swivel arm in “Magazine” position

Workpiece picked up andmagazine slide back

Function chart for the control task

Result

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188 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

5. Create the symbols table for the control task.

Take the required inputs/outputs from the general symbols table for the

Distribution station. You will find the symbols table on the on-line help

for the work cell.

Symbol Address Data

type

Comment

1B2 I 0.1 BOOL Ejecting cylinder extended

1B1 I 0.2 BOOL Ejecting cylinder retracted

2B1 I 0.3 BOOL Workpiece picked up

3S1 I 0.4 BOOL Swivel drive in magazine

position

3S2 I 0.5 BOOL Swivel drive in succeeding

station position

B4 I 0.6 BOOL Magazine empty

S1 I 1.0 BOOL Start button

1Y1 O 0.0 BOOL Ejecting cylinder to retract

(magazine slide advanced)

2Y1 O 0.1 BOOL Switch on vacuum

2Y2 O 0.2 BOOL Switch off vacuum

3Y1 O 0.3 BOOL Swivel cylinder to magazine

position

3Y2 O 0.4 BOOL Swivel cylinder to

succeeding station position

6. Start STEP 7, i.e. the SIMATIC Manager respectively.

Result

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7. Create a project for the control task.

8. Create the PLC program and store it.

9. Open S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto Simulate Modules under Options

in the SIMATIC MANAGER.

10. Delete the contents of the virtual CPU of S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto

the MRES button in the CPU 300/400 window.

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190 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

11. Load the PLC program to S7-PLCSIM. To do so, mark the Modules

folder and then activate Load in the Target System menu.

12. Start S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the box next to RUN in the

CPU 300/400 window.

13. Start the simulation of the process model by clicking onto Start in

the Execute menu.

With the starting of the process model simulation, the communication

program EzOPC is also started. If EzOPC is started, both communication

users - S7-PLCSIM and the simulation of the process model – must

already be active. Only then will the communication links be correctly

set up.

Note

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14. Carry out the settings in EzOPC.

Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar to open the EzOPC

window.

Click onto Communication Setup in the Configuration menu.

Carry out the necessary settings.

In the EasyPort section, select Not connected for EasyPort 1.

Select Installed in the section PLCSIM for STEP 7 PLCSIM V5.x.

Accept the preset values 0 and 32 for Start Byte and End Byte

without changing them, although only the first four bytes are

required.

Select PLCSIM for Connect VirtualPLC to: in the section VirtualPLC.

Click onto OK to confirm your settings.

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192 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

15. The changes may require EzOPC to be restarted. Close the EzOPC

program and carry out the restart via the start menu. EzOPC can be

accessed via the default setting -> Festo Didactic -> EzOPC V4.9.2.

16. Minimise the EzOPC window.

17. If your program is correct, you can start the sequence once you have

inserted a workpiece by clicking onto the Start button.

18. If the PLC program still contains errors, the on-line view in STEP 7

will support you ideally with fault finding. Call up the program

module, where you suspect an error. Activate the command Monitor

the Test menu. You can now monitor, in parallel with the process

simulation, which PLC programs are or are not being executed.

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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC 193

COSIMIR® PLC supports you in numerous ways during systematic fault

finding on a simulated system.

The systematic procedure, the working aids and diagnostic systems

used for this and the know-how you acquire, can be applied to any

system.

Load a process model in COSIMIR® PLC . A fault has been previously set

on this process model. You can now control and monitor the process

model as it is being simulated. Analyse the fault behaviour and

determine the cause of the fault. When you have found the cause,

eliminate the fault by entering the cause of the fault in the window

provided. If you have identified the cause of the fault, then the process

model will operate correctly during the next simulation run.

• The selected process model is loaded and a fault set in the process

model by an authorised person.

• The fault simultation mode is active.

• The selected process model is controlled via the internal PLC. A

correct PLC program is available and the sample program is

automatically loaded to the internal PLC.

You can impart these training aims with the use of COSIMIR® PLC :

• Systematically repairing a system after a fault has occurred.

• To familiarise students with and apply a general procedure for

systematic repair work in the event of a fault.

• To acquire information regarding the mode of operation of a system

and system components from technical documentation.

10. This is how you carry out systematic fault finding on

a simulated system

Prerequisite

10.1

Training aims

Main training aim

General training aims

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194 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

• To determine the actual status of a system after a fault has

occurred.

• To carry out systematic fault finding on PLC controlled

electropneumatic systems.

• To become familiarised with and apply a strategy for fault finding on

PLC controlled electropneumatic systems.

• To carry out a fault analysis.

• To know the typical causes of faults.

• To document faults.

• To make targeted use of diagnostic systems.

• To familiarise students with the working aids for fault finding.

The basic prerequisite for systematic fault finding and corrective

procedures is to understand the system. Only if you understand the

system, its structure and function can you carry out corrective

procedures.

Eliminating faults by means of systematic corrective procedures.

The following methods have proved successful with systematic fault

finding and corrective procedures:

• Familiarisation with the system

• Systematic repair work after a fault has occurred

• Systematic determination of the actual status of the system

• Systematic fault finding in general

• Systematic fault finding for PLC controlled systems

Familiarise yourself with the system by:

• Investigating the system.

• Analysing the system documentation.

• Understanding the product and the processing technology.

• Conducting informative discussions with system operators.

10.2

Methods

Method: Familiarisation

with the system

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In the event of an inadvertent interruption of the process, corrective

procedures are to be carried out according to the following schematic

representation:

REQUIREDstatus

ACTUALstatus

Faultdiagnosis

Faultfinding

Faultlocated

YesNo

Correctiveprocedures

Recom-missioning

Productionsystem

Com-parison

Systematic corrective procedures

In the event of a fault signal, the actual status of the system is to be

established first.

Once the actual status has been determined and compared with the

required status, the actual fault finding starts. The source of a fault is

often found during this comparison if the fault

• is visible (e.g. mechanical damage on a signal generator)

• is audible (e.g. leakage on a valve)

• is detectable by suspicious odours (e.g. scorching of a cable).

Method: Systematic

corrective procedures after

a fault has occurred

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196 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

If this is not the case, the fault can be found and eliminated by means of

systematic fault finding.

Once a fault is found, it is not enough to merely correct it. It is also

necessary to establish the cause of the fault. A list of faults is is helpful

for this and this should be stored in the system. This list describes all

the faults and their causes.

With the help of a fault list, it is possible to determine whether damage

or faults occur regularly. In this way, it is possible to identify weak areas

in the system. Once these are established, it is advisable to technically

improve the system.

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First, the actual system status must be determined in the event of an

error message. Several options are available for this:

Establishing the actual status

Step 1 Determining the fault

behaviour of the system

– No start

– Standstill during process step

– Faulty process sequence

– Work result wrong

Step 2 Establishing the actual status

of the system

– Status displays (LED) on the system components:

– Current mode of operation

– Ready status

– Signal status of signal generators

– Switching status of control elements

– Switching status of PLC input/outputs

– Visible damage

– Audible damage

– Damage detectable by odour/smell

– Screen:

– Error message, diagnostic message

– Status information

– Machine status display

Method: Systmatically

determining the actual

system status

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10. This is how you carry out systematic fault finding on a simulated system

198 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

The basis for systematic fault finding is again the desired/actual value

comparison.

Investigating possiblesources of faults by meansof testing or measurementprotocols

Determining ofACTUAL status

Comparison withREQUIRED status

Elimination of faultand recommissioning

Result

YES

(fault found)

NO

(fault not found)

Establishing possibleerror sourcesa

– Mechanical faults– Pneumatic faults– Hydraulic faults– Electrical faults

Overview of systematic fault finding

Method: Systematic fault

finding in general

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10. This is how you carry out systematic fault finding on a simulated system

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Every controller functions on the principle of signal input, signal

processing and signal output.

Systematic fault finding for PLC controlled systems is based on this

structure.

A desired/actual value comparison enables you to narrow down the

area of the fault within the process sequence. Investigate possible

causes of faults by checking the components in the direction of the

signal and energy flow, starting from the fault location.

Method: Systematic fault

finding for PLC controlled

systems

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10. This is how you carry out systematic fault finding on a simulated system

200 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

Structure Working aids Possible error sources

Fault has occurred in the system

Establishing the actual status

Comparison of actual status with

desired status

Checking the electrical energy

supply

Voltage tester – Voltage supply switched off

– Voltage supply to high or too low

Checking of sensor Voltage tester

LED

– Sensor incorrectly adjusted

– Sensor mechanically displaced

– Sensor faulty

Monitoring of PLC input LED – PLC input module faulty

– Cable break between sensor and PLC

input

Checking of PLC LED

Programming and

testing unit

– PLC faulty

– No voltage applied

Checking of PLC output LED – PLC output module faulty

Checking of control elements Voltage tester

LED

Manual override

– Control element mechanically faulty

– Control element electrically faulty

– Cable break between PLC output and

control element

Checking of drive Visual inspection – Connections mixed up

– Loss of electrical connection

Checking of pneumatic or

hydraulic energy supply

Pressure gauge – Energy supply not switched on

– Leakage in network

Systematic fault finding of PLC controlled systems

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COSIMIR® PLC supports you with the following during the monitoring

and analysis of the actual system status:

• Simulation of the process model and execution of the PLC program

via internal PLC.

• Window for PLC inputs/outputs: Display of PLC input/outputs.

• Window for manual operation: Display of process activities and

process statuses.

• Window for fault localisation: Input and elimination the cause of the

fault.

• COSIMIR® Assistant: Provides information on-line regarding the

process model, such as circuit diagram or function chart.

Finding and eliminating faults in the Distribution station

A fault has occurred in the course of the sequence of the Distribution

station. Eliminate the fault by means of systematic corrective

procedures.

10.3

This is how COSIMIR® PLC

supports you

10.4

Example

Exercise

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10. This is how you carry out systematic fault finding on a simulated system

202 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

1. Load the Distribution process model with the set fault. The process

model is controlled via the internal PLC.

2. Ensure that the Fault Simulation mode is active.

3. Put the process model into the initial position by clicking onto Work

Cell Initial Position in the Processing menu.

4. Now start the simulation of the process model. To do so, click onto

Start in the Execute menu.

5. Operate the process using the pushbuttons and switches of the

control console.

Implementation

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6. A fault has occurred during execution, which stops the process.

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10. This is how you carry out systematic fault finding on a simulated system

204 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

7. Refer to the technical documentation to establish the correct

process execution. Open the on-line help for the process model by

clicking onto Help with the Work Cell in the Help menu.

You will find the required information in the chapters „The

Distribution Station“ and „Technical Documentation“.

8. Determine the actual status of the process and compare it with the

required status, thereby narrowing down the area of the fault

location within the process.

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The fault is a stoppage during the process sequence. The process step

„Move swivel arm to magazine position“ is not executed. Possible

causes of the fault are: The swivel cylinder and its valve actuation or

possibly also the sensors, which should trigger the movement of the

swivel cylinder.

9. We recommend that you check the energy flow, starting from the

sensors through to the swivel cylinder. It is of course possible to

proceed in reverse and to check the signal and energy flow from the

swivel cylinder to the valve via the PLC to the sensor.

10. Find out which sensor signals need to be applied in order for the

swivel arm to move to the magazine position. Use the function chart

and allocation list from the on-line help for the Distribution work

cell.

If the reed switch 1B1 and the end position switch 3S2 are actuated, the

swivel arm should move to the magazine position.

Result

Result

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10. This is how you carry out systematic fault finding on a simulated system

206 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

11. Check the switching status of the reed switch 1B1 and the end

position switch 3S2.

Two options are possible.

Evaluate the LED in the process model. The designation of the

respective component is displayed as soon as you click onto the

LED.

Or check the signal status of the sensors in the Manual Operation

window by clicking onto Manual Operation in the Execute window.

The LED of the reed switch 1B1 is illuminated and the sensor therefore

switches.

Result

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12. Check the PLC input 1B1 connected to the sensor by opening the

PLC Inputs window.

Click onto Inputs/Outputs in the Extras menu and select Display

Inputs.

The Inputs window is displayed.

A 0-signal is applied at the PLC input STATION_1B1, even though the

sensor 1B1 switches.

You therefore suspect that the cause of the fault is a cable break at the

PLC input 1B1.

Result

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10. This is how you carry out systematic fault finding on a simulated system

208 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® PLC

13. Open the Fault Localisation window to eliminate the fault.

Click onto Fault Localisation in the Execute menu to do so.

Then double click onto No fault on the line PLC input 1B2.

Select Cable Break in the list of options.

The simulation of the process model is continued correctly. The cause of

the fault has been correctly identified and eliminated.

Result