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  • CONTENTION RESOLUTION AND BURST GROOMING STRATEGIES IN

    LAYERED OPTICAL BURST-SWITCHED NETWORKS

    APPROVED BY SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE:

    Dr. Jason P. Jue, Chair

    Dr. Lakshman S. Tamil

    Dr. Andrea Fumagalli

    Dr. Murat Torlak

  • c Copyright 2005Farid Farahmand

    All Rights Reserved

  • In the memory of

    all brave low priority bursts that were discarded

    because they believed in their destinations

    and rejected any deflections,

    in particular,

    BC(h, e).

  • CONTENTION RESOLUTION AND BURST GROOMING STRATEGIES IN

    LAYERED OPTICAL BURST-SWITCHED NETWORKS

    by

    FARID FARAHMAND, B.S.E.E., M.S.E.E.

    DISSERTATION

    Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of

    The University of Texas at Dallas

    in Partial Fulfillment

    of the Requirements

    for the Degree of

    DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

    THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT DALLAS

    August 2005

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    First and foremost, I would like to thank my advisor, Professor Jason P. Jue, for his guid-

    ance, support, and encouragement throughout my Ph.D. research. He has been a friend and

    a mentor, and his lessons in patience and positive attitude I will embrace for a life time.

    I also like to express sincere appreciation to my committee members, Dr. Lakshman

    S. Tamil, Dr. Andrea Fumagalli, and Dr. Murat Torlak, for their valuable comments and

    feedbacks.

    Throughout my research, I was fortunate to work with many great and talented indi-

    viduals in the Advanced Networks Research Lab, all of whom contributed to my work and

    helped me with their insightful suggestions.

    I owe the completion of this dissertation to the support, camaraderie, and assistance of

    my family and friends. To my parents, who crossed several continents, hoping that one

    day I become someone, and I doubt I ever fulfill their wish. To my brother, who, despite

    his youth, continues to be the checkpoint in every decision I make. To Grand Master Kim,

    who has been like a father to me and taught me the true meaning of indomitable spirit. To

    Ivonne, mi inspiracion, who never doubted me. And to all my friends at Talar, who have

    been patiently listening to my countless grumbles and complaints, since I can remember.

    July, 2005

    v

  • CONTENTION RESOLUTION AND BURST GROOMING STRATEGIES IN

    LAYERED OPTICAL BURST-SWITCHED NETWORKS

    Publication No.

    Farid Farahmand, Ph.D.The University of Texas at Dallas, 2005

    Supervising Professor: Dr. Jason P. Jue

    The amount of raw bandwidth available on fiber optic links has increased dramatically

    with advances in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology. However,

    existing optical network architectures are unable to fully utilize this bandwidth to support

    future highly dynamic and bursty traffic. Optical burst switching (OBS) has been proposed

    as a new paradigm to achieve a practical balance between coarse-grained circuit switching

    and fine-grained packet switching, hence, better utilizing the available bandwidth.

    In this dissertation, we analyze a number of issues involving the development of OBS

    technology, including reactive and proactive contention resolution mechanisms with ser-

    vice differentiation capability, hardware implementation of the scheduler, and data burst

    grooming. We also propose OBS as an alternative technology to support computationally

    intensive Grid applications.

    A major problem in OBS networks is contention. We introduce a new approach called

    Look-ahead Contention Resolution to reduce packet loss in OBS networks, while support-

    ing quality-of-service. We also propose a scalable hardware architecture, which can be

    used for implementing our developed contention resolution algorithm.

    An alternative scheme to reduce contention is a proactive contention resolution mechanism.

    Our proposed feedback-based scheme can effectively improve network performance by

    adjusting the burst transmission rate at each node according to the network status.vi

  • An important issue in packet aggregation and generating data bursts in OBS networks is

    to reduce the padding overhead. Padding overhead is required when bursts are released

    before they reach their minimum length requirement. We introduce the concept of data

    burst grooming and develop two grooming algorithms to reduce padding overhead and

    thus, enhance network performance.

    The evolution of OBS technology highly depends on its ability in supporting diverse ap-

    plications. We introduce a general OBS framework, which can be implemented within the

    context of the layered Grid architecture.

    We believe that the above contributions have addressed a number of fundamental issues

    facing practical development of OBS networks in order to be considered for future deploy-

    ments.

    vii

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

    ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

    LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii

    LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL NETWORKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1.2 Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    1.3 Optical Network Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    1.3.1 First Generation Optical Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    1.3.2 Second Generation Optical Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1.3.3 Optical Packet Switching Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    1.4 Optical Burst Switching Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    1.5 Organization of Dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    1.6 Appendix A: Basic Optical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    CHAPTER 2. OPTICAL BURST SWITCHING ARCHITECTURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    2.2 OBS Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    2.2.1 Slotted and Unslotted OBS Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    2.2.2 Edge Node Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    2.2.3 Core Node Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    2.2.4 Control Packet Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    2.3 OBS Issues and Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    2.3.1 Contention Resolution Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    2.3.2 Quality-of-Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    2.3.3 Burst Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    2.3.4 TCP Over OBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    2.3.5 OBS Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    2.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    viii

  • CHAPTER 3. A MULTI-LAYERED APPROACH TO OPTICAL BURST-SWITCHEDNETWORKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    3.2 IP-over-OBS Layered Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    3.3 OBS Layered Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    3.3.1 Data plane layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    3.3.2 Control plane layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

    3.4 An Example Multi-layer Architecture in an OBS Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    3.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . .