Copyright, 2006-07 1 Web 2.0 Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra Visiting Professor, Uni. of Hong Kong, U.N.S.W., A.N.U. .html,.ppt}

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Copyright, 2006-07 1 Web 2.0 Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra Visiting Professor, Uni. of Hong Kong, U.N.S.W., A.N.U.{.html,.ppt} Uni Koblenz 22 May 2007 Slide 2 Copyright, 2006-07 2 Web 2.0 Agenda Web 1.0 Three Views of Web 2.0 The Marketer / Neo Movement The Technical View The Communitarian View Slide 3 Copyright, 2006-07 3 The Web... or Web 1.0 1991-static HTML 1992-Ways to Discover a Web-Page 1994- HTML customised 'on the fly', using database extracts 1996-Markup; and Display Control 1995-Means to Manipulate Data, Display 2003-Web Services Slide 4 Copyright, 2006-07 4 Static HTML Slide 5 Copyright, 2006-07 5 Ways To Discover a Web-Page Guess the URL (e.g.,,, Know the URL (e.g. see it on a bus or business card, have it stored in a bookmark/favourites) Receive the URL in an email or other message Follow a Hot-Link in another web-page Follow down a Menu Hierarchy Search for it. This may be based on: a free-text concordance or index a meta-data index or catalogue Slide 6 Copyright, 2006-07 6 Search Architecture Slide 7 Copyright, 2006-07 7 Markup; and Display Control SGML HTML XML XHTML XML DTD XML Schema, RDF UBL CSS XSL XSLT SMIL Slide 8 Copyright, 2006-07 8 Means to Manipulate Data and Displays Client-Side Processing Cookies Javascript / ECMAScript Plug-ins, esp. Flash, Acrobat, QuickTime Java (with sandbox) ActiveX/.NET (without!??) Server-Side Processing Customised HTML e.g. Apache SSI, MS ASP, PHP,... Web-Forms State Maintenance CGI Scripts eCommerce Web- Servers Slide 9 Copyright, 2006-07 9 The Primary Web-Services Protocols Find usingUDDI Universal Description, Discovery and Integration Catalogue usingWSDL Web Services Defn Language Invoke usingSOAP Simple Object Access Protocol (XML-RPC) Format usingXML eXtensible Markup Language __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ Transmit usingHTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol I.P.S. Internet Protocol Stack generally Slide 10 Copyright, 2006-07 10 Web Service Architecture Slide 11 Copyright, 2006-07 11 Web 2.0 by Marketing Clich A way of thought, rather than a technology: The world has changed (get with it) Loosen up (you cant control) Open up (you cant stay closed) Be accessible (not just web-browsers) Involve (get users on the inside) Mutate (continuous improvement / gamma; or is that just an excuse for permanent beta?) Slide 12 Copyright, 2006-07 12 Web 1.0 Web 2.0 DoubleClick Google AdSense Ofoto Flickr Akamai BitTorrent ( iTunes) (Napster, FastTrackBitTorrent) Britannica Online Wikipedia personal websites web-blogs / blogs page views cost per click publishing participation content mngt systemswikis directories (taxonomy)tagging (folksonomy) stickinesssyndication After OReilly (2005) Web 2.0 by Difference Slide 13 Copyright, 2006-07 13 Web 2.0 by Features Content Syndication Advertising Syndication Storage Syndication The 'Architecture of Participation' Slide 14 Copyright, 2006-07 14 Syndication Originally, a syndicate was a group of investors, cf. a joint venture More recently, a means of distribution esp. of media material e.g. sports photos, cartoons, and opinions by commentators Recently, arrangements by which a party that originates content (a) licenses others to utilise it, and (b) facilitates dissemination of copies of it, and of metadata about it Slide 15 Copyright, 2006-07 15 Content Syndication Posts to Usenet News, Fora, eMail-Lists Personalised eNewspapers (originally by fax, then email,...) eMail Notification when a web-page changes Mirrors of web-page content Web-Logs / Blogs 'Who I'm Reading' feature of blogs 'Feeds' of recently-published headlines & URLs using XML/RDF-based RSS and Atom Slide 16 Copyright, 2006-07 16 Prof. Dr. Miriam Merkel Slide 17 Copyright, 2006-07 17 Advertising Syndication Overture (2001) Google AdWords From Pay-per-ad (per insert/appearance) To 'Pay-per-click (per click on an ad): Advertisers use metadata (keywords) to indicate what the ad is about They do pay to use a keyword They dont pay for an ad display They do pay when someone clicks on it Slide 18 Copyright, 2006-07 18 Maturation of Pay-per-Click Initially implemented on relatively small numbers of web-sites that attract large numbers of visits Then deployed on vast numbers of much smaller web-sites through affiliation Theoretical basis: 'long tail' dictum Practical application: Google AdSense Slide 19 Copyright, 2006-07 19 Advertising Industry View Page-Owners make space on their pages available to advertising intermediaries (AIs) Page-Owners provide data to AIs so that AIs can select the most relevant ads to display (and/or the highest-paying ads...) Page-Owners provide data to the AI that enables the delivery of the ads into the reserved space in the requestor's browser-window (requestors IP-address) AIs can target ads into diverse communities Slide 20 Copyright, 2006-07 20 Consumer View The AI pushes a transaction to the user, even though the user made no request to it The AI can include in the payload any available device, e.g. active code, web-bugs The AI can place non-consensual, long-term cookies on the unsuspecting requestor's device in defiance of IETF RFCs 2964-65 If the user clicks on an ad, a substantial set of interlocking data becomes available to the AI (incl. cookie-contents, the IP-address, and associations with the original request) Slide 21 Copyright, 2006-07 21 Storage Syndication From Client-Server architecture To Peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture Napster in 1998 Kazaa/FastTrack in 2001 eDonkey/Gnutella in 2003 BitTorrent in 2005... Distributed Catalogues Distributed Repositories Slide 22 Copyright, 2006-07 22 P2P Differentiated from Client-Server Slide 23 Copyright, 2006-07 23 P2P Supports Many Payloads, incl. Ads P2P applications: Music Images Video Software News Virus Signatures The Business Model for commercial P2P has been ad-based from the very beginning The ads are stored on users devices, and disseminated from users devices Slide 24 Copyright, 2006-07 24 'The Architecture of Participation' aka Harnessing Collective Intelligence and The Surging Wisdom of Crowds Self-Publishing / 'Vanity Press' Now called Content Syndication Collaborative Publishing: cf. CSCW shared text-documents Wikis generally, esp. Wikipedia Free-Text Metadata: folksonomy', tags, tag-clouds Slide 25 Copyright, 2006-07 25 Tag Cloud for Web 2.0 from Slide 26 Copyright, 2006-07 26 'The Architecture of Participation' Benefits for Business Affiliated Advertising Space Raw Material for Data Mining, esp. by Google Training Ground for Contributors People are lured into providing gratis services in pseudo-community environments, e.g. Amazon book reviews product reviews product FAQs, which are written and maintained by unpaid volunteers rather than as a supplier support service Slide 27 Copyright, 2006-07 27 Web 2.0 The Technical Perspective Additional Facilities: Mixing Mash-ups more or less ad hoc combination of content from multiple sources e.g. maps and descriptive data 'Lightweight Programming Models' in reaction against over-blown Web Services Slide 28 Copyright, 2006-07 28 Lightweight Programming AJAX 'Asynchronous JavaScript and XML' A Successor to the vague Dynamic HTML Applies well-established tools: (X)HTML/CSS -> XML, JavaScript/ECMAScript Utilises the XMLHttpRequest Method of HTTP in particular to enable partial-window-refresh Involves an 'Ajax engine' within the browser, which intercepts and processes user-requests and server-responses Slide 29 Copyright, 2006-07 29 AJAX Features Server-side control over user interface, esp. to overcome the frequent blank-screen experience Proprietary features in MSIE have defeated the Web. With AJAX, a single application can/could work consistently on all client-platforms. So the Webs original universality is recovered (maybe only briefly) Corporate View: Server-side control over consumer device, data Consumer View: Subversion of the concept of the Web Hijack of the functions of the browser Slide 30 Copyright, 2006-07 30 Architecture of Participation? of Exploitation? The Web era has seen continual attempts to expropriate communitarian effort, and 'monetise' it: "There will be billboards along the Information Superhighway" (Kelly 1994) Proprietisation of Internet Spaces (CompuServe, AOL, Apple eWorld, many M$ failures, 1995-96) 'Web-Casting' (1997) 'Info-mediaries' (Hagel & Armstrong 1997) Portals (1998-) Consumer Profiling (1999-) The Dot.Com Implosion (2000-05) will we ever see 'mass micro-marketing', 'mass customisation', 'one to one' consumer marketing? Slide 31 Copyright, 2006-07 31 The Communitarian Perspective: An Architecture of Collaboration? Wikipedia a reference repository collaborative authorship Flickr: a photo repository free-text meta-tags hence a folksonomy (cf. taxonomy) hence tag-clouds (word-size in display proportional to frequency) a bookmark repository with free-text meta- tags on to folksonomy and tag-clouds YouTube: a video repository on to...... Slide 32 Copyright, 2006-07 32 What Role in Web 2.0 for Social Networking Services ? ? Plaxo... LinkedIn... Slide 33 Copyright, 2006-07 33 What Role in Web 2.0 for Virtual Worlds? Board-games? MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) Trubshaw, Essex University, UK, 1979 Cyberspace Gibsons Neuromancer, 1983-84 The MetaVerse Stephensons Snowcrash, 1992 SecondLife Rosedale, Linden Labs, 1999... Slide 34 Copyright, 2006-07 34 Three Views of Web 2.0 The Marketer / Neo Movement Make money by co-opting collaboration The Technical Get inside users devices and do things The Communitarian Collaborate Slide 35 Copyright, 2006-07 35 Some References Worth Reading The OReilly Article (30 Sep 2005):

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