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  • © Nik Kinley and Shlomo Ben-Hur 2015

    All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission.

    No portion of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS.

    Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages.

    The authors have asserted their rights to be identifi ed as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

    First published 2015 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN

    Palgrave Macmillan in the UK is an imprint of Macmillan Publishers Limited, registered in England, company number 785998, of Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 6XS.

    Palgrave Macmillan in the US is a division of St Martin’s Press LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY10010.

    Palgrave is the global academic imprint of the above companies and has companies and representatives throughout the world.

    Palgrave® and Macmillan® are registered trademarks in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe and other countries.

    ISBN 978–1–137–44954–2

    This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. Logging, pulping and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Kinley, Nik, 1968– Changing employee behavior : a practical guide for managers / Nik Kinley, Shlomo Ben-Hur. pages cm ISBN 978–1–137–44954–2 1. Employee motivation. 2. Change (Psychology) 3. Personnel management. I. Ben-Hur, Shlomo, 1962– II. Title. HF5549.5.M63K565 2015 658.3'14—dc23 2014050083

    Typeset by MPS Limited, Chennai, India.

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    Copyrighted material – 978–1–137–44954–2

    Copyrighted material – 978–1–137–44954–2

  • vi i

    List of Figures ix Acknowledgments xi About the Authors xii

    1 How to Help Change Happen 1

    2 Four Ways to Think about Change 16

    3 Intrinsic Motivation: The Science of Commitment 35

    4 Extrinsic Motivation: Using Reward and Punishment 59

    5 Ability 82

    6 Psychological Capital: Believing You Can Succeed 95

    7 Psychological Capital: Willpower and Resilience 113

    8 How to Build, Break, and Change Habits 129

    9 Gamification 153

    10 Nudging 173

    11 Becoming an Architect of Change 193

    Contents

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    Copyrighted material – 978–1–137–44954–2

  • vi ii Contents

    Appendix 1: Key Questions to Ask Yourself 201

    Appendix 2: MAPS Profiler Tool 205

    Appendix 3: MAPS Profiler Graph 210

    Endnotes 211 Index 233

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    Copyrighted material – 978–1–137–44954–2

  • 1

    How to Help Change Happen

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    It is rare to find “behavior change” listed in any job description. It is not even a common phrase used to describe what managers do. But changing people’s behavior is nonetheless something that all managers have to do. And in an increasingly volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous busi- ness world, it is something that managers will have to do well if they and their businesses are to succeed.

    Often, behavior change is about helping and supporting peo- ple to develop themselves. Other times, it is driven more by a manager, who may need people to do certain things or behave in certain ways. Almost always, it is about improving performance.

    It can involve training people in essential skills, improving their ability to work with colleagues, or even trying to stop them from doing something. We may call it coaching, feedback, training, learning, or development, but whatever word we use, what we are doing is trying to change how people behave. We are endeavoring to get them to do something better or different.

    The challenge is that changing people’s behavior can be one of the most difficult and complex management tasks. Think about yourself. When was

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  • Changing Employee Behavior2

    the last time you tried to change your behavior? Deliberately and actively. Not just thought about it, but seriously tried. What was it that you were attempting to change? Perhaps it was something big, like trying to improve a relationship, or something seemingly simpler like reading more books. How did you go about it? And now, be honest: how successful were you? Really. Because if you succeeded, you are probably in a minority.

    Take a look at the global annual ritual of new year’s resolutions. Resolving to change some aspect of your behavior or circumstances at the turn of the year is common to many cultures. And somewhere between 50 and 60 percent of people in these cultures say they make just such a resolu- tion. There is a lot of variability in what people resolve to do, but some of the most common goals are getting fit, stopping smoking, and improv- ing personal finances.1 If you ask people a few weeks into the new year how they are doing with these resolutions, the vast majority – around 80 percent – say they are doing well. Even after a month, about 65 percent of people still say they are on track.2 Ask them two years later, though, and fewer than one in five people say they succeeded in changing, and even this figure is probably optimistic.

    Perhaps this is why bookstores are heaving with shelves of self- improvement books. They are a weighty testament to the fact that people hope and believe that they can change. Yet they are also proof that people feel they need some help. For all their initial motivation and confidence, translating good intentions into sustained behavior change is far from easy.

    If you think changing your own behavior is difficult, how tough must it be to change other people’s behavior? It may not be easy, but it can be done. You just need to know how. You just need to know what to do and which techniques to use. Unfortunately, most managers are working with only a limited set of tools and techniques. They have been taught a model of how to give feedback and coach their staff, and they have resources such as training programs at their disposal. Yet as good and useful as these may be, too often they are just not enough.

    Take training programs and development workshops. Even the most wildly optimistic estimates of how much learning from these events is

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  • How to Help Change Happen 3

    transferred into real behaviors back in the workplace do not go much beyond 34 percent.3 Then there is coaching. An increasing number of organizations use coaching by line managers as a tool for developing people and changing behavior. It has become a standard part of the managerial toolkit, and an amazing 99 percent of HR professionals believe that it can be of benefit.4 Yet only 19 percent believe that the coaching going on in their busi- ness is effective, and less than 3 percent of firms even check whether it works.5

    These statistics are really sobering when we remember just how much is spent on this activity. The training market alone was estimated to be worth over $135  billion in 2013.6 Even if we take the most optimistic success rates of 34 percent, that still means $88 billion invested with not much to show for it – every year. And that does not include the coaching and broader development market.

    We want to be clear here: we are fans of feedback, training, and coaching. They are essential tools and, done well, they can be highly effective. But most of the time they do not appear to be particularly effective. And this begs the question, why?

    What Managers Think

    As research for this book, we conducted a global survey with over 500 business leaders and managers. When we asked them what main behav- iors they needed to address or improve in others, the top five responses were:

    1. Drive and work mo