Context Clues – What Are They?  Context clues are bits of information from the text that, when combined with prior knowledge, allow you to decide the.

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160(ish) Days of Language Arts in 20 Minutes or Less!

160(ish) Days of Language Arts in 20 Minutes or Less!Context Clues What Are They?Context clues are bits of information from the text that, when combined with prior knowledge, allow you to decide the meaning of unknown words in the story or article you are reading.As a reader you must act similar to a detective and put together clues from sentences surrounding an unknown word in order to make an intelligent guess as to what the definition of a word is. InferenceMaking an inference is basically reading between the linesDraw personal meaning from text (words) or pictures.When you think about that hidden information on your own and understand what the author has written, youre making an inference!3Make an Inference!What does this image tell me?

4Dramatic IronyA contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader/audience knows to be trueVerbal IronyWords used to suggest the opposite of what is meantFunctions a lot like sarcasmSituational IronyAn event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience Direct Characterization Direct characterization is when the author TELLS the audience what the personality of the character is.

Example: The patient boy and quiet girl were both at the game.

The author is telling us that the boy is patient and the girl is kind. 8Indirect Characterization Indirect characterization is when the author SHOWS things that reveal the personality of the character.

9Mood*The writer may carefully select details such as descriptive words, dialogue, imagery, and setting to create a mood.

*May also use symbolism to create mood

*Symbol: something that stands for something else Tone*Tone: attitude the author takes toward the subject*The language and details the writer chooses to describe the characters, setting, and events help to create the tone.

*Tone often reflects the authors purpose.

Tone can beInformal/FormalSerious/HumorousLiteral/SarcasticObjective/BiasedPlayful, Nave, Condescending or many other possibilitiesTo Sum UpTone is how the author feelsMood is how YOU feel while readingBoth are INFERRED from the textAuthors Purpose3 Main PurposesTo informTo persuadeTo entertainTo InformShare knowledge or informationAuthor will provide you with facts, NOT opinionsThis type of writing is straightforward and unbiasedThe authors tone is neutral (neither good nor bad)Non-fictionThink:Biographies, text books, the news, charts, research papers,

To PersuadeGet the reader to believe something or try somethingThis type of writing often mixes fact AND opinionAuthor will take a stance that something is good or bad, right or wrongThink:Commercials, editorials, campaign speeches, advertisements

To EntertainTo talk about a theme, event or storyThink:Fiction, movie, novel, short story, poetryDenotationThe denotation of a word is its dictionary meaning.ConnotationThe connotation of a word is the set of ideas associated with it in addition to its explicit meaning

Denotation versus ConnotationSome examples Cheap is low in cost (denotation) but stingy or poorly made are the connotations of cheap ImageryImagery is words or phrases that appeal to one or more of the five senses. Writers use imagery to describe how their subjects look, sound, feel, taste, and smell.



Rising Action


Falling Action

Conflict Introduced

ExpositionThe Exposition is the introduction. It is the part of the work that introduces the characters, setting, and basic situation.

Rising ActionRising Action is the part of the plot that begins to occur as soon as the conflict is introduced. The rising action adds complications to the conflict and increases reader interest.

ClimaxThe Climax is the point of greatest emotional intensity, interest, or suspense in the plot of a narrative. The climax typically comes at the turning point in a story or drama.Falling ActionFalling Action is the action that typically follows the climax and reveals its results.

ResolutionThe Resolution is the part of the plot that concludes the falling action by revealing or suggesting the outcome of the conflict.

ConflictConflict is the struggle between opposing forces in a story or play. There are two types of conflict that exist in literature.

External ConflictExternal conflict exists when a character struggles against some outside force, such as another character, nature, society, or fate.

Man vs. ManMan vs. NatureMan vs. Society

Internal ConflictInternal conflict exists within the mind of a character who is torn between different courses of action.

Man vs. HimselfForeshadowingForeshadowing is the authors use of clues to hint at what might happen later in the story. Writers use foreshadowing to build their readers expectations and to create suspense. This is used to help readers prepare for what is to come.

Point of ViewPoint of View is the perspective, or vantage point, from which a story is told. It is the relationship of the narrator to the story.

First Person is told by a character who uses the first-person pronoun I.

Third-person limited is the point of view where the narrator uses third-person pronouns such as he and she to refer to the characters. The narrator knows the thoughts, feelings and motivations of ONE character

Third person omniscient is the point of view where the narrator knows the thoughts, feelings and motivations of MULTIPLE charactersThemeThe theme of a literary work is its central message, concern, or purpose.

A theme is always GENERAL. It applies to anyone, anywhere, at any point in time

MetaphorA Metaphor is a type of speech that compares or equates two or more things that have something in common. A metaphor does NOT use like or as.

Example: Life is a bowl of cherries.

SimileA Simile is another figure of speech that compares seemingly unlike things. Similes DO use the words like or as.

Example: Her voice was like nails on a chalkboard.

PersonificationPersonification is a figure of speech in which an animal, object, force of nature, or idea is given human qualities or characteristics.

Example:Tears began to fall from the dark clouds.

AlliterationAlliteration is the repetition of sounds, most often consonant sounds, at the beginning of words. Alliteration gives emphasis to words.Example: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers


FORM - the appearance of the words on the pageLINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem

STANZA - a group of lines arranged together

METERA pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern.When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. They they repeat the pattern throughout the poem.

METER cont.FOOT - unit of meter. A foot can have two or three syllables.Usually consists of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables.TYPES OF FEET The types of feet are determined by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables.

METER cont.TYPES OF FEET (cont.) Iambic - unstressed, stressed Trochaic - stressed, unstressed

FREE VERSE POETRYUnlike metered poetry, free verse poetry does NOT have any repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables.Does NOT have rhyme.Free verse poetry is very conversational - sounds like someone talking with you.

A more modern type of poetry.

BLANK VERSE POETRYWritten in lines of iambic pentameter, but does NOT use end rhyme.from Julius Ceasar

Cowards die many times before their deaths;The valiant never taste of death but once.Of all the wonders that I yet have heard,It seems to me most strange that men should fear;Seeing that death, a necessary end,Will come when it will come.

RHYMEWords sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds.

(A word always rhymes with itself.)LAMPSTAMP

Share the short a vowel soundShare the combined mp consonant sound

46Activity: Rhyme group game

END RHYMEA word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line

Hector the CollectorCollected bits of string.Collected dolls with broken headsAnd rusty bells that would not ring.

INTERNAL RHYMEA word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line.

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary.

From The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe

NEAR RHYMEa.k.a imperfect rhyme, close rhyme

The words share EITHER the same vowel or consonant sound BUT NOT BOTHROSELOSE

Different vowel sounds (long o and oo sound)Share the same consonant sound

RHYME SCHEMEA rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always).

Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually see the pattern.

50Activity: Rhyme Scheme group gameCONSONANCESimilar to alliteration EXCEPT . . .

The repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the words

silken, sad, uncertain, rustling . .

ASSONANCERepeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry.

(Often creates near rhyme.)

LakeFateBaseFade(All share the long a sound.)

REFRAINA sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem.Quoth the raven, Nevermore.


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